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Germanic Toponymy in Portugal and Galicia

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  • o_cossue
    Well, this was going to be some arguing about Suevic and Gothic toponymy in Spain and Portugal, though now I think it should be better my presentation to the
    Message 1 of 4 , Apr 10, 2010
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      Well, this was going to be some arguing about Suevic and Gothic toponymy
      in Spain and Portugal, though now I think it should be better my
      presentation to the Group. I'm Galician (NW Spain), I'm in my late
      thirties, and I'm an aficionado in old Galician onomastics, i.e. I love
      toponymy and anthroponymy, specially if they are older than a thousand
      years. Now, Galicia is pretty rich in a group of toponyms modeled around
      old Germanic names, and my interest in that particular group of toponyms
      have brought me here :-) Now let's go with what I had written... It's
      extensive, so I really hope you find it, at least, interesting.

      There are in Galicia and Northern Portugal thousands of places with
      names containing Germanic elements, although most of these names have
      been generated from local Romance or Vulgar Latin, after Galicians
      adopted the anthroponyms of the Suevi -a single Germanic name with no
      cognomen or patronymic attached- and some tens of words of their
      language. These toponyms were fist studied in the C18th by Martin
      Sarmiento, a Galician illustrated scholar who identified them correctly
      as Germanic (he was also the first person to point out some Germanisms
      of the Galician language like laverca 'lark', lobio 'framework
      supporting a vine, frequently in front of a house' -cf. lobby- or grova
      'groove'). Latter, in the C20th they were studied by a large number of
      scholar, many of them Germans: W. Meyer-Lübke, J. Jungfer, G. Sachs,
      Leite de Vasconcellos, J. Piel and D. Kremer. Incidentally, Piel (you
      can reach his initial researches here:
      http://cvc.instituto-camoes.pt/bdc/lingua/boletimfilologia/02/boletim02.\
      html
      <http://cvc.instituto-camoes.pt/bdc/lingua/boletimfilologia/02/boletim02\
      .html> ) and Kremer have considered these toponyms as Gothic, but i)
      these toponyms are congruent with the personal names of the Sueves, ii)
      these toponyms are almost completely absent from Central, South and East
      of Spain, precisely in the regions where we positively know of Goth
      dwellers, and iii) there's not documented organized or unorganized
      settlement of Goths in Galicia and Norther Portugal before or after the
      conquest of the Suevi by the Visigoths. So, the most economic theory is
      to consider these place names as Suevi (or better, as formed under or
      after Suevi influence):




      [1] First, there are in Galicia, Portugal and western Asturias -in the
      ancient Suevic kingdom- several parishes and villages holding the name
      of the Sueves, Goths and Taifali:




      - (Santa Eulalia de) Suegos (rural parish with 161 inhabitants in 7
      hamlets.- Pol, Lugo). It was 'Suevos' in the C12th.

      - (Santa Maria de) Suegos (rural parish with 328 inhabitants in 14
      hamlets.- O Vicedo, Lugo)

      - (Sam Mamede de) Suevos (rural parish with 298 inhabitants in 7
      hamlets..- A Baña, A Coruña)

      - (Sam Martiño de) Suevos (parish with 532 inhabitants distributed in
      a village plus 5 hamlets.- Arteixo, A Coruña)

      - Suevos (village with 42 hab.- Ames, A Coruña)

      - Suevos (village with 126 hab.- Mazaricos, A Coruña)




      - Téifaros (village with 127 inhabitants.- Navia, Asturias) ˂
      *Taifalos

      The Taifali could have come together with the Suevi in the C5th, or
      either if they were the same Taifali established in Poitou, they could
      have arrived together with the Britons that came to Norther Galicia in
      the C6th (the Britons maintained their own bishopric during C6th and
      C7th).




      - (Santa Maria de) Godos (rural parish with 669 inhabitants distributed
      in 10 hamlets or villages- Caldas de Reis, Pontevedra)

      - Valdegodos (village with 348 inhabitants.- Vilamartín de
      Valdeorras, Ourense) = 'Valley of Goths'




      There is also three other villages containing the names of the Goths in
      N and NE of Spain:

      - Revillagodos (hamlet with 14 inhabitants, Burgos) = 'Village of
      Goths'.

      - Godos (village with 82 inhabitants, Teruel)

      - Godos (rural parish with 733 inhabitants.- Oviedo, Asturias)




      So there are in Spain more places named after the Suevi than after the
      Goths (!). And no Vandals or Alans ones, sorry, although some people
      used the personal name Uandaliscus = 'Vandal-ish' during the C9th and
      C10th in Galicia and Asturias. It's an interesting name, since it
      probably shows that some Vandals just stayed in the Iberia Peninsula
      among the Sueves, where they were probably known as Vandaliscos, as
      Moors were later named Mauriscos by Galicians. This same personal name,
      Uandaliscus, also generated the toponym Gondarisco (Vigo, Pontevedra)
      ˂ Goondalisco ˂ Guandalisco ˂ Wandaliscu(m).




      [2] There are also thousands of place names derived from Germanic
      personal names. In fact, most Galicians used these same names from the
      C9th to the C12th, when Castilian Spanish like anthroponymy (one name
      from a pool of two or three hundreds, a number of them Visigothic + a
      patronimic ended in -z) imposed itself. Let's see as an example a
      Galician charter from 954, which presents a partition of serfs among
      some noble families; most of the nobles and most of the serfs used
      Germanic names -marked in red-, better than names with other origins -in
      blue- (in Coleccion Diplomatica de Galicia Historica, d. 47, can be
      found here
      http://ia351432.us.archive.org/3/items/coleccindiplomt00unkngoog/colecci\
      ndiplomt00unkngoog.pdf
      <http://ia351432.us.archive.org/3/items/coleccindiplomt00unkngoog/colecc\
      indiplomt00unkngoog.pdf> ):




      In Dei nomine colmellus diuisionis qui factus est inter filios Placenti
      et Romarici licet inter pacificas mentes definito sola constat uerborum
      tamen pro memoria temporum testimonium adiuendum est litterarum; igitur
      dum inter nos intemptio uertitur ad diuidendum mancipia de parentum
      nostrorum Guntine et Rosule de neptos senatoris Siserici et Esmorice et
      de suos jermanos:

      ideo que euenit in portione de filios Gunterodis id est: Argiuitus
      Gentibus Tratiuigia Recedrudi Gaudiosus Tequelo Julia filios Stanildi
      Sitiuidis Gluscudilum Framildi Ruderigus Sonobrida Sabarigis, Argeleuba
      Ostosia Guntedrudia Uitiza et Leuba Guntildi Julia Ragesindus Sanildi
      cum sua filia Ermegundia Seniorina Uisteuerga Sisulfus Branderigus
      Astruildi Brilis Ranemirus Goda duas filias Gaudiosi Maria et Felicia
      Trudina Quindiuerga filio Frumildi Asarulfo Anulfo Ranulfo Teodeuerga
      Sindileuba Ermedrudia filia Sonifrede majore alia filia Sonifrede minore
      Aciulfus Recedrudia Uanda Trudildi Ausendus filie Guduigie fili Ostosie
      Sabeg(oto) ...... inda duos filios Tequeloni Uimaredus filia Argeleuba
      mino(re) ...... de Adaf qui est post Genitibo Tedildi Leodo cum duos
      filios id est Gundilo Fargalosus Sisuita cum suo filio.

      Euentum in portione de filios Rosule id est: Elias Spintilo Placida
      (Gu)ndinum Ebrildi Guntuigia Metoi Tita Bonosa Aroildi. Egildus
      Sabaredus Domnelius Astrogoto Leobegoto Uanagildi eb...... Trudilo Genlo
      Sisiuertus Nunilo Ansuildi Dauid Sparuildi ...... cum suo filio Ranemiro
      Teodilo Guisenda Ariulfus Leouegildus ...... Sabegoto Stefanus Saroi
      filios de Spintilo duo Guntemirus (Gunde)redus Leodefredus Gudigeba
      filio Sonifrede minore Ausendus Gudileuba Brunildi Ebragundia Nunnina
      Astulfus Eldoara Adosinda filio l...... Zaquile Odorio Leoueredus
      Sisuertus Manosinda filia Guduigie ...... Edonia et Elias duos f(ili)os
      Tequeloni Sisuigia filia Leouegoto ...... filio Adaf Papinum (Gen)etibus
      Uitiza Braromirus ...... (G)uendulfus.

      ..... quod accepit firmiter obtineat. factus colmellus VIII kalendas
      octobris era DCCCCXCI(I).

      Sil...... ari colmellum diuisionis a me factum.

      Munius anc colmellus divisionis a me factum.

      Uimara in anc colmellus diuisionis quo ac persona de meos germanos uel
      de meo sobrino Spasando diuisi manu mea.... (signo)

      Adefonsus anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

      Odoarius in anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

      Gundulfus anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

      Munnia anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

      Gunterode anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

      Ermegildus anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

      X Pelagius ad persona de meos neptos filios Petri in anc colmellum
      diuisionis manu mea.... (signo)




      [2.1] The most common case is that of the place names derived from a
      Latin genitive (a case that was not longer productive in place names
      formation after the 9th century) of a Germanic name. There are several
      thousands (probably more than 5.000) in Galicia and northern Portugal,
      with some 100 or 200 more in Asturias, Leon and Zamora (lands which also
      belonged to the Suevi kingdom until 585 AD). The interpretation of these
      toponyms as Latin genitives of personal Germanic names is not merely
      based on guessing the etymology of a certain toponym thought known sound
      changes, but on the recorded history of many of these places from the
      800's (there's a pair of on-line databases of medieval Galician
      documents here http://corpus.cirp.es/codolga/
      <http://corpus.cirp.es/codolga/> <http://corpus.cirp.es/codolga/> and
      here http://sli.uvigo.es/xelmirez/index.html.
      <http://sli.uvigo.es/xelmirez/index.html> Some examples:




      - (Santa Baia de) Mariz (rural parish with 197 inhabitants distributed
      in 15 hamlets- Guitiriz, Lugo), is known from the C10th 'in ualle
      Parriga (...) uilla Malarici media' (doc. from the monatery of Sobrado,
      in Coruña, 966). So, Mariz derives from (villa) Malarici, though
      regular sound changes, and 'villa Malarici' is Latin for 'Malaric's
      villa', Malaricus being the same name of the last Suevi who proclaimed
      himself king during the war with the Visigoths of 585.




      - Toimil (a hamlet with 30 inhabitants.- Sam Xian de Roca, Begonte,
      Lugo), known from the C10th 'villa quo dicunt Teodemiri, territorio
      Parricense, ad sanctorum Iulianum a Roca' (doc. from the monatery of
      Lourenzá, in Lugo, 922). It is derived from the Latin genitive
      Teodemiri, name of one of the Suevi kings of the C6th.




      - [Santa Maria de] Razamonde (rural parish with 172 inhabitants in 7
      hamlets- Cenlle, Ourense), was ' in ripa Minei, ecclesiam sancte Marie
      de Recemundi. cum sua concurrentia' (doc. from Santiago de Compostela,
      in Corunna, 1142). Derived from the genitive Recemundi, of Reccemundus,
      name for example of a Suevi king from the C5th.




      Here are some other examples of modern toponyms from all over Galicia
      (the Förstemann can be accessed here:
      http://sul-derivatives.stanford.edu/derivative?CSNID=00003871&mediaType=\
      application/pdf
      <http://sul-derivatives.stanford.edu/derivative?CSNID=00003871&mediaType\
      =application/pdf> ; a search facility into Galician toponymy can be
      accessed here http://sli.uvigo.es/toponimia/
      <http://sli.uvigo.es/toponimia/> ):




      Derived from a Latin genitive of names ended in -frid:

      Almofrei ( ˂ Ermefredi), Aldobrén ( ˂ Hildefredi), Roxofrei
      ( ˂ Regefredi), Guilfrei ( ˂ Williafredi)...




      From names in -gildi:

      Vilaxilde ( ˂ villa Agildi), Vilarfruxilde ( ˂ villare
      Frogildi), Luxilde ( ˂ villa Leovegildi), Saville ( ˂
      Sabegildi), Tanxil ( ˂ Atanagildi), Gradaílle ( ˂
      Witragildi)...




      From names in -(h)ari:

      Astrar ( ˂ Austrarii), Baltar ( ˂ Baldarii), Belesar ( ˂
      Belisarii), Bretal ( ˂ Bertarii), Armear ( ˂ Ermiarii),
      Sanformar ( ˂ Sala Frumarii), Goldar ( ˂ Goldarii or
      Wultharii), Gondar ( ˂ Wandalarii), Guntar ( ˂ Guntharii),
      Gulfar ( ˂ Wulfarii), Roupar ( ˂ Rauparii), Soñar ( ˂
      Suaniarii), Tosar ( ˂ Turisarii), Guestrar ( ˂ Wistrarii),
      Gaifar ( ˂ Waifarii)...




      From names in -(w)ulf:

      Adoufe ( ˂ Adaulfi), Arulfe ( ˂ Arulfi), Arnufe (
      ˂Arnulfi), Vilastrofe ( ˂ villa Astrulfi), Berulfe ( ˂
      Berulfi), Brandufe ( ˂ Brandulfi), Esmolfe ( ˂ Ermulfi),
      Froufe ( ˂ Fredulfi), Gresulfe ( ˂ Grisulfi), Gondufe ( ˂
      Gundulfi), Aldurfe ( ˂ Aldulfi or Hildulfi), Liúlfe ( ˂
      Leodulfi), Meitufe ( ˂ Mactulfi), Nandufe ( ˂ Nandulfi),
      Randulfe ( ˂ Randulfi), Sesulfe ( ˂ Sisulfi), Tiulfe ( ˂
      Theodulfi), Trasulfe ( ˂ Thrasulfi), Gallufe ( ˂ Waliulfi),
      Vilaguillulfe ( ˂ villa Wiliulfi)...




      From names in -mar / -mir:

      Ansemil and Ansemar ( ˂ Ansemiri, Ansemari), Arxemil ( ˂
      Harjamiri), Vilaestremil ( ˂ villa Austremiri), Baldomar and
      Baldomil ( ˂ Baldomari, Baldemiri), Bertamil ( ˂ Bertamiri),
      Cendamil ( ˂ Kindamiri), Angumil ( ˂ Ingumiri), Ardemil (
      ˂ Hardermiri), Franzomil ( ˂ Francemiri), Gondomar and
      Gondomil ( ˂ Gunthemari, Gunthemiri), Golmar ( ˂ Walamari),
      Vilagormar ( ˂ villa Walamari), Aldemir ( ˂ Hildemiri), Loimil
      and Loimar ( ˂ Leodemiri, Leodemari), Lantemil ( ˂
      Nandemiri), Randamil ( ˂ Randamiri), Recimil ( ˂ Reccemiri),
      Rosomil ( ˂ Rausemiri), Samil ( ˂ Salamiri), Toimil ( ˂
      Theodemiri), Troitomil ( ˂ Tructemiri), Gradamil ( ˂
      Witramiri), Cristimil ( ˂ Guistrimir ˂ Wistremiri)...




      From names in -mar / -mir:

      Aldemunde ( ˂ Hildimundi), Baamonde ( ˂ Baudamundi),
      Estramundi ( ˂ Astramundi), Razamonde ( ˂ Rasuamundi)...




      From names in -ric:

      Alperiz ( ˂ Hilperici), Baldriz ( ˂ Balderici), Brandariz (
      ˂ Branderici), Contariz ( ˂ Cuntarici), Esmoriz ( ˂
      Ermorici), Gomariz ( ˂ Gumarici), Guldriz ( ˂ Wuldarici),
      Golfariz ( ˂ Wulfarici), Mondariz ( ˂ Mundarici)...




      Etc, etc, etc. I'm serious when I affirm that in Galicia and Portugal
      there are thousands of place names based on Germanic names. And we have
      a direct attestation -specially in C9th-C12th Galician monastical
      records- of most of the personal names that originated the above
      mentioned toponyms.




      [2.2] There are also hundreds (maybe +1000) toponyms where a Germanic
      inflection is adapted into Latin. As an example, Latin genitive of the
      nominative Rickila should be Rickiliae, but we find Rickilani or
      Rickilanis instead:




      - Requiám (hamlet with 37 hab.- A Estrada, Pontevedra) ˂ 'et est
      ipsa hereditate conclusa in omnique giro per suos terminos antiquos id
      est per fenales iusta domus Catoni et inde ad Causelio et inde per Fouea
      Uentuosa et per terminos de Magani. de alia parte per terminos de
      Exeuerneco. per terminos de Sancto Mamede. et inde per arca que diuidet
      inter Cordario et uilla Riquilani et feret ipso termino in Pedroso et
      plicat ad porta de fratres' (doc. from Santiago, 947). So it was 'villa
      Riquilani' = 'Rickla's villa' in 947, derived of the Germanic Rickila,
      which was also the name of one of the Suevic kings of Galicia of the
      C5th.




      In much the same way (/l/ felt when intervocalic in the evolution of
      Galician language) :




      Names with hipocoristic -ila: Andeán ( ˂ Andilani), Anseán (
      ˂ Ansilani), Ateán ( ˂ Attilani), Baldráns ( ˂
      Baldilanis), Verlás ( ˂ Berilanis), Brandián ( ˂
      Brandilani), Burgáns ( ˂ Burgalanis), Cutián ( ˂
      Cuttilani), Ameán ( ˂ Emilani), Armeá ( ˂ Ermilani),
      Fafiás ( ˂ Faffilanis), Frameán ( ˂ Framilani),
      Franqueán ( ˂ Frankilani), Froiás ( ˂ Froilanis),
      Goiáns ( ˂ Gaudilanis), Gabián ( ˂ Gawilani), Gomeán
      ( ˂ Gomilani), Gundiás ( ˂ Gundilanis), Gulfián ( ˂
      Wulfilani), Galiñáns ( ˂ Walilanis), Xudán ( ˂
      Iutilani), Xustáns ( ˂ Iustilani), Lubián ( ˂
      Leobilani), Quintián ( ˂ Kintilani), Santián ( ˂
      Sindilani), Tanquián ( ˂ Tankilani), Guitián ( ˂
      Wittilani), Quistiláns ( ˂ Wistilanis)...




      Other names:

      Aldrá ( ˂ Aldrani), Atán ( ˂ Attani), Berán ( ˂
      Berani), Bodán ( ˂ Botani), Ardán ( ˂ Ardani), Forxás
      ( ˂ Frojanis), Gontán ( ˂ Guntani), Guillán ( ˂
      Wiliani), Manán ( ˂ Mannani), Miumás ( ˂ Medumanis),
      Moscán ( ˂ Muskani), Segán ( ˂ Seggani), Sendán (
      ˂ Sendani), Boizán ( ˂ Bonizani), Guitizá ( ˂
      Wittizani), Xigán ( ˂ Egicani)...





      [2.3] There are even some few toponyms where we can probably find pure
      german genitives:

      Camondes ( ˂ Camundis), Godulfes ( ˂ Gotulfis), Gondulfes (
      ˂ Gundulfis), Raxacendes ( ˂ Regesendis), Espasantes ( ˂
      Spassantis), Guntís ( ˂ Guntinis)...




      And toponyms witch generalizes the use of some weird inflexions:

      Señoráns ( ˂ Suniaranes, from Suniarius), Bertamiráns (
      ˂ Bertamiranes, from Bertamirus), Ramiráns ( ˂ Ranmiranes,
      from Ranamirus), Guldrigáns ( ˂ Guldricanis, from Wuldericus)...







      [3] There are also toponyms derived from Germanic words. Most of then
      are words either incorporated into modern or medieval Galician, and
      still alive today, or words which were incorporated into local Latin,
      although they felt out of use before they could be recorded in the
      documentation of the C9th and later centuries.




      [3.1] Toponyms based on the PGmc word *salam 'house, hall'. In Portugal
      they have evolved into Sâ or Sâs, and there are some fifty, all in
      the North, around Braga and Porto; in Galicia they are Sa, Saa, Sas or
      Zas, and we have another fifty, especially around Lugo and along the
      valley of the Minho river; in Spanish speaking provinces the form is
      Sala, and there are some ten (in Catalonia is more frequent, over
      twenty, but Catalan ones, and maybe even Castilians, can have French or
      Frankish origin; the Galician and Portuguese ones must have been formed
      before C10th, when the intervocalic /l/ felt). Although in Galicia we
      have not recorded the word *sá 'house' (we have sala 'room' and
      salón 'saloon, room', but they entered through French after the
      C12th), it can be proved that all or part of these toponyms were formed
      through Vulgar Latin or local Romance. As an example:




      - Saavedra (several ones, all around Galicia), probably from 'Sala
      Vetera', that is 'Old House/Hall'. The word order shows that the toponym
      have been generated in local Romance or late vulgar Latin (before C8th,
      probably).

      - Sasdónigas (Mondoñedo, Lugo), from 'Salas Dominicas', 'Lord's
      Halls/Houses'.

      - Sanformar (Negueira, Lugo) probably from 'Sala Frumarii'. Although the
      word sala is Germanic, and the name Frumarii is Germanic (is documented
      among the Suevi and later on), word order and inflexion is
      unquestionably Latin.

      - Salmeán (Pontenova, Lugo), from 'Sala Mediana' = 'House of the
      Middle' (in a up-down dichotomy).




      [3.2] Toponyms based on the word *bûrjô 'house', related to PGmc
      *bûran 'idem', which originated serveral Boiro and Buiro in Galicia,
      and Bouro in N Portugal. We have pretty old documentation (C10th) for
      these places also, and they are generally presumed to be
      "Suevi", either as direct settlements, or as a word incorporated
      into local Latin before it had fallen out of use, but it's unknown if
      these place names where formed directly from a Germanic dialect or
      through Romance.




      [3.3] There are also a large number of toponyms derived from some
      Galician Germanisms like:

      - albergue 'shelter, lodging': Albergue, Albergaría...

      - banda 'side, flank': Acalabanda = 'That Side', Bandorrio 'flank of the
      river'...

      - barón 'man': Baróns.

      - bordo 'rim, extreme': Bordeiras, Bordo...

      - burgo 'hillfort': Malburgo, Burgo, Burgueiros, Malburguete...

      - estaca 'stick, spear': Estaca, Estacada...

      - guardia 'watch post': Aguarda, Guarda, Gardados...

      - infanzón 'lesser nobleman, free man, client': Vilar dos
      Infanzós.

      - marco 'boundary, boundary stone, mark': Marco, Marcadoiro...

      - rapar 'to take, to cut, to scrape': Rapa, Rapadas, Rapadoiro...

      - guisa 'way, guise': Vila Guisada...

      And a long etc. Similar toponyms can be found also in France, Italy, and
      even Spain. Of these the most interesting are the various Malburgo and
      Malburguete, since word order is Germanic, and there are similar
      toponyms in France (Maubourguet in Hautes-Pyrènèes, ), Switzerland
      (Mauburguet in Vaud), Italy (Malborghetto in Udine, near Austria) and in
      Germanic countries (Marburg and Maulburg in Germany, Malburgen in the
      Netherlands, Marbourg in Luxemburg...)




      [3.4] There are also plenty of toponyms based on Galician (or Galician
      and Portuguese) exclusive germanisms (there are a some few dozens of
      them, and are still little studied; for the proto-Germanic forms, V.
      Orel, A Handbook of Germanic Etymology
      http://www.scribd.com/doc/21206305/A-Handbook-of-Germanic-Etymology
      <http://www.scribd.com/doc/21206305/A-Handbook-of-Germanic-Etymology>
      ):

      laverca 'lark' ˂ PGmc *laiwarikôn 'idem',

      meixengra 'titmouse' ˂ PGmc *maisôn 'idem' + -ingaz,

      ouva 'sprite, elf' from *auba ˂ PGmc *albaz 'elf',

      gueste 'food offered to a group of workers' ˂ PGmc *westiz
      'sustenance, food, provisions',

      maga 'guts' ˂ PGmc *magôn 'stomach',

      britar 'to break, to destroy' ˂ PGmc *breutanan 'idem',

      esmorecer 'to faint, to choke' from ancient esmorir 'idem' ˂ PGmc
      *smurjanan 'to choke, to suffocate', gastallar 'to immobilize, to stop,
      to keep in place' ˂ PGmc *ga-stelljanan 'to still, to soothe'...

      Some of these toponyms are old, and have very old documentation (before
      C11th), but others could be recent, since many of these words are still
      alive:

      - lobio 'vineyard' (˂ PGmc *laubjôn, related to *lauban
      'foliage' ): Lobio, Lobios, Lóivo, Loxe, Loio... dozens, in Galicia,
      N of Portugal and Asturias.

      - groba 'hole, cave, ravine' ( ˂ PGmc *grôbô 'dugout, hole,
      pit'): Groba, Grobas, Encrobas... Dozens.

      - gasalla 'communal property' ( ˂ PGmc *ga-salj-, from *saljanan
      'to offer, to give'): Gasalla, several.

      And some others like 'Esculca', 'Esculqueira' 'post of vigilance': less
      than ten, in Galicia and Portugal; 'Gaspalleira', from gaspallar 'to
      split, trounce' ( ˂ PGmc *ga-spelljanan 'to split'), Faísca
      'ash' ˂ falisca ˂ PGmc *falwiskô 'flying ash'. Etc.







      [3.5] There are some other toponyms based on (locally) unattested
      Germanisms, like:




      - Foristo (in W Asturias, near Galicia), identical with Old High German
      'furisto' 'first', and with no etymology in Latin, Celtic, Basque, Arab
      or any other language historically attested in the area; or like

      - Samos ˂ Samanos, a very ancient Galician monastery (it already
      existed in the C7th, although we don't really know when it was founded)
      cf. Old High German 'samanunga' 'community, congregation' (samanos would
      be a latinized form = 'reunited, congregated (men)').




      Maybe also the next, if the first element is the same with the Longobard
      fara 'family group': Frá (Vilalba, Lugo), Frá (Muras, Lugo),
      Fraguizón (Valdoviño, Coruña) ˂ *'Fara Wizoni', Faramenga
      (Sada, Coruña) ˂ *'Fara Aminga' (?), Fraemelle (Monfero,
      Coruña)...




      [3.6] Other interesting toponyms which shows Germanic influence are
      those based on mixed words, like the Galician and Portuguese 'reguengo'
      'propriety of the king', from ancient *regalingo = regal (='royal',
      Latin) + -ing ('pertaining to', Germanic). There are dozens of these
      places in Galicia and Portugal, under the form Reguengo / Reguenga /
      Vila Reguenga, but they are irrelevant in Spanish speaking provinces (I
      know just three, under the form Realengo). Other toponyms which include
      the -ing Germanic suffix are Faramenga (Sada, Coruña) ˂ *'Fara
      Aminga' (?), Meirengos (Ribadeo, Lugo) = `People from (the valley of the
      river) Meira', or Alvarenga in Portugal 'Alvaro's (village)'.




      Well, that's it. I think I've made my point on the Germanic toponymy of
      Galicia, N Portugal, and neighboring territories: these toponyms are
      rather numerous, they are rather diverse too, and they are
      characteristically modeled with Germanic clay in a Roman potter's wheel.
      In fact, when people speak about the post-Roman Germanic kingdoms, the
      Suevi are generally neglected, though they founded a stable kingdom,
      coined money, maintained diplomatic relations with Vandals, Franks,
      Burgundians, Romans and Goths, and even worked out an administrative and
      ecclesiastic reform of their country -in the C6th through a series of
      Councils- which really converted their ethnic kingdom into a territorial
      one (the Kingdom of Galicia, as used by Gregory of Tours)... And when
      their kingdom was taken by the Goths, we know that they kept their lives
      and jobs, and were not punished or substituted -catholic Suevic bishops
      kept their sees under Arrian Goths-, simply annexed. It is probably not
      a coincidence that Galicians counts and settlers had already taken back
      from the Arabs all of the ancient Suevi kingdom by 878, including the
      southernmost Suevic city of Coimbra, while most of Spain up to the
      Pyrenees was still under Arab rule.




      Sorry for the extension. Cheers.

      Cossue.







      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • ingemarn2000
      Dear Cossue! Warmly welcome and thank you for an invaluable treasury of Germanic related words. I agree that the Suevic influence i Portugal seems to have
      Message 2 of 4 , Apr 10, 2010
      • 0 Attachment
        Dear Cossue!

        Warmly welcome and thank you for an invaluable treasury of Germanic related words.

        I agree that the Suevic influence i Portugal seems to have remained stable even after the Gothic conquering but this does not outrule the possibility that many of the personal names you mention could have been Gothic as well. I have myself, when I was preparingt my dissertation about the Goths, made some research of Gothic artefacts in both Asturias and Galizia and specially so in Léon, Astorga, Braga, Coimbra, Merida and Toledo. I mostly looked on Visigothic Stone Art and stelae and also Vadensiensic stelae. There indeed must be also Gothic influence there. Concerning the language in Portugal I noticed when listening to the conversation of a group a bit from distant the sound was similar to e.g. Dutch - it means there is a kind of germanic sound melody over the language that is not extant in Spanish. The Suevic inheritance could be an explanation.

        Best greetings
        Ingemar


        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "o_cossue" <o.cossue@...> wrote:
        >
        >
        >
        > Well, this was going to be some arguing about Suevic and Gothic toponymy
        > in Spain and Portugal, though now I think it should be better my
        > presentation to the Group. I'm Galician (NW Spain), I'm in my late
        > thirties, and I'm an aficionado in old Galician onomastics, i.e. I love
        > toponymy and anthroponymy, specially if they are older than a thousand
        > years. Now, Galicia is pretty rich in a group of toponyms modeled around
        > old Germanic names, and my interest in that particular group of toponyms
        > have brought me here :-) Now let's go with what I had written... It's
        > extensive, so I really hope you find it, at least, interesting.
        >
        > There are in Galicia and Northern Portugal thousands of places with
        > names containing Germanic elements, although most of these names have
        > been generated from local Romance or Vulgar Latin, after Galicians
        > adopted the anthroponyms of the Suevi -a single Germanic name with no
        > cognomen or patronymic attached- and some tens of words of their
        > language. These toponyms were fist studied in the C18th by Martin
        > Sarmiento, a Galician illustrated scholar who identified them correctly
        > as Germanic (he was also the first person to point out some Germanisms
        > of the Galician language like laverca 'lark', lobio 'framework
        > supporting a vine, frequently in front of a house' -cf. lobby- or grova
        > 'groove'). Latter, in the C20th they were studied by a large number of
        > scholar, many of them Germans: W. Meyer-Lübke, J. Jungfer, G. Sachs,
        > Leite de Vasconcellos, J. Piel and D. Kremer. Incidentally, Piel (you
        > can reach his initial researches here:
        > http://cvc.instituto-camoes.pt/bdc/lingua/boletimfilologia/02/boletim02.\
        > html
        > <http://cvc.instituto-camoes.pt/bdc/lingua/boletimfilologia/02/boletim02\
        > .html> ) and Kremer have considered these toponyms as Gothic, but i)
        > these toponyms are congruent with the personal names of the Sueves, ii)
        > these toponyms are almost completely absent from Central, South and East
        > of Spain, precisely in the regions where we positively know of Goth
        > dwellers, and iii) there's not documented organized or unorganized
        > settlement of Goths in Galicia and Norther Portugal before or after the
        > conquest of the Suevi by the Visigoths. So, the most economic theory is
        > to consider these place names as Suevi (or better, as formed under or
        > after Suevi influence):
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [1] First, there are in Galicia, Portugal and western Asturias -in the
        > ancient Suevic kingdom- several parishes and villages holding the name
        > of the Sueves, Goths and Taifali:
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > - (Santa Eulalia de) Suegos (rural parish with 161 inhabitants in 7
        > hamlets.- Pol, Lugo). It was 'Suevos' in the C12th.
        >
        > - (Santa Maria de) Suegos (rural parish with 328 inhabitants in 14
        > hamlets.- O Vicedo, Lugo)
        >
        > - (Sam Mamede de) Suevos (rural parish with 298 inhabitants in 7
        > hamlets..- A Baña, A Coruña)
        >
        > - (Sam Martiño de) Suevos (parish with 532 inhabitants distributed in
        > a village plus 5 hamlets.- Arteixo, A Coruña)
        >
        > - Suevos (village with 42 hab.- Ames, A Coruña)
        >
        > - Suevos (village with 126 hab.- Mazaricos, A Coruña)
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > - Téifaros (village with 127 inhabitants.- Navia, Asturias) ˂
        > *Taifalos
        >
        > The Taifali could have come together with the Suevi in the C5th, or
        > either if they were the same Taifali established in Poitou, they could
        > have arrived together with the Britons that came to Norther Galicia in
        > the C6th (the Britons maintained their own bishopric during C6th and
        > C7th).
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > - (Santa Maria de) Godos (rural parish with 669 inhabitants distributed
        > in 10 hamlets or villages- Caldas de Reis, Pontevedra)
        >
        > - Valdegodos (village with 348 inhabitants.- Vilamartín de
        > Valdeorras, Ourense) = 'Valley of Goths'
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > There is also three other villages containing the names of the Goths in
        > N and NE of Spain:
        >
        > - Revillagodos (hamlet with 14 inhabitants, Burgos) = 'Village of
        > Goths'.
        >
        > - Godos (village with 82 inhabitants, Teruel)
        >
        > - Godos (rural parish with 733 inhabitants.- Oviedo, Asturias)
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > So there are in Spain more places named after the Suevi than after the
        > Goths (!). And no Vandals or Alans ones, sorry, although some people
        > used the personal name Uandaliscus = 'Vandal-ish' during the C9th and
        > C10th in Galicia and Asturias. It's an interesting name, since it
        > probably shows that some Vandals just stayed in the Iberia Peninsula
        > among the Sueves, where they were probably known as Vandaliscos, as
        > Moors were later named Mauriscos by Galicians. This same personal name,
        > Uandaliscus, also generated the toponym Gondarisco (Vigo, Pontevedra)
        > ˂ Goondalisco ˂ Guandalisco ˂ Wandaliscu(m).
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [2] There are also thousands of place names derived from Germanic
        > personal names. In fact, most Galicians used these same names from the
        > C9th to the C12th, when Castilian Spanish like anthroponymy (one name
        > from a pool of two or three hundreds, a number of them Visigothic + a
        > patronimic ended in -z) imposed itself. Let's see as an example a
        > Galician charter from 954, which presents a partition of serfs among
        > some noble families; most of the nobles and most of the serfs used
        > Germanic names -marked in red-, better than names with other origins -in
        > blue- (in Coleccion Diplomatica de Galicia Historica, d. 47, can be
        > found here
        > http://ia351432.us.archive.org/3/items/coleccindiplomt00unkngoog/colecci\
        > ndiplomt00unkngoog.pdf
        > <http://ia351432.us.archive.org/3/items/coleccindiplomt00unkngoog/colecc\
        > indiplomt00unkngoog.pdf> ):
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > In Dei nomine colmellus diuisionis qui factus est inter filios Placenti
        > et Romarici licet inter pacificas mentes definito sola constat uerborum
        > tamen pro memoria temporum testimonium adiuendum est litterarum; igitur
        > dum inter nos intemptio uertitur ad diuidendum mancipia de parentum
        > nostrorum Guntine et Rosule de neptos senatoris Siserici et Esmorice et
        > de suos jermanos:
        >
        > ideo que euenit in portione de filios Gunterodis id est: Argiuitus
        > Gentibus Tratiuigia Recedrudi Gaudiosus Tequelo Julia filios Stanildi
        > Sitiuidis Gluscudilum Framildi Ruderigus Sonobrida Sabarigis, Argeleuba
        > Ostosia Guntedrudia Uitiza et Leuba Guntildi Julia Ragesindus Sanildi
        > cum sua filia Ermegundia Seniorina Uisteuerga Sisulfus Branderigus
        > Astruildi Brilis Ranemirus Goda duas filias Gaudiosi Maria et Felicia
        > Trudina Quindiuerga filio Frumildi Asarulfo Anulfo Ranulfo Teodeuerga
        > Sindileuba Ermedrudia filia Sonifrede majore alia filia Sonifrede minore
        > Aciulfus Recedrudia Uanda Trudildi Ausendus filie Guduigie fili Ostosie
        > Sabeg(oto) ...... inda duos filios Tequeloni Uimaredus filia Argeleuba
        > mino(re) ...... de Adaf qui est post Genitibo Tedildi Leodo cum duos
        > filios id est Gundilo Fargalosus Sisuita cum suo filio.
        >
        > Euentum in portione de filios Rosule id est: Elias Spintilo Placida
        > (Gu)ndinum Ebrildi Guntuigia Metoi Tita Bonosa Aroildi. Egildus
        > Sabaredus Domnelius Astrogoto Leobegoto Uanagildi eb...... Trudilo Genlo
        > Sisiuertus Nunilo Ansuildi Dauid Sparuildi ...... cum suo filio Ranemiro
        > Teodilo Guisenda Ariulfus Leouegildus ...... Sabegoto Stefanus Saroi
        > filios de Spintilo duo Guntemirus (Gunde)redus Leodefredus Gudigeba
        > filio Sonifrede minore Ausendus Gudileuba Brunildi Ebragundia Nunnina
        > Astulfus Eldoara Adosinda filio l...... Zaquile Odorio Leoueredus
        > Sisuertus Manosinda filia Guduigie ...... Edonia et Elias duos f(ili)os
        > Tequeloni Sisuigia filia Leouegoto ...... filio Adaf Papinum (Gen)etibus
        > Uitiza Braromirus ...... (G)uendulfus.
        >
        > ..... quod accepit firmiter obtineat. factus colmellus VIII kalendas
        > octobris era DCCCCXCI(I).
        >
        > Sil...... ari colmellum diuisionis a me factum.
        >
        > Munius anc colmellus divisionis a me factum.
        >
        > Uimara in anc colmellus diuisionis quo ac persona de meos germanos uel
        > de meo sobrino Spasando diuisi manu mea.... (signo)
        >
        > Adefonsus anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)
        >
        > Odoarius in anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)
        >
        > Gundulfus anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)
        >
        > Munnia anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)
        >
        > Gunterode anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)
        >
        > Ermegildus anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)
        >
        > X Pelagius ad persona de meos neptos filios Petri in anc colmellum
        > diuisionis manu mea.... (signo)
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [2.1] The most common case is that of the place names derived from a
        > Latin genitive (a case that was not longer productive in place names
        > formation after the 9th century) of a Germanic name. There are several
        > thousands (probably more than 5.000) in Galicia and northern Portugal,
        > with some 100 or 200 more in Asturias, Leon and Zamora (lands which also
        > belonged to the Suevi kingdom until 585 AD). The interpretation of these
        > toponyms as Latin genitives of personal Germanic names is not merely
        > based on guessing the etymology of a certain toponym thought known sound
        > changes, but on the recorded history of many of these places from the
        > 800's (there's a pair of on-line databases of medieval Galician
        > documents here http://corpus.cirp.es/codolga/
        > <http://corpus.cirp.es/codolga/> <http://corpus.cirp.es/codolga/> and
        > here http://sli.uvigo.es/xelmirez/index.html.
        > <http://sli.uvigo.es/xelmirez/index.html> Some examples:
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > - (Santa Baia de) Mariz (rural parish with 197 inhabitants distributed
        > in 15 hamlets- Guitiriz, Lugo), is known from the C10th 'in ualle
        > Parriga (...) uilla Malarici media' (doc. from the monatery of Sobrado,
        > in Coruña, 966). So, Mariz derives from (villa) Malarici, though
        > regular sound changes, and 'villa Malarici' is Latin for 'Malaric's
        > villa', Malaricus being the same name of the last Suevi who proclaimed
        > himself king during the war with the Visigoths of 585.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > - Toimil (a hamlet with 30 inhabitants.- Sam Xian de Roca, Begonte,
        > Lugo), known from the C10th 'villa quo dicunt Teodemiri, territorio
        > Parricense, ad sanctorum Iulianum a Roca' (doc. from the monatery of
        > Lourenzá, in Lugo, 922). It is derived from the Latin genitive
        > Teodemiri, name of one of the Suevi kings of the C6th.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > - [Santa Maria de] Razamonde (rural parish with 172 inhabitants in 7
        > hamlets- Cenlle, Ourense), was ' in ripa Minei, ecclesiam sancte Marie
        > de Recemundi. cum sua concurrentia' (doc. from Santiago de Compostela,
        > in Corunna, 1142). Derived from the genitive Recemundi, of Reccemundus,
        > name for example of a Suevi king from the C5th.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Here are some other examples of modern toponyms from all over Galicia
        > (the Förstemann can be accessed here:
        > http://sul-derivatives.stanford.edu/derivative?CSNID=00003871&mediaType=\
        > application/pdf
        > <http://sul-derivatives.stanford.edu/derivative?CSNID=00003871&mediaType\
        > =application/pdf> ; a search facility into Galician toponymy can be
        > accessed here http://sli.uvigo.es/toponimia/
        > <http://sli.uvigo.es/toponimia/> ):
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Derived from a Latin genitive of names ended in -frid:
        >
        > Almofrei ( ˂ Ermefredi), Aldobrén ( ˂ Hildefredi), Roxofrei
        > ( ˂ Regefredi), Guilfrei ( ˂ Williafredi)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > From names in -gildi:
        >
        > Vilaxilde ( ˂ villa Agildi), Vilarfruxilde ( ˂ villare
        > Frogildi), Luxilde ( ˂ villa Leovegildi), Saville ( ˂
        > Sabegildi), Tanxil ( ˂ Atanagildi), Gradaílle ( ˂
        > Witragildi)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > From names in -(h)ari:
        >
        > Astrar ( ˂ Austrarii), Baltar ( ˂ Baldarii), Belesar ( ˂
        > Belisarii), Bretal ( ˂ Bertarii), Armear ( ˂ Ermiarii),
        > Sanformar ( ˂ Sala Frumarii), Goldar ( ˂ Goldarii or
        > Wultharii), Gondar ( ˂ Wandalarii), Guntar ( ˂ Guntharii),
        > Gulfar ( ˂ Wulfarii), Roupar ( ˂ Rauparii), Soñar ( ˂
        > Suaniarii), Tosar ( ˂ Turisarii), Guestrar ( ˂ Wistrarii),
        > Gaifar ( ˂ Waifarii)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > From names in -(w)ulf:
        >
        > Adoufe ( ˂ Adaulfi), Arulfe ( ˂ Arulfi), Arnufe (
        > ˂Arnulfi), Vilastrofe ( ˂ villa Astrulfi), Berulfe ( ˂
        > Berulfi), Brandufe ( ˂ Brandulfi), Esmolfe ( ˂ Ermulfi),
        > Froufe ( ˂ Fredulfi), Gresulfe ( ˂ Grisulfi), Gondufe ( ˂
        > Gundulfi), Aldurfe ( ˂ Aldulfi or Hildulfi), Liúlfe ( ˂
        > Leodulfi), Meitufe ( ˂ Mactulfi), Nandufe ( ˂ Nandulfi),
        > Randulfe ( ˂ Randulfi), Sesulfe ( ˂ Sisulfi), Tiulfe ( ˂
        > Theodulfi), Trasulfe ( ˂ Thrasulfi), Gallufe ( ˂ Waliulfi),
        > Vilaguillulfe ( ˂ villa Wiliulfi)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > From names in -mar / -mir:
        >
        > Ansemil and Ansemar ( ˂ Ansemiri, Ansemari), Arxemil ( ˂
        > Harjamiri), Vilaestremil ( ˂ villa Austremiri), Baldomar and
        > Baldomil ( ˂ Baldomari, Baldemiri), Bertamil ( ˂ Bertamiri),
        > Cendamil ( ˂ Kindamiri), Angumil ( ˂ Ingumiri), Ardemil (
        > ˂ Hardermiri), Franzomil ( ˂ Francemiri), Gondomar and
        > Gondomil ( ˂ Gunthemari, Gunthemiri), Golmar ( ˂ Walamari),
        > Vilagormar ( ˂ villa Walamari), Aldemir ( ˂ Hildemiri), Loimil
        > and Loimar ( ˂ Leodemiri, Leodemari), Lantemil ( ˂
        > Nandemiri), Randamil ( ˂ Randamiri), Recimil ( ˂ Reccemiri),
        > Rosomil ( ˂ Rausemiri), Samil ( ˂ Salamiri), Toimil ( ˂
        > Theodemiri), Troitomil ( ˂ Tructemiri), Gradamil ( ˂
        > Witramiri), Cristimil ( ˂ Guistrimir ˂ Wistremiri)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > From names in -mar / -mir:
        >
        > Aldemunde ( ˂ Hildimundi), Baamonde ( ˂ Baudamundi),
        > Estramundi ( ˂ Astramundi), Razamonde ( ˂ Rasuamundi)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > From names in -ric:
        >
        > Alperiz ( ˂ Hilperici), Baldriz ( ˂ Balderici), Brandariz (
        > ˂ Branderici), Contariz ( ˂ Cuntarici), Esmoriz ( ˂
        > Ermorici), Gomariz ( ˂ Gumarici), Guldriz ( ˂ Wuldarici),
        > Golfariz ( ˂ Wulfarici), Mondariz ( ˂ Mundarici)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Etc, etc, etc. I'm serious when I affirm that in Galicia and Portugal
        > there are thousands of place names based on Germanic names. And we have
        > a direct attestation -specially in C9th-C12th Galician monastical
        > records- of most of the personal names that originated the above
        > mentioned toponyms.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [2.2] There are also hundreds (maybe +1000) toponyms where a Germanic
        > inflection is adapted into Latin. As an example, Latin genitive of the
        > nominative Rickila should be Rickiliae, but we find Rickilani or
        > Rickilanis instead:
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > - Requiám (hamlet with 37 hab.- A Estrada, Pontevedra) ˂ 'et est
        > ipsa hereditate conclusa in omnique giro per suos terminos antiquos id
        > est per fenales iusta domus Catoni et inde ad Causelio et inde per Fouea
        > Uentuosa et per terminos de Magani. de alia parte per terminos de
        > Exeuerneco. per terminos de Sancto Mamede. et inde per arca que diuidet
        > inter Cordario et uilla Riquilani et feret ipso termino in Pedroso et
        > plicat ad porta de fratres' (doc. from Santiago, 947). So it was 'villa
        > Riquilani' = 'Rickla's villa' in 947, derived of the Germanic Rickila,
        > which was also the name of one of the Suevic kings of Galicia of the
        > C5th.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > In much the same way (/l/ felt when intervocalic in the evolution of
        > Galician language) :
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Names with hipocoristic -ila: Andeán ( ˂ Andilani), Anseán (
        > ˂ Ansilani), Ateán ( ˂ Attilani), Baldráns ( ˂
        > Baldilanis), Verlás ( ˂ Berilanis), Brandián ( ˂
        > Brandilani), Burgáns ( ˂ Burgalanis), Cutián ( ˂
        > Cuttilani), Ameán ( ˂ Emilani), Armeá ( ˂ Ermilani),
        > Fafiás ( ˂ Faffilanis), Frameán ( ˂ Framilani),
        > Franqueán ( ˂ Frankilani), Froiás ( ˂ Froilanis),
        > Goiáns ( ˂ Gaudilanis), Gabián ( ˂ Gawilani), Gomeán
        > ( ˂ Gomilani), Gundiás ( ˂ Gundilanis), Gulfián ( ˂
        > Wulfilani), Galiñáns ( ˂ Walilanis), Xudán ( ˂
        > Iutilani), Xustáns ( ˂ Iustilani), Lubián ( ˂
        > Leobilani), Quintián ( ˂ Kintilani), Santián ( ˂
        > Sindilani), Tanquián ( ˂ Tankilani), Guitián ( ˂
        > Wittilani), Quistiláns ( ˂ Wistilanis)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Other names:
        >
        > Aldrá ( ˂ Aldrani), Atán ( ˂ Attani), Berán ( ˂
        > Berani), Bodán ( ˂ Botani), Ardán ( ˂ Ardani), Forxás
        > ( ˂ Frojanis), Gontán ( ˂ Guntani), Guillán ( ˂
        > Wiliani), Manán ( ˂ Mannani), Miumás ( ˂ Medumanis),
        > Moscán ( ˂ Muskani), Segán ( ˂ Seggani), Sendán (
        > ˂ Sendani), Boizán ( ˂ Bonizani), Guitizá ( ˂
        > Wittizani), Xigán ( ˂ Egicani)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [2.3] There are even some few toponyms where we can probably find pure
        > german genitives:
        >
        > Camondes ( ˂ Camundis), Godulfes ( ˂ Gotulfis), Gondulfes (
        > ˂ Gundulfis), Raxacendes ( ˂ Regesendis), Espasantes ( ˂
        > Spassantis), Guntís ( ˂ Guntinis)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > And toponyms witch generalizes the use of some weird inflexions:
        >
        > Señoráns ( ˂ Suniaranes, from Suniarius), Bertamiráns (
        > ˂ Bertamiranes, from Bertamirus), Ramiráns ( ˂ Ranmiranes,
        > from Ranamirus), Guldrigáns ( ˂ Guldricanis, from Wuldericus)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [3] There are also toponyms derived from Germanic words. Most of then
        > are words either incorporated into modern or medieval Galician, and
        > still alive today, or words which were incorporated into local Latin,
        > although they felt out of use before they could be recorded in the
        > documentation of the C9th and later centuries.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [3.1] Toponyms based on the PGmc word *salam 'house, hall'. In Portugal
        > they have evolved into Sâ or Sâs, and there are some fifty, all in
        > the North, around Braga and Porto; in Galicia they are Sa, Saa, Sas or
        > Zas, and we have another fifty, especially around Lugo and along the
        > valley of the Minho river; in Spanish speaking provinces the form is
        > Sala, and there are some ten (in Catalonia is more frequent, over
        > twenty, but Catalan ones, and maybe even Castilians, can have French or
        > Frankish origin; the Galician and Portuguese ones must have been formed
        > before C10th, when the intervocalic /l/ felt). Although in Galicia we
        > have not recorded the word *sá 'house' (we have sala 'room' and
        > salón 'saloon, room', but they entered through French after the
        > C12th), it can be proved that all or part of these toponyms were formed
        > through Vulgar Latin or local Romance. As an example:
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > - Saavedra (several ones, all around Galicia), probably from 'Sala
        > Vetera', that is 'Old House/Hall'. The word order shows that the toponym
        > have been generated in local Romance or late vulgar Latin (before C8th,
        > probably).
        >
        > - Sasdónigas (Mondoñedo, Lugo), from 'Salas Dominicas', 'Lord's
        > Halls/Houses'.
        >
        > - Sanformar (Negueira, Lugo) probably from 'Sala Frumarii'. Although the
        > word sala is Germanic, and the name Frumarii is Germanic (is documented
        > among the Suevi and later on), word order and inflexion is
        > unquestionably Latin.
        >
        > - Salmeán (Pontenova, Lugo), from 'Sala Mediana' = 'House of the
        > Middle' (in a up-down dichotomy).
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [3.2] Toponyms based on the word *bûrjô 'house', related to PGmc
        > *bûran 'idem', which originated serveral Boiro and Buiro in Galicia,
        > and Bouro in N Portugal. We have pretty old documentation (C10th) for
        > these places also, and they are generally presumed to be
        > "Suevi", either as direct settlements, or as a word incorporated
        > into local Latin before it had fallen out of use, but it's unknown if
        > these place names where formed directly from a Germanic dialect or
        > through Romance.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [3.3] There are also a large number of toponyms derived from some
        > Galician Germanisms like:
        >
        > - albergue 'shelter, lodging': Albergue, Albergaría...
        >
        > - banda 'side, flank': Acalabanda = 'That Side', Bandorrio 'flank of the
        > river'...
        >
        > - barón 'man': Baróns.
        >
        > - bordo 'rim, extreme': Bordeiras, Bordo...
        >
        > - burgo 'hillfort': Malburgo, Burgo, Burgueiros, Malburguete...
        >
        > - estaca 'stick, spear': Estaca, Estacada...
        >
        > - guardia 'watch post': Aguarda, Guarda, Gardados...
        >
        > - infanzón 'lesser nobleman, free man, client': Vilar dos
        > Infanzós.
        >
        > - marco 'boundary, boundary stone, mark': Marco, Marcadoiro...
        >
        > - rapar 'to take, to cut, to scrape': Rapa, Rapadas, Rapadoiro...
        >
        > - guisa 'way, guise': Vila Guisada...
        >
        > And a long etc. Similar toponyms can be found also in France, Italy, and
        > even Spain. Of these the most interesting are the various Malburgo and
        > Malburguete, since word order is Germanic, and there are similar
        > toponyms in France (Maubourguet in Hautes-Pyrènèes, ), Switzerland
        > (Mauburguet in Vaud), Italy (Malborghetto in Udine, near Austria) and in
        > Germanic countries (Marburg and Maulburg in Germany, Malburgen in the
        > Netherlands, Marbourg in Luxemburg...)
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [3.4] There are also plenty of toponyms based on Galician (or Galician
        > and Portuguese) exclusive germanisms (there are a some few dozens of
        > them, and are still little studied; for the proto-Germanic forms, V.
        > Orel, A Handbook of Germanic Etymology
        > http://www.scribd.com/doc/21206305/A-Handbook-of-Germanic-Etymology
        > <http://www.scribd.com/doc/21206305/A-Handbook-of-Germanic-Etymology>
        > ):
        >
        > laverca 'lark' ˂ PGmc *laiwarikôn 'idem',
        >
        > meixengra 'titmouse' ˂ PGmc *maisôn 'idem' + -ingaz,
        >
        > ouva 'sprite, elf' from *auba ˂ PGmc *albaz 'elf',
        >
        > gueste 'food offered to a group of workers' ˂ PGmc *westiz
        > 'sustenance, food, provisions',
        >
        > maga 'guts' ˂ PGmc *magôn 'stomach',
        >
        > britar 'to break, to destroy' ˂ PGmc *breutanan 'idem',
        >
        > esmorecer 'to faint, to choke' from ancient esmorir 'idem' ˂ PGmc
        > *smurjanan 'to choke, to suffocate', gastallar 'to immobilize, to stop,
        > to keep in place' ˂ PGmc *ga-stelljanan 'to still, to soothe'...
        >
        > Some of these toponyms are old, and have very old documentation (before
        > C11th), but others could be recent, since many of these words are still
        > alive:
        >
        > - lobio 'vineyard' (˂ PGmc *laubjôn, related to *lauban
        > 'foliage' ): Lobio, Lobios, Lóivo, Loxe, Loio... dozens, in Galicia,
        > N of Portugal and Asturias.
        >
        > - groba 'hole, cave, ravine' ( ˂ PGmc *grôbô 'dugout, hole,
        > pit'): Groba, Grobas, Encrobas... Dozens.
        >
        > - gasalla 'communal property' ( ˂ PGmc *ga-salj-, from *saljanan
        > 'to offer, to give'): Gasalla, several.
        >
        > And some others like 'Esculca', 'Esculqueira' 'post of vigilance': less
        > than ten, in Galicia and Portugal; 'Gaspalleira', from gaspallar 'to
        > split, trounce' ( ˂ PGmc *ga-spelljanan 'to split'), Faísca
        > 'ash' ˂ falisca ˂ PGmc *falwiskô 'flying ash'. Etc.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [3.5] There are some other toponyms based on (locally) unattested
        > Germanisms, like:
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > - Foristo (in W Asturias, near Galicia), identical with Old High German
        > 'furisto' 'first', and with no etymology in Latin, Celtic, Basque, Arab
        > or any other language historically attested in the area; or like
        >
        > - Samos ˂ Samanos, a very ancient Galician monastery (it already
        > existed in the C7th, although we don't really know when it was founded)
        > cf. Old High German 'samanunga' 'community, congregation' (samanos would
        > be a latinized form = 'reunited, congregated (men)').
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Maybe also the next, if the first element is the same with the Longobard
        > fara 'family group': Frá (Vilalba, Lugo), Frá (Muras, Lugo),
        > Fraguizón (Valdoviño, Coruña) ˂ *'Fara Wizoni', Faramenga
        > (Sada, Coruña) ˂ *'Fara Aminga' (?), Fraemelle (Monfero,
        > Coruña)...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [3.6] Other interesting toponyms which shows Germanic influence are
        > those based on mixed words, like the Galician and Portuguese 'reguengo'
        > 'propriety of the king', from ancient *regalingo = regal (='royal',
        > Latin) + -ing ('pertaining to', Germanic). There are dozens of these
        > places in Galicia and Portugal, under the form Reguengo / Reguenga /
        > Vila Reguenga, but they are irrelevant in Spanish speaking provinces (I
        > know just three, under the form Realengo). Other toponyms which include
        > the -ing Germanic suffix are Faramenga (Sada, Coruña) ˂ *'Fara
        > Aminga' (?), Meirengos (Ribadeo, Lugo) = `People from (the valley of the
        > river) Meira', or Alvarenga in Portugal 'Alvaro's (village)'.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Well, that's it. I think I've made my point on the Germanic toponymy of
        > Galicia, N Portugal, and neighboring territories: these toponyms are
        > rather numerous, they are rather diverse too, and they are
        > characteristically modeled with Germanic clay in a Roman potter's wheel.
        > In fact, when people speak about the post-Roman Germanic kingdoms, the
        > Suevi are generally neglected, though they founded a stable kingdom,
        > coined money, maintained diplomatic relations with Vandals, Franks,
        > Burgundians, Romans and Goths, and even worked out an administrative and
        > ecclesiastic reform of their country -in the C6th through a series of
        > Councils- which really converted their ethnic kingdom into a territorial
        > one (the Kingdom of Galicia, as used by Gregory of Tours)... And when
        > their kingdom was taken by the Goths, we know that they kept their lives
        > and jobs, and were not punished or substituted -catholic Suevic bishops
        > kept their sees under Arrian Goths-, simply annexed. It is probably not
        > a coincidence that Galicians counts and settlers had already taken back
        > from the Arabs all of the ancient Suevi kingdom by 878, including the
        > southernmost Suevic city of Coimbra, while most of Spain up to the
        > Pyrenees was still under Arab rule.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Sorry for the extension. Cheers.
        >
        > Cossue.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
      • o_cossue
        ... related words. ... stable even after the Gothic conquering but this does not outrule the possibility that many of the personal names you mention could
        Message 3 of 4 , Apr 10, 2010
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          --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "ingemarn2000" <ingemar@...> wrote:
          >
          > Dear Cossue!
          >
          > Warmly welcome and thank you for an invaluable treasury of Germanic
          related words.
          >
          > I agree that the Suevic influence i Portugal seems to have remained
          stable even after the Gothic conquering but this does not outrule the
          possibility that many of the personal names you mention could have been
          Gothic as well. I have myself, when I was preparingt my dissertation
          about the Goths, made some research of Gothic artefacts in both Asturias
          and Galizia and specially so in Léon, Astorga, Braga, Coimbra, Merida
          and Toledo. I mostly looked on Visigothic Stone Art and stelae and also
          Vadensiensic stelae. There indeed must be also Gothic influence there.
          Concerning the language in Portugal I noticed when listening to the
          conversation of a group a bit from distant the sound was similar to
          e.g. Dutch - it means there is a kind of germanic sound melody over the
          language that is not extant in Spanish. The Suevic inheritance could be
          an explanation.
          >
          > Best greetings
          > Ingemar
          >
          >


          Thank you very much for your welcome, Ingemar. Truly warm :-)

          I certainly agree with you: most of the names we know for the Suevi are
          common also among Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals or Burgundians! So, on
          a one per one basis, its difficult or even impossible to assign a word,
          or a personal or place name to Goths or Sueves (Ermericus, Reckila,
          Reckiar, Reccemundus, Remismundus.... are Suevi names which are known
          also among other East Germans) though there are also Suevic and medieval
          Galician names like Ansemarus, Baldemarus, Pippinus, Pantardus,
          Gainnardus, Arnulfus... that don't look Gothic, but which are also
          present as genitives in the countryside, naming villages, hamlets and
          parishes). So, it's the geographic distribution of toponyms, names,
          words, etcetera, what can tell apart Gothic and Suevic, al least in a
          probabilistic point of view. So, for example, the are many Germanic
          names in the medieval Catalan charters that are unknown in Galicia
          (now, these names could be also Frankish), but the contrary is also
          true, and there are a large number of Germanic Galician names that are
          unknown in Catalonia. Again, Galician language have some tens of
          exclusive germanism, but the country probably didn't received a notable
          number of Visigoths prior to the muslim invasion, at a time when
          Visigoths had long lost their language, so this words should be
          considered Suevi better than Gothic, thought it could be impossible to
          prove that laverca, maga, lobio, gastallar, brétima... are not
          Visigothic words.

          Anyway, Gothic influence in Galicia and Portugal cannot be denied, as
          these lands were part of the Visigothic kingdom for more than a century,
          and their laws where The Law for over half a millennium! As an example,
          the privative civil laws on inheritance, in Galicia, are still directly
          derived from Gothic laws, as they where 1500 years ago, thought some
          figures, like the collective property of woods by the neighbours of
          adjacent hamlets, are usually considered Suevi.

          Cheers.

          Cossue.

          Sorry for the estrange symbols in the last message. HTML, hates me...



          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • OSCAR HERRE
          thats really a shame......there is really too much romance involvement in spain with little technical contribution to the world but their language.......europe
          Message 4 of 4 , Apr 11, 2010
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            thats really a shame......there is really too much romance involvement in spain with little technical contribution to the world but their language.......europe has always been a based germanic continent, but there is very little there to show their recognition......

            --- On Sat, 4/10/10, o_cossue <o.cossue@...> wrote:


            From: o_cossue <o.cossue@...>
            Subject: [gothic-l] Germanic Toponymy in Portugal and Galicia
            To: gothic-l@yahoogroups.com
            Date: Saturday, April 10, 2010, 7:37 AM


             





            Well, this was going to be some arguing about Suevic and Gothic toponymy
            in Spain and Portugal, though now I think it should be better my
            presentation to the Group. I'm Galician (NW Spain), I'm in my late
            thirties, and I'm an aficionado in old Galician onomastics, i.e. I love
            toponymy and anthroponymy, specially if they are older than a thousand
            years. Now, Galicia is pretty rich in a group of toponyms modeled around
            old Germanic names, and my interest in that particular group of toponyms
            have brought me here :-) Now let's go with what I had written... It's
            extensive, so I really hope you find it, at least, interesting.

            There are in Galicia and Northern Portugal thousands of places with
            names containing Germanic elements, although most of these names have
            been generated from local Romance or Vulgar Latin, after Galicians
            adopted the anthroponyms of the Suevi -a single Germanic name with no
            cognomen or patronymic attached- and some tens of words of their
            language. These toponyms were fist studied in the C18th by Martin
            Sarmiento, a Galician illustrated scholar who identified them correctly
            as Germanic (he was also the first person to point out some Germanisms
            of the Galician language like laverca 'lark', lobio 'framework
            supporting a vine, frequently in front of a house' -cf. lobby- or grova
            'groove'). Latter, in the C20th they were studied by a large number of
            scholar, many of them Germans: W. Meyer-Lübke, J. Jungfer, G. Sachs,
            Leite de Vasconcellos, J. Piel and D. Kremer. Incidentally, Piel (you
            can reach his initial researches here:
            http://cvc.institut o-camoes. pt/bdc/lingua/ boletimfilologia /02/boletim02. \
            html
            <http://cvc.institut o-camoes. pt/bdc/lingua/ boletimfilologia /02/boletim02\
            .html> ) and Kremer have considered these toponyms as Gothic, but i)
            these toponyms are congruent with the personal names of the Sueves, ii)
            these toponyms are almost completely absent from Central, South and East
            of Spain, precisely in the regions where we positively know of Goth
            dwellers, and iii) there's not documented organized or unorganized
            settlement of Goths in Galicia and Norther Portugal before or after the
            conquest of the Suevi by the Visigoths. So, the most economic theory is
            to consider these place names as Suevi (or better, as formed under or
            after Suevi influence):

            [1] First, there are in Galicia, Portugal and western Asturias -in the
            ancient Suevic kingdom- several parishes and villages holding the name
            of the Sueves, Goths and Taifali:

            - (Santa Eulalia de) Suegos (rural parish with 161 inhabitants in 7
            hamlets.- Pol, Lugo). It was 'Suevos' in the C12th.

            - (Santa Maria de) Suegos (rural parish with 328 inhabitants in 14
            hamlets.- O Vicedo, Lugo)

            - (Sam Mamede de) Suevos (rural parish with 298 inhabitants in 7
            hamlets..- A Baña, A Coruña)

            - (Sam Martiño de) Suevos (parish with 532 inhabitants distributed in
            a village plus 5 hamlets.- Arteixo, A Coruña)

            - Suevos (village with 42 hab.- Ames, A Coruña)

            - Suevos (village with 126 hab.- Mazaricos, A Coruña)

            - Téifaros (village with 127 inhabitants. - Navia, Asturias) Ë‚
            *Taifalos

            The Taifali could have come together with the Suevi in the C5th, or
            either if they were the same Taifali established in Poitou, they could
            have arrived together with the Britons that came to Norther Galicia in
            the C6th (the Britons maintained their own bishopric during C6th and
            C7th).

            - (Santa Maria de) Godos (rural parish with 669 inhabitants distributed
            in 10 hamlets or villages- Caldas de Reis, Pontevedra)

            - Valdegodos (village with 348 inhabitants. - Vilamartín de
            Valdeorras, Ourense) = 'Valley of Goths'

            There is also three other villages containing the names of the Goths in
            N and NE of Spain:

            - Revillagodos (hamlet with 14 inhabitants, Burgos) = 'Village of
            Goths'.

            - Godos (village with 82 inhabitants, Teruel)

            - Godos (rural parish with 733 inhabitants. - Oviedo, Asturias)

            So there are in Spain more places named after the Suevi than after the
            Goths (!). And no Vandals or Alans ones, sorry, although some people
            used the personal name Uandaliscus = 'Vandal-ish' during the C9th and
            C10th in Galicia and Asturias. It's an interesting name, since it
            probably shows that some Vandals just stayed in the Iberia Peninsula
            among the Sueves, where they were probably known as Vandaliscos, as
            Moors were later named Mauriscos by Galicians. This same personal name,
            Uandaliscus, also generated the toponym Gondarisco (Vigo, Pontevedra)
            Ë‚ Goondalisco Ë‚ Guandalisco Ë‚ Wandaliscu(m) .

            [2] There are also thousands of place names derived from Germanic
            personal names. In fact, most Galicians used these same names from the
            C9th to the C12th, when Castilian Spanish like anthroponymy (one name
            from a pool of two or three hundreds, a number of them Visigothic + a
            patronimic ended in -z) imposed itself. Let's see as an example a
            Galician charter from 954, which presents a partition of serfs among
            some noble families; most of the nobles and most of the serfs used
            Germanic names -marked in red-, better than names with other origins -in
            blue- (in Coleccion Diplomatica de Galicia Historica, d. 47, can be
            found here
            http://ia351432. us.archive. org/3/items/ coleccindiplomt0 0unkngoog/ colecci\
            ndiplomt00unkngoog. pdf
            <http://ia351432. us.archive. org/3/items/ coleccindiplomt0 0unkngoog/ colecc\
            indiplomt00unkngoog .pdf> ):

            In Dei nomine colmellus diuisionis qui factus est inter filios Placenti
            et Romarici licet inter pacificas mentes definito sola constat uerborum
            tamen pro memoria temporum testimonium adiuendum est litterarum; igitur
            dum inter nos intemptio uertitur ad diuidendum mancipia de parentum
            nostrorum Guntine et Rosule de neptos senatoris Siserici et Esmorice et
            de suos jermanos:

            ideo que euenit in portione de filios Gunterodis id est: Argiuitus
            Gentibus Tratiuigia Recedrudi Gaudiosus Tequelo Julia filios Stanildi
            Sitiuidis Gluscudilum Framildi Ruderigus Sonobrida Sabarigis, Argeleuba
            Ostosia Guntedrudia Uitiza et Leuba Guntildi Julia Ragesindus Sanildi
            cum sua filia Ermegundia Seniorina Uisteuerga Sisulfus Branderigus
            Astruildi Brilis Ranemirus Goda duas filias Gaudiosi Maria et Felicia
            Trudina Quindiuerga filio Frumildi Asarulfo Anulfo Ranulfo Teodeuerga
            Sindileuba Ermedrudia filia Sonifrede majore alia filia Sonifrede minore
            Aciulfus Recedrudia Uanda Trudildi Ausendus filie Guduigie fili Ostosie
            Sabeg(oto) ...... inda duos filios Tequeloni Uimaredus filia Argeleuba
            mino(re) ...... de Adaf qui est post Genitibo Tedildi Leodo cum duos
            filios id est Gundilo Fargalosus Sisuita cum suo filio.

            Euentum in portione de filios Rosule id est: Elias Spintilo Placida
            (Gu)ndinum Ebrildi Guntuigia Metoi Tita Bonosa Aroildi. Egildus
            Sabaredus Domnelius Astrogoto Leobegoto Uanagildi eb...... Trudilo Genlo
            Sisiuertus Nunilo Ansuildi Dauid Sparuildi ...... cum suo filio Ranemiro
            Teodilo Guisenda Ariulfus Leouegildus ...... Sabegoto Stefanus Saroi
            filios de Spintilo duo Guntemirus (Gunde)redus Leodefredus Gudigeba
            filio Sonifrede minore Ausendus Gudileuba Brunildi Ebragundia Nunnina
            Astulfus Eldoara Adosinda filio l...... Zaquile Odorio Leoueredus
            Sisuertus Manosinda filia Guduigie ...... Edonia et Elias duos f(ili)os
            Tequeloni Sisuigia filia Leouegoto ...... filio Adaf Papinum (Gen)etibus
            Uitiza Braromirus ...... (G)uendulfus.

            ..... quod accepit firmiter obtineat. factus colmellus VIII kalendas
            octobris era DCCCCXCI(I).

            Sil...... ari colmellum diuisionis a me factum.

            Munius anc colmellus divisionis a me factum.

            Uimara in anc colmellus diuisionis quo ac persona de meos germanos uel
            de meo sobrino Spasando diuisi manu mea.... (signo)

            Adefonsus anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

            Odoarius in anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

            Gundulfus anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

            Munnia anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

            Gunterode anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

            Ermegildus anc colmellum diuisionis a me factum.... (signo)

            X Pelagius ad persona de meos neptos filios Petri in anc colmellum
            diuisionis manu mea.... (signo)

            [2.1] The most common case is that of the place names derived from a
            Latin genitive (a case that was not longer productive in place names
            formation after the 9th century) of a Germanic name. There are several
            thousands (probably more than 5.000) in Galicia and northern Portugal,
            with some 100 or 200 more in Asturias, Leon and Zamora (lands which also
            belonged to the Suevi kingdom until 585 AD). The interpretation of these
            toponyms as Latin genitives of personal Germanic names is not merely
            based on guessing the etymology of a certain toponym thought known sound
            changes, but on the recorded history of many of these places from the
            800's (there's a pair of on-line databases of medieval Galician
            documents here http://corpus. cirp.es/codolga/
            <http://corpus. cirp.es/codolga/> <http://corpus. cirp.es/codolga/> and
            here http://sli.uvigo. es/xelmirez/ index.html.
            <http://sli.uvigo. es/xelmirez/ index.html> Some examples:

            - (Santa Baia de) Mariz (rural parish with 197 inhabitants distributed
            in 15 hamlets- Guitiriz, Lugo), is known from the C10th 'in ualle
            Parriga (...) uilla Malarici media' (doc. from the monatery of Sobrado,
            in Coruña, 966). So, Mariz derives from (villa) Malarici, though
            regular sound changes, and 'villa Malarici' is Latin for 'Malaric's
            villa', Malaricus being the same name of the last Suevi who proclaimed
            himself king during the war with the Visigoths of 585.

            - Toimil (a hamlet with 30 inhabitants. - Sam Xian de Roca, Begonte,
            Lugo), known from the C10th 'villa quo dicunt Teodemiri, territorio
            Parricense, ad sanctorum Iulianum a Roca' (doc. from the monatery of
            Lourenzá, in Lugo, 922). It is derived from the Latin genitive
            Teodemiri, name of one of the Suevi kings of the C6th.

            - [Santa Maria de] Razamonde (rural parish with 172 inhabitants in 7
            hamlets- Cenlle, Ourense), was ' in ripa Minei, ecclesiam sancte Marie
            de Recemundi. cum sua concurrentia' (doc. from Santiago de Compostela,
            in Corunna, 1142). Derived from the genitive Recemundi, of Reccemundus,
            name for example of a Suevi king from the C5th.

            Here are some other examples of modern toponyms from all over Galicia
            (the Förstemann can be accessed here:
            http://sul-derivati ves.stanford. edu/derivative? CSNID=00003871& mediaType= \
            application/ pdf
            <http://sul-derivati ves.stanford. edu/derivative? CSNID=00003871& mediaType\
            =application/ pdf> ; a search facility into Galician toponymy can be
            accessed here http://sli.uvigo. es/toponimia/
            <http://sli.uvigo. es/toponimia/> ):

            Derived from a Latin genitive of names ended in -frid:

            Almofrei ( Ë‚ Ermefredi), Aldobrén ( Ë‚ Hildefredi), Roxofrei
            ( Ë‚ Regefredi), Guilfrei ( Ë‚ Williafredi) ...

            From names in -gildi:

            Vilaxilde ( Ë‚ villa Agildi), Vilarfruxilde ( Ë‚ villare
            Frogildi), Luxilde ( Ë‚ villa Leovegildi), Saville ( Ë‚
            Sabegildi), Tanxil ( Ë‚ Atanagildi), Gradaílle ( Ë‚
            Witragildi). ..

            From names in -(h)ari:

            Astrar ( Ë‚ Austrarii), Baltar ( Ë‚ Baldarii), Belesar ( Ë‚
            Belisarii), Bretal ( Ë‚ Bertarii), Armear ( Ë‚ Ermiarii),
            Sanformar ( Ë‚ Sala Frumarii), Goldar ( Ë‚ Goldarii or
            Wultharii), Gondar ( Ë‚ Wandalarii), Guntar ( Ë‚ Guntharii),
            Gulfar ( Ë‚ Wulfarii), Roupar ( Ë‚ Rauparii), Soñar ( Ë‚
            Suaniarii), Tosar ( Ë‚ Turisarii), Guestrar ( Ë‚ Wistrarii),
            Gaifar ( Ë‚ Waifarii)...

            From names in -(w)ulf:

            Adoufe ( Ë‚ Adaulfi), Arulfe ( Ë‚ Arulfi), Arnufe (
            Ë‚Arnulfi), Vilastrofe ( Ë‚ villa Astrulfi), Berulfe ( Ë‚
            Berulfi), Brandufe ( Ë‚ Brandulfi), Esmolfe ( Ë‚ Ermulfi),
            Froufe ( Ë‚ Fredulfi), Gresulfe ( Ë‚ Grisulfi), Gondufe ( Ë‚
            Gundulfi), Aldurfe ( Ë‚ Aldulfi or Hildulfi), Liúlfe ( Ë‚
            Leodulfi), Meitufe ( Ë‚ Mactulfi), Nandufe ( Ë‚ Nandulfi),
            Randulfe ( Ë‚ Randulfi), Sesulfe ( Ë‚ Sisulfi), Tiulfe ( Ë‚
            Theodulfi), Trasulfe ( Ë‚ Thrasulfi), Gallufe ( Ë‚ Waliulfi),
            Vilaguillulfe ( Ë‚ villa Wiliulfi)...

            From names in -mar / -mir:

            Ansemil and Ansemar ( Ë‚ Ansemiri, Ansemari), Arxemil ( Ë‚
            Harjamiri), Vilaestremil ( Ë‚ villa Austremiri), Baldomar and
            Baldomil ( Ë‚ Baldomari, Baldemiri), Bertamil ( Ë‚ Bertamiri),
            Cendamil ( Ë‚ Kindamiri), Angumil ( Ë‚ Ingumiri), Ardemil (
            Ë‚ Hardermiri), Franzomil ( Ë‚ Francemiri), Gondomar and
            Gondomil ( Ë‚ Gunthemari, Gunthemiri), Golmar ( Ë‚ Walamari),
            Vilagormar ( Ë‚ villa Walamari), Aldemir ( Ë‚ Hildemiri), Loimil
            and Loimar ( Ë‚ Leodemiri, Leodemari), Lantemil ( Ë‚
            Nandemiri), Randamil ( Ë‚ Randamiri), Recimil ( Ë‚ Reccemiri),
            Rosomil ( Ë‚ Rausemiri), Samil ( Ë‚ Salamiri), Toimil ( Ë‚
            Theodemiri), Troitomil ( Ë‚ Tructemiri), Gradamil ( Ë‚
            Witramiri), Cristimil ( Ë‚ Guistrimir Ë‚ Wistremiri). ..

            From names in -mar / -mir:

            Aldemunde ( Ë‚ Hildimundi), Baamonde ( Ë‚ Baudamundi),
            Estramundi ( Ë‚ Astramundi), Razamonde ( Ë‚ Rasuamundi). ..

            From names in -ric:

            Alperiz ( Ë‚ Hilperici), Baldriz ( Ë‚ Balderici), Brandariz (
            Ë‚ Branderici), Contariz ( Ë‚ Cuntarici), Esmoriz ( Ë‚
            Ermorici), Gomariz ( Ë‚ Gumarici), Guldriz ( Ë‚ Wuldarici),
            Golfariz ( Ë‚ Wulfarici), Mondariz ( Ë‚ Mundarici).. .

            Etc, etc, etc. I'm serious when I affirm that in Galicia and Portugal
            there are thousands of place names based on Germanic names. And we have
            a direct attestation -specially in C9th-C12th Galician monastical
            records- of most of the personal names that originated the above
            mentioned toponyms.

            [2.2] There are also hundreds (maybe +1000) toponyms where a Germanic
            inflection is adapted into Latin. As an example, Latin genitive of the
            nominative Rickila should be Rickiliae, but we find Rickilani or
            Rickilanis instead:

            - Requiám (hamlet with 37 hab.- A Estrada, Pontevedra) Ë‚ 'et est
            ipsa hereditate conclusa in omnique giro per suos terminos antiquos id
            est per fenales iusta domus Catoni et inde ad Causelio et inde per Fouea
            Uentuosa et per terminos de Magani. de alia parte per terminos de
            Exeuerneco. per terminos de Sancto Mamede. et inde per arca que diuidet
            inter Cordario et uilla Riquilani et feret ipso termino in Pedroso et
            plicat ad porta de fratres' (doc. from Santiago, 947). So it was 'villa
            Riquilani' = 'Rickla's villa' in 947, derived of the Germanic Rickila,
            which was also the name of one of the Suevic kings of Galicia of the
            C5th.

            In much the same way (/l/ felt when intervocalic in the evolution of
            Galician language) :

            Names with hipocoristic -ila: Andeán ( Ë‚ Andilani), Anseán (
            Ë‚ Ansilani), Ateán ( Ë‚ Attilani), Baldráns ( Ë‚
            Baldilanis), Verlás ( Ë‚ Berilanis), Brandián ( Ë‚
            Brandilani), Burgáns ( Ë‚ Burgalanis), Cutián ( Ë‚
            Cuttilani), Ameán ( Ë‚ Emilani), Armeá ( Ë‚ Ermilani),
            Fafiás ( Ë‚ Faffilanis), Frameán ( Ë‚ Framilani),
            Franqueán ( Ë‚ Frankilani), Froiás ( Ë‚ Froilanis),
            Goiáns ( Ë‚ Gaudilanis), Gabián ( Ë‚ Gawilani), Gomeán
            ( Ë‚ Gomilani), Gundiás ( Ë‚ Gundilanis), Gulfián ( Ë‚
            Wulfilani), Galiñáns ( Ë‚ Walilanis), Xudán ( Ë‚
            Iutilani), Xustáns ( Ë‚ Iustilani), Lubián ( Ë‚
            Leobilani), Quintián ( Ë‚ Kintilani), Santián ( Ë‚
            Sindilani), Tanquián ( Ë‚ Tankilani), Guitián ( Ë‚
            Wittilani), Quistiláns ( Ë‚ Wistilanis). ..

            Other names:

            Aldrá ( Ë‚ Aldrani), Atán ( Ë‚ Attani), Berán ( Ë‚
            Berani), Bodán ( Ë‚ Botani), Ardán ( Ë‚ Ardani), Forxás
            ( Ë‚ Frojanis), Gontán ( Ë‚ Guntani), Guillán ( Ë‚
            Wiliani), Manán ( Ë‚ Mannani), Miumás ( Ë‚ Medumanis),
            Moscán ( Ë‚ Muskani), Segán ( Ë‚ Seggani), Sendán (
            Ë‚ Sendani), Boizán ( Ë‚ Bonizani), Guitizá ( Ë‚
            Wittizani), Xigán ( Ë‚ Egicani)...

            [2.3] There are even some few toponyms where we can probably find pure
            german genitives:

            Camondes ( Ë‚ Camundis), Godulfes ( Ë‚ Gotulfis), Gondulfes (
            Ë‚ Gundulfis), Raxacendes ( Ë‚ Regesendis), Espasantes ( Ë‚
            Spassantis), Guntís ( Ë‚ Guntinis)...

            And toponyms witch generalizes the use of some weird inflexions:

            Señoráns ( Ë‚ Suniaranes, from Suniarius), Bertamiráns (
            Ë‚ Bertamiranes, from Bertamirus), Ramiráns ( Ë‚ Ranmiranes,
            from Ranamirus), Guldrigáns ( Ë‚ Guldricanis, from Wuldericus). ..

            [3] There are also toponyms derived from Germanic words. Most of then
            are words either incorporated into modern or medieval Galician, and
            still alive today, or words which were incorporated into local Latin,
            although they felt out of use before they could be recorded in the
            documentation of the C9th and later centuries.

            [3.1] Toponyms based on the PGmc word *salam 'house, hall'. In Portugal
            they have evolved into Sâ or Sâs, and there are some fifty, all in
            the North, around Braga and Porto; in Galicia they are Sa, Saa, Sas or
            Zas, and we have another fifty, especially around Lugo and along the
            valley of the Minho river; in Spanish speaking provinces the form is
            Sala, and there are some ten (in Catalonia is more frequent, over
            twenty, but Catalan ones, and maybe even Castilians, can have French or
            Frankish origin; the Galician and Portuguese ones must have been formed
            before C10th, when the intervocalic /l/ felt). Although in Galicia we
            have not recorded the word *sá 'house' (we have sala 'room' and
            salón 'saloon, room', but they entered through French after the
            C12th), it can be proved that all or part of these toponyms were formed
            through Vulgar Latin or local Romance. As an example:

            - Saavedra (several ones, all around Galicia), probably from 'Sala
            Vetera', that is 'Old House/Hall'. The word order shows that the toponym
            have been generated in local Romance or late vulgar Latin (before C8th,
            probably).

            - Sasdónigas (Mondoñedo, Lugo), from 'Salas Dominicas', 'Lord's
            Halls/Houses' .

            - Sanformar (Negueira, Lugo) probably from 'Sala Frumarii'. Although the
            word sala is Germanic, and the name Frumarii is Germanic (is documented
            among the Suevi and later on), word order and inflexion is
            unquestionably Latin.

            - Salmeán (Pontenova, Lugo), from 'Sala Mediana' = 'House of the
            Middle' (in a up-down dichotomy).

            [3.2] Toponyms based on the word *bûrjô 'house', related to PGmc
            *bûran 'idem', which originated serveral Boiro and Buiro in Galicia,
            and Bouro in N Portugal. We have pretty old documentation (C10th) for
            these places also, and they are generally presumed to be
            "Suevi", either as direct settlements, or as a word incorporated
            into local Latin before it had fallen out of use, but it's unknown if
            these place names where formed directly from a Germanic dialect or
            through Romance.

            [3.3] There are also a large number of toponyms derived from some
            Galician Germanisms like:

            - albergue 'shelter, lodging': Albergue, Albergaría...

            - banda 'side, flank': Acalabanda = 'That Side', Bandorrio 'flank of the
            river'...

            - barón 'man': Baróns.

            - bordo 'rim, extreme': Bordeiras, Bordo...

            - burgo 'hillfort': Malburgo, Burgo, Burgueiros, Malburguete. ..

            - estaca 'stick, spear': Estaca, Estacada...

            - guardia 'watch post': Aguarda, Guarda, Gardados...

            - infanzón 'lesser nobleman, free man, client': Vilar dos
            Infanzós.

            - marco 'boundary, boundary stone, mark': Marco, Marcadoiro.. .

            - rapar 'to take, to cut, to scrape': Rapa, Rapadas, Rapadoiro...

            - guisa 'way, guise': Vila Guisada...

            And a long etc. Similar toponyms can be found also in France, Italy, and
            even Spain. Of these the most interesting are the various Malburgo and
            Malburguete, since word order is Germanic, and there are similar
            toponyms in France (Maubourguet in Hautes-Pyrènèes, ), Switzerland
            (Mauburguet in Vaud), Italy (Malborghetto in Udine, near Austria) and in
            Germanic countries (Marburg and Maulburg in Germany, Malburgen in the
            Netherlands, Marbourg in Luxemburg... )

            [3.4] There are also plenty of toponyms based on Galician (or Galician
            and Portuguese) exclusive germanisms (there are a some few dozens of
            them, and are still little studied; for the proto-Germanic forms, V.
            Orel, A Handbook of Germanic Etymology
            http://www.scribd. com/doc/21206305 /A-Handbook- of-Germanic- Etymology
            <http://www.scribd. com/doc/21206305 /A-Handbook- of-Germanic- Etymology>
            ):

            laverca 'lark' Ë‚ PGmc *laiwarikôn 'idem',

            meixengra 'titmouse' Ë‚ PGmc *maisôn 'idem' + -ingaz,

            ouva 'sprite, elf' from *auba Ë‚ PGmc *albaz 'elf',

            gueste 'food offered to a group of workers' Ë‚ PGmc *westiz
            'sustenance, food, provisions',

            maga 'guts' Ë‚ PGmc *magôn 'stomach',

            britar 'to break, to destroy' Ë‚ PGmc *breutanan 'idem',

            esmorecer 'to faint, to choke' from ancient esmorir 'idem' Ë‚ PGmc
            *smurjanan 'to choke, to suffocate', gastallar 'to immobilize, to stop,
            to keep in place' Ë‚ PGmc *ga-stelljanan 'to still, to soothe'...

            Some of these toponyms are old, and have very old documentation (before
            C11th), but others could be recent, since many of these words are still
            alive:

            - lobio 'vineyard' (Ë‚ PGmc *laubjôn, related to *lauban
            'foliage' ): Lobio, Lobios, Lóivo, Loxe, Loio... dozens, in Galicia,
            N of Portugal and Asturias.

            - groba 'hole, cave, ravine' ( Ë‚ PGmc *grôbô 'dugout, hole,
            pit'): Groba, Grobas, Encrobas... Dozens.

            - gasalla 'communal property' ( Ë‚ PGmc *ga-salj-, from *saljanan
            'to offer, to give'): Gasalla, several.

            And some others like 'Esculca', 'Esculqueira' 'post of vigilance': less
            than ten, in Galicia and Portugal; 'Gaspalleira' , from gaspallar 'to
            split, trounce' ( Ë‚ PGmc *ga-spelljanan 'to split'), Faísca
            'ash' Ë‚ falisca Ë‚ PGmc *falwiskô 'flying ash'. Etc.

            [3.5] There are some other toponyms based on (locally) unattested
            Germanisms, like:

            - Foristo (in W Asturias, near Galicia), identical with Old High German
            'furisto' 'first', and with no etymology in Latin, Celtic, Basque, Arab
            or any other language historically attested in the area; or like

            - Samos Ë‚ Samanos, a very ancient Galician monastery (it already
            existed in the C7th, although we don't really know when it was founded)
            cf. Old High German 'samanunga' 'community, congregation' (samanos would
            be a latinized form = 'reunited, congregated (men)').

            Maybe also the next, if the first element is the same with the Longobard
            fara 'family group': Frá (Vilalba, Lugo), Frá (Muras, Lugo),
            Fraguizón (Valdoviño, Coruña) Ë‚ *'Fara Wizoni', Faramenga
            (Sada, Coruña) Ë‚ *'Fara Aminga' (?), Fraemelle (Monfero,
            Coruña)...

            [3.6] Other interesting toponyms which shows Germanic influence are
            those based on mixed words, like the Galician and Portuguese 'reguengo'
            'propriety of the king', from ancient *regalingo = regal (='royal',
            Latin) + -ing ('pertaining to', Germanic). There are dozens of these
            places in Galicia and Portugal, under the form Reguengo / Reguenga /
            Vila Reguenga, but they are irrelevant in Spanish speaking provinces (I
            know just three, under the form Realengo). Other toponyms which include
            the -ing Germanic suffix are Faramenga (Sada, Coruña) Ë‚ *'Fara
            Aminga' (?), Meirengos (Ribadeo, Lugo) = `People from (the valley of the
            river) Meira', or Alvarenga in Portugal 'Alvaro's (village)'.

            Well, that's it. I think I've made my point on the Germanic toponymy of
            Galicia, N Portugal, and neighboring territories: these toponyms are
            rather numerous, they are rather diverse too, and they are
            characteristically modeled with Germanic clay in a Roman potter's wheel.
            In fact, when people speak about the post-Roman Germanic kingdoms, the
            Suevi are generally neglected, though they founded a stable kingdom,
            coined money, maintained diplomatic relations with Vandals, Franks,
            Burgundians, Romans and Goths, and even worked out an administrative and
            ecclesiastic reform of their country -in the C6th through a series of
            Councils- which really converted their ethnic kingdom into a territorial
            one (the Kingdom of Galicia, as used by Gregory of Tours)... And when
            their kingdom was taken by the Goths, we know that they kept their lives
            and jobs, and were not punished or substituted -catholic Suevic bishops
            kept their sees under Arrian Goths-, simply annexed. It is probably not
            a coincidence that Galicians counts and settlers had already taken back
            from the Arabs all of the ancient Suevi kingdom by 878, including the
            southernmost Suevic city of Coimbra, while most of Spain up to the
            Pyrenees was still under Arab rule.

            Sorry for the extension. Cheers.

            Cossue.

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