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Shulanda

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  • authari
    Hello friends Last year we made a wide archeological survey in neighborhood of Mangup and Eski-kermen (South-Western Crimea) as a part of RGZM project and
    Message 1 of 6 , Dec 25, 2008
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      Hello friends
      Last year we made a wide archeological survey in neighborhood of
      Mangup and Eski-kermen (South-Western Crimea) as a part of RGZM
      project and found some monuments of Migrations period. Some of it is
      situated near Ternovka village.
      There is a cluster of toponimics with root "Shul": old name of
      Ternovka is Shuli (or Eski-Shul; Eski - tatarian old), Shuldan -
      byzantinian cave monastery and Shulanda.
      Shul is not translateble from tatarian.I asked 84-year old local
      tatarian for translation and he said that it means school
      (not surprising - he worked as a driver for geman officer at
      WWII),nobody can translate it now.
      Local specialists of toponimics (Markevich, Bel'ansky) said that it
      could not be translated from turcic languages. More than that names of
      sites in Crimea ending -anda, -inda, -unda seem like ancient
      (Shulanda, Oreanda, Marsanda(later Massandra), Avinda(Avunda).
      Could be Shul-, Shulanda gothic words? (Shuli valley is core Crimean
      gothic area). Do you have gothic etimology for it?
      Google given me only a mess. Is it a name?
      Thanks in advance.
      Best wishes
      PS
      Coords of Shulanda by Google Earth 44°36'19.90"N 33°42'53.27"E
    • Ingemar Nordgren
      Dear Authari, It is indeed an interesting question you put. I have looked in Hellquist Etymological Dictionary and the word schul is included as middle low
      Message 2 of 6 , Feb 1, 2009
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        Dear Authari,

        It is indeed an interesting question you put. I have looked in
        Hellquist Etymological Dictionary and the word 'schul' is included as
        middle low german for shelter, hut, hiding place, in Swedish we say
        'skjul' for this. The ending '-landa' is connected with the word
        'land', area, firm ground, beach as opposite to sea et c. In the
        specifik form '-landa'in farm- or place names it means in Swedish an
        area of land used by somebody living there in opposite to land that is
        not claimed by anybody particular. As a verb in Sw. landa means to
        land with a boat.

        There is a theory among else proposed by Ottar Grønvik that part of
        the Crimean Goths were of Lowgerman - but not of Dutch, Saxon or
        Jutish - origin - i.e. Westgermanic, but also Scandinavian dialects
        are in bottom just both Northgermanic and Lowgermanic. Still there are
        some toponyms that to me seem just fitting with Dutch and I can as
        well personally think of both Saxon and Jutish. I have written a
        little about Gothic toponyms in the Crimea in my book, The Well Spring
        of the Goths, and I have had good help by an article and good advice
        from professor Alexandra Superanskaya at Academia Naust in Moscow and,
        of course, Vasilievs book. I then have tried to draw some simple
        conclusions myself of the material.

        I give you some excerpts of the book treating this subject but,
        remember, I am not a linguist myself but I rather try to show what
        different experts say.

        Best greetings!
        Ingemar

        ". Busbecq himself saw great similarities with Saxon, and if you look
        to the counting-words I mean they are close to both Northgermanic and
        Westgermanic in the area of the Netherlands – i.e. they have a
        Low-German and Scandinavian similarity of e.g. 31= treithyen och
        41=furdeithien. Loewe regarded them as Heruls and Karsten as a mixture
        of Ostrogoths and Heruls while Krause means they were Goths mixed with
        various Westgermanics. Ernst Schwarz places them among the
        Northgermanics. (Høst 1971, p.45)
        Mac Donald Stearns jr. has made a thorough analysis of the language
        and he puts it together with the Bible-Gothic in the Eastgermanic
        language-group, since it deviates from both Northgermanic and
        Westgermanic. He refers to that the Goths arrived in the Crimea in the
        250's, and it fits with the assumption that the Crimean-Gothic dialect
        should have been extracted some time around 200 AD. He remarks that
        there is a distinct possibility that loan-words and other renewals
        might have come from elsewhere during the passing of time. (Stearns
        1978, s. 118 ff. )

        In Nowele 1995 Ottar Grønvik has written a debate-article where he
        claims that Crimean Gothic is of Westgermanic origin, and he then goes
        out from the latest language-tree variant where Gothic is presupposed
        to come directly from Proto-Germanic, while Northgermanic is secondary
        developed from North-Westgermanic according to the picture below...

        . In Crimean Gothic the old e1 is represented by i and hence it can
        not be of Northgermanic origin, Grønvik claims, but well Westgermanic.
        Later the language has developed together with Gothic, and he from
        this concludes that a Westgermanic people has taken part in the
        migration by the Goths. The origin-area he supports on the single word
        kommen, which he means is the only one among the around hundred
        words from Busbecq that is useable. It's similarity with German leads
        him to place the tribe in the neighbourhood of the Oder or the middle
        Elbe, since he because of this word finds it less probable that it is
        an ingvaeonic language like Anglo-Frisian or Old Saxon. He also
        regards it as a support for polyethnical elements in the Gothic
        migration. (Grønvik 1995, p.75 ff)...

        With regard to that Stearns jr indeed classified it as an Eastgermanic
        language in the Gothic language-family Grønvik is not quite
        convincing. There still exists a possibility that the Crimean Goths
        already from the beginning have been of a polyethnical character
        including both Vistula-Goths, Northgermanics and Westgermanics, or
        that the language in time has been mixed up with new elements. In any
        case it is a little too hasty to decide the area of origin to middle
        Germany with support of a single word. He tries to strenghten his
        argumentation through referring to a paper by Neumann and Düwel 1985,
        where they treat an old city- and river-name Greek Aloúston, today
        Alušta , on the Crimea. The authors have connected this with OHG.
        erila from older elira, OE. alor, OWN. @lr < Germanic *aliz-, *aluz
        and mean that it for a place-name is nessecary to add the suffix -ta-
        (Germanic *alusta-/*alista-, cf.. Lat. arbustum `equipped with
        trees'). They refer to the Westphalian river-name Alst (12th c. Alest)
        and to the Dutch place-name Aalst (a. 866 Alost) and Elst (a. 911
        Eliste). Grønvik's analysis of the wovels, however, seems rather
        convincing, but it should in that case as well be possible to
        interpret it as Anglo-Frisian. Specially so since Aalst and Elst occur
        in the argumentation. I have above suggested that also the Jutes,
        Ýtas, 'the outpoured' should be included in the Gothic cultic area,
        and then it is in no way preposterous to assume possible connections
        with neighbouring Anglic tribes. Grønvik also remarks that e1 in ON.
        was a which is found on rune-stones from the 3rd c. and forward, but
        how rapidly that developement grasped over all tribes in
        South-Scandinavia is still unknown, since the inscriptions often are
        judged as a special runic coiné, applicated by rune-masters working
        over vast areas. Their evidence-value hence is disputed. Grønvik
        however has a clear point when he demonstrates the thinkable size of
        the origin-area with polyethnical components in the language. This
        indeed strenghtens my thesis, that it was not primarily the language
        but the religious origin that united the Goths – they all had an
        ancestry from Gaut, the outpourer, they simply were 'the humans',
        'the outpoured'. Grønvik indeed later claims that Gaut was an early
        name of Óðinn which appeared on the Continent and spread northwards
        (Grønvik 1995, p.89 ff), but his arguments are in this case not
        convincing regarding that all those peoples/dynasties who claim
        ancestry from Gaut also claim to come from the Scandinavian area, or
        are confirmed to come from there. There still is a certain strenght in
        the suggestion that the Crimean Goths represent an at least partly
        polyethnical mixture, if you assume that a considerable number
        originally were Ingvaeones, who lived in the outskirts of the Gothic
        influence-area, and had longer than the Goths stayed with the old
        fertility-cultic habits. This namely could possibly explain why they
        never took the Arianism but all the time in the Christian epoch were
        loyal to the Romano-Greek church of Constantinople which with
        Teodosius became the catholic, universal church. This explanation
        concerning polyethnicity also could support that some of them also
        might have been Heruls. They emigrated early from Scandinavia and so
        they might have been exposed to different linguistic influences on the
        Continent before they lined up with the Goths in the Pontic area. They
        besides are actually confirmed as Gothic allies and are known to have
        lived close to the Ostrogoths/Greutungi and were active on the Black
        Sea with maritime warfare. They are not counted as Goths from the
        beginning, but a number of remaining Heruls well could have been
        Gothizised in the same manner as other originally non-Goths, and like
        other non-Goths it should be as natural for them to accept the Greek
        creed as I suggested for the Ingvaeones. In any case, in my opinion, a
        possible Westgermanic people on the Crimea must have an origin west or
        north of Germany.

        Concerning the last Crimean Goths Supeanskaya however has an own
        opinion. F.A. Braun (1890) has in Zhyvaya Starina told about a
        journey he undertook to Mariupol on the northern shore of the Sea of
        Asov, whereto the Crimean Greek had been forced to move in 1877 from
        the Bakhchisarai-region under the impression that Catharina the Great
        wanted to protect the Christian against Islam. In reality the
        migration weakened the base of the reign of the kahn on the Crimea and
        led to a later Russian annectation of the peninsula. Braun searched
        for possible Gothic population-remnants. There were 25 villages in the
        vicinity of Mariupol, where the transferred Greeks lived. Some of them
        spoke Greek, other Tatar-languages but nobody spoke a Germanic or
        distantly reminding language. Braun however in every village found
        several persons he meant were of Gothic etnicity with blond hair, blue
        eyes, high-grown and also more corpulent than the Greeks and the
        Tatars. One of them had the nick-name Chalbasch – the white-head.
        These Superanskay beleives were the last Crimean Goths.
        (Superanskaya1995, pers.com.)
        A Tataric researcher, Kurtiyev, has found traces after the Goths in i
        Uskyt (present Privetnoye). The place Iskyt also was of great interest
        out of an ethnographical point of wiew, since the place had name in
        two languages, and there were peculiarities in the way of living and
        the clothing-habits of the population. There also occured the
        person-name Gafrid - probably Gottfrid Superanskaya writes, and she
        supposes also that the place-names might refer to the Scyths, since
        the Goths were called so in the beginning. She besides points out that
        in 1944 all non-Slavs (except of the Karaites) were deported from the
        Crimea, and almost all place-names were changed, which she quite
        correctly regards as a toponymic genocide. (Superanskaya 1992, p.144 f)
        The Goths on the Crimea, Superanskaya means, sometimes may be regarded
        as polyethnonyms, since Goths to the Greeks was a collective name of
        all Germanic tribes as an opposite to non-Germanics, occasionally also
        a tribal union but not nessecarily a Germanic such. This is quite
        interesting considering my basic claim the Goths primarily from the
        beginning were a cultic league or, else formulated, just a tribal
        religious union – not nessecarily a political. Other Gothic ethnonyms
        are tetraxites and trapezites but they do not include all Crimean
        Goths. The Trapezites have got name after their living-space at the
        mountain Trapezus, and some beleive that these Goths have founded the
        city Trapezunt on the Caucasian side of the Black Sea. Tetraxites were
        those Goths inhabiting the peninsulae Taman and Kertch. Procopius
        mentiones them as another ethnical group than the Crimean Goths. Their
        capital was Fanagoria close to Anapa, and they shall according to
        Procopius have lived at Kertch since 275 AD.
        Superanskaya beleives it is possible that tetraxites
        (Greek.) come from  tetra: four, fourth taxis:
        `class, order, troup'. The Goths were divided in three groups
        –Eastgoths, Westgoths and Gepids. The Tetraxites might have been
        differed from them rather early, she suggests, and they were divided
        from the other Goths through marshes and hence had difficulties to
        keep in touch. They accordingly are "the fourth group", she proposes.
        Vasilyevsk (1912) compares Tmutarakan in the old Russian sources with
        Tetraxites/Tmetraxitei and thinks that the name of this old Russian
        princedom might be derived from the name of this Gothic nation.
        Vasilyevsk also compares other names on the Taman-peninsula,
        Greek. and Lat. Matrica, Matercha, to prove the possibility
        of such an adaptation. Superanskaya here sees a possibility that this
        could explain the mentioning of "the Gothic maidens at the beach of
        the blue sea".(Superanskaya 1992, p.145)
        Concerning the place-names – the toponyms – she points out the
        difficulties with more than 40 languages with many dialects, and that
        the Gothic elements in place-names not could be preserved in their
        original form, since the Goths not were the first on Crimea. When they
        arrived many places had already got their names and other in time got
        Turkish names. The single one which is undisputed is Gothia. She
        however remarks that the borders of Gothia are differently described
        by the authors. Sometimes it is confined to the Belbek-river/Kuchuk
        Uzenbash/Kap Ai-Thodor, but sometimes the whole southern coast of the
        Crimea is included. Many of the places where the Goths lived later got
        Turkish names, and here she mentiones Mangup Kale which was the new
        name of Doro. It means 'destroyed fortress'. DorosGreek,
        was the capital of the Goths until it was
        conquered and destroyed, and the meaning of the name is disputed, but
        by all evidents to judge of Greek descent. The oldest Gothic graves
        are from the 5th to the 7th cc, and characteristic for all
        pre-Christian graves in Gothic areas is, according to Repnikov(1932),
        that no weapons have been found. (Superanskaya 1992, p.146)
        A Crimean-Gothic name which may be of a certain interest is the word
        Fula/Fulli (Greek. , ). Superanskaya says that
        several researchers mean that it only exists one such name, but she
        herself has a long list. The for us most interesting are the forms
        Pula, Phyle and Thulle. The Romans beleived that Fulla was a legendary
        land in the north, and Goethe wrote a ballad about the king living in
        Fula/Thule. It is hard to know if all these forms are the same word,
        and the Russian letter can replace both ph and th Superanskaya
        comments. (Superanskaya 1992, p.147)"

        Here, NB, is a really hot spot concerning the original -landa question:

        "There are a considerable number of -sala-names within the Gothic
        areas on the Crimea but no Upsala. About these names Superanskaya writes:
        The element –sala is of Indo-European origin. It is a place-name. Cf.
        the Germanic name Salaber (sala `place, house and ber(th) `perfect,
        radiating'). The element –sala takes the first position in the
        personal name and the second position in a place-name. Further it
        easily might be connected with Turkish elements; Bughaz Sala (bughaz =
        mountain-pass), Suuk Sala (suuk = sour), Kodzhasala (kodzha is an
        honorary title). (Superanskaya 1992, p.148)
        The –sala -names accordingly can not be used to prove a North- or
        West-Germanic origin, but still there is a distinct possibility that
        some of the –sala-names might be Gothic.
        Other toponymic endings in the area are among else -anda, -inda,
        -unda, -onda. Examples of such place-names are Avonda/Avunda, Lunda
        och Terskunda. Here is according to Superanskaya a similarity with
        Germanic, and she writes:

        There are different hypothesis regarding their origin. A.Carnoy (195l,
        p.102) mentiones the old French term warande `protected place, park,
        fence'. The word is still used in the Netherlands. (Superanskaya 1992,
        p.148)

        Here, accordingly, exists a possible connection to a Westgermanic
        origin for parts of the Crimean Goths, and then rather an
        Anglo-Frisian. It is however not possible to disregard that Rus and
        Varjags of supposed Scandinavian origin also have ben extant in the
        area later, and hence might have affected the toponymic geography."




        --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "authari" <authari@...> wrote:
        >
        > Hello friends
        > Last year we made a wide archeological survey in neighborhood of
        > Mangup and Eski-kermen (South-Western Crimea) as a part of RGZM
        > project and found some monuments of Migrations period. Some of it is
        > situated near Ternovka village.
        > There is a cluster of toponimics with root "Shul": old name of
        > Ternovka is Shuli (or Eski-Shul; Eski - tatarian old), Shuldan -
        > byzantinian cave monastery and Shulanda.
        > Shul is not translateble from tatarian.I asked 84-year old local
        > tatarian for translation and he said that it means school
        > (not surprising - he worked as a driver for geman officer at
        > WWII),nobody can translate it now.
        > Local specialists of toponimics (Markevich, Bel'ansky) said that it
        > could not be translated from turcic languages. More than that names of
        > sites in Crimea ending -anda, -inda, -unda seem like ancient
        > (Shulanda, Oreanda, Marsanda(later Massandra), Avinda(Avunda).
        > Could be Shul-, Shulanda gothic words? (Shuli valley is core Crimean
        > gothic area). Do you have gothic etimology for it?
        > Google given me only a mess. Is it a name?
        > Thanks in advance.
        > Best wishes
        > PS
        > Coords of Shulanda by Google Earth 44°36'19.90"N 33°42'53.27"E
        >
      • Ingemar Nordgren
        Dear Authari, I should of course have concluded with suggestion for Shulanda. I beleive it means simply The refuge, shelter or hut-cabin within a fenced
        Message 3 of 6 , Feb 1, 2009
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          Dear Authari,

          I should of course have concluded with suggestion for Shulanda. I
          beleive it means simply 'The refuge, shelter or hut-cabin within a
          fenced area', which could be a good name also for a village. I see it
          as a Germanic word but if it is Wulfilan Gothic or influenced by
          North- or Westgermanic is an open question.
          Best
          Ingemar
        • Ingemar Nordgren
          ... I have been delving for a while on my suggestion below and must add that it simply could be a term used of a fortification, a fortress or a fortified
          Message 4 of 6 , Feb 2, 2009
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            --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "Ingemar Nordgren" <ingemar@...> wrote:

            I have been delving for a while on my suggestion below and must add
            that it simply could be a term used of a fortification, a fortress or
            a fortified village and hence not a real unique place name but a
            functional name. Pick your choice!

            Best
            Ingemar


            > Dear Authari,
            >
            > I should of course have concluded with suggestion for Shulanda. I
            > beleive it means simply 'The refuge, shelter or hut-cabin within a
            > fenced area', which could be a good name also for a village. I see it
            > as a Germanic word but if it is Wulfilan Gothic or influenced by
            > North- or Westgermanic is an open question.
            > Best
            > Ingemar
            >
          • authari
            Dear Ingemar Thank you for information. Just some notices. Your etimolomology fits situation very well. Shulanda is on a plateau near mountain pass through
            Message 5 of 6 , Feb 3, 2009
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              Dear Ingemar
              Thank you for information.
              Just some notices. Your etimolomology fits situation very well.
              Shulanda is on a plateau near mountain pass through rock perimeter.
              This pass id blocked by fortress wall of rubble stone. There is also a
              concentration of stone constructions with Late Roman pottery. Shulanda
              is only 2-3 kilometers from Eski-Kermen â€" Byzantine fortress built in
              6-7 cc. Some kilometers to the West from Shulanda excavated
              cemeteries Saharnaja Golovka, Inkerman and Chornaja rechka with
              cremations and other Germanic features.
              Some notices
              It was surprising for me to read about Germanic origin of Alusta
              toponim because it has very good greek explanation. Aluston and
              Gorzubitae were build by Justinian the Great and are inside an area of
              distribution of cemeteries Type Suuk-su (with some Germanic features).
              As for the Uskut it is outside Gothic area (most eastern cemetery of
              this type at South Coast partly excavated by Lysenko and Teslenko two
              years ago at Semidvorje â€" several kilometers to the east from
              Alushta). Kurtiev is never mentioned in works of any serious
              scientist; he is not researcher but story writer. Superanskaya’s
              collection of toponims (it is not a map, no map provided) is of almost
              no value â€" all of it taken from popular books and turistic maps, even
              I know more. Crimean toponimics is not lost â€" almost all of it were
              collected by recently dead Bel’ansky. He put several thousands of it
              on the map (I have a copy, sorry it is still unpublished).
              Tatarian onomastics are extremely surprising mixture. Now among most
              popular names is Marlen (Marx-Lenin), Lemara (Lenin-Marx) and many of
              turcic, Arabian, Slavic, Caucasian, Persian, Cenral Asian origin.
              Local bureau of passport registration gone crazy when they had
              repatriated. Some of it has no uniform pronunciation (several
              variants). It was said about Gafrid.

              As for the archeological evidences of Crimean goths. There are near
              one hundred cemeteries of 6-9 cc AD (some of it started even in late
              4th century) known as catacomb cemetries of type Suuk-su and disposed
              in the South coast and SW Crimea (to the west from Alma river).
              Let you turn to publications of A.I. Ajbabin. (he had excavated
              Luchistoje, Eski-kermen, Bakla and some more sites and issued some
              pornographies and plenty of articles.
              More than that two cemetries with cremations and weapons of 4-5 cc AD
              (Ay-Todor near Oreanda and Chatyr-Dag near Alushta) are Germanic but
              not Gothic (may be herulian). Near Partenites (between Yalta and
              Alushta) they had excavated Late Roman sanctuary Aligora with bif
              fireplace, crashed glass vessel, terra sigilata and hand made pottery
              dated by coins of Gallian usurpers (Tetric etc). It was possible
              German mercenaries or pirates.
              Ay-Todor excavated and published in several articles of Orlov in 80-ies.
              Chatyr-Dag are receintly published as a book
              Several cemeteries with cremations are also excavated or found around
              Chersones (now all of it are robbed).
              Germans at Kerch peninsula is a separate tale; now I don’t want touch it.

              Mangup.
              Archeological expedition of Tavrian National univ. (Simferopol)
              excavates this site for decades. Very few material is published.
              Dissertation of prof. Alexander Gertsen about fortifications system
              (Russian lang.) issued in 1990 now is accessible via internet- if
              anybody need I will find the link Last years we get material which
              proved that fortress was built not at the time of Justinian but
              earlier â€"V century. Settlement at Mangup plateau with Late Roman
              material existed even in the and of IV c AD. Material from Lagernaya
              Balka gives except pottery, amphorae (mostly imported) terra sigilata,
              coins and animal bones also some fibulae of pure Chernjahov type.
              There are several catacomb cemetries of 4-9 cc at the outskirts of
              Mangup. I had excavated some. Two months ago finished works of
              Sidorenko at cemetery of 6-8 cc near Khodzha-sala.
              Most important cemetery is Almalyk â€" it gives rich comlices of late 4
              â€" late 8 cc AD. Ther are some graves with luxury finds of type
              Untersiebenbrunn. It even not only similar â€" some is identical. Here
              also fount one cremation grave, two kurgans and horse graves (similar
              to Djurso cemetery near Anapa â€" which belonged as they think to
              tetraxites). We found there also some swords (2 short and 2 spatha),
              many arrowheads of hunnic type and plates of bone for bows.
              One spath with silber buckles was fount in a separate pit inside
              chamber grave â€" it was hidden.
              Two years I have found in a grave of early 6 c. an umbo (shield-boss)
              of type very close to Horula. Seems like swords was not rare here
              â€" there are many pieces of it found with a flintstones in sets for
              ignition, but it was not common to put it inside grave. This fact is
              surprised a bit because this population was alano-gothic mixture and
              for alans swords in graves are common.
              Materials of near 100 graves of Almalyk and some nearest cemetries of
              this type is now processed by Dr. Magdalena Manczynska (Lodz) and this
              year I hope will be published as a catalogue in Germany.
              RGZM taken samples of 30 skeletons of DNA from Almalyk â€" soon we will
              know results
              I have many publications in PDF (like Chatyr-Dag, Sacharnaya Golovka
              (Sovkhoz 10) etc.
              If anybody need it I can put it on rapidshare. Sorry it is Russian
              language.

              The best book about Goths in Ukraine and Crimea is MB Schukin “Gotskij
              Put’” â€" “Gothish way” â€" in it you can find almost all bibliography.
              http://rapidshare.com/files/85431329/Shukin_Gotish_way.pdf.html

              I have made a website about Mangup excavations
              It has English version. http://mangexp.narod.ru/index.html


              Some photos from Almalyk
              Glass bowl from chamber grave 2 (5th century)- 3D reconstruction
              http://img167.imageshack.us/img167/9185/glassmiswh1.jpg

              Artificially deformed scull from Chamber grave 191 (early 6 cent)
              http://img261.imageshack.us/img261/5479/scull1lm3.jpg

              Inside a chamber grave
              http://img261.imageshack.us/img261/1172/ksjuqj4.jpg

              Gold anthropomorphic plates (V c AD)
              http://img86.imageshack.us/img86/8719/plaquesqw4.jpg

              Best wishes
              Serge
            • Ingemar Nordgren
              Hi Authari! I am glad you could use my suggestion. Thank you for your very thorough report about the last results in the Crimea! My very best wishes! Ingemar
              Message 6 of 6 , Feb 5, 2009
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                Hi Authari!

                I am glad you could use my suggestion. Thank you for your very
                thorough report about the last results in the Crimea!

                My very best wishes!
                Ingemar


                --- In gothic-l@yahoogroups.com, "authari" <authari@...> wrote:
                >
                > Dear Ingemar
                > Thank you for information.
                > Just some notices. Your etimolomology fits situation very well.
                > Shulanda is on a plateau near mountain pass through rock perimeter.
                > This pass id blocked by fortress wall of rubble stone. There is also a
                > concentration of stone constructions with Late Roman pottery. Shulanda
                > is only 2-3 kilometers from Eski-Kermen â€" Byzantine fortress built in
                > 6-7 cc. Some kilometers to the West from Shulanda excavated
                > cemeteries Saharnaja Golovka, Inkerman and Chornaja rechka with
                > cremations and other Germanic features.
                > Some notices
                > It was surprising for me to read about Germanic origin of Alusta
                > toponim because it has very good greek explanation. Aluston and
                > Gorzubitae were build by Justinian the Great and are inside an area of
                > distribution of cemeteries Type Suuk-su (with some Germanic features).
                > As for the Uskut it is outside Gothic area (most eastern cemetery of
                > this type at South Coast partly excavated by Lysenko and Teslenko two
                > years ago at Semidvorje â€" several kilometers to the east from
                > Alushta). Kurtiev is never mentioned in works of any serious
                > scientist; he is not researcher but story writer. Superanskaya’s
                > collection of toponims (it is not a map, no map provided) is of almost

                > no value â€" all of it taken from popular books and turistic maps, even
                > I know more. Crimean toponimics is not lost â€" almost all of it were
                > collected by recently dead Bel’ansky. He put several thousands of it
                > on the map (I have a copy, sorry it is still unpublished).
                > Tatarian onomastics are extremely surprising mixture. Now among most
                > popular names is Marlen (Marx-Lenin), Lemara (Lenin-Marx) and many of
                > turcic, Arabian, Slavic, Caucasian, Persian, Cenral Asian origin.
                > Local bureau of passport registration gone crazy when they had
                > repatriated. Some of it has no uniform pronunciation (several
                > variants). It was said about Gafrid.
                >
                > As for the archeological evidences of Crimean goths. There are near
                > one hundred cemeteries of 6-9 cc AD (some of it started even in late
                > 4th century) known as catacomb cemetries of type Suuk-su and disposed
                > in the South coast and SW Crimea (to the west from Alma river).
                > Let you turn to publications of A.I. Ajbabin. (he had excavated
                > Luchistoje, Eski-kermen, Bakla and some more sites and issued some
                > pornographies and plenty of articles.
                > More than that two cemetries with cremations and weapons of 4-5 cc AD
                > (Ay-Todor near Oreanda and Chatyr-Dag near Alushta) are Germanic but
                > not Gothic (may be herulian). Near Partenites (between Yalta and
                > Alushta) they had excavated Late Roman sanctuary Aligora with bif
                > fireplace, crashed glass vessel, terra sigilata and hand made pottery
                > dated by coins of Gallian usurpers (Tetric etc). It was possible
                > German mercenaries or pirates.
                > Ay-Todor excavated and published in several articles of Orlov in 80-ies.
                > Chatyr-Dag are receintly published as a book
                > Several cemeteries with cremations are also excavated or found around
                > Chersones (now all of it are robbed).
                > Germans at Kerch peninsula is a separate tale; now I don’t want
                touch it.
                >
                > Mangup.
                > Archeological expedition of Tavrian National univ. (Simferopol)
                > excavates this site for decades. Very few material is published.
                > Dissertation of prof. Alexander Gertsen about fortifications system
                > (Russian lang.) issued in 1990 now is accessible via internet- if
                > anybody need I will find the link Last years we get material which
                > proved that fortress was built not at the time of Justinian but
                > earlier â€"V century. Settlement at Mangup plateau with Late Roman
                > material existed even in the and of IV c AD. Material from Lagernaya
                > Balka gives except pottery, amphorae (mostly imported) terra sigilata,
                > coins and animal bones also some fibulae of pure Chernjahov type.
                > There are several catacomb cemetries of 4-9 cc at the outskirts of
                > Mangup. I had excavated some. Two months ago finished works of
                > Sidorenko at cemetery of 6-8 cc near Khodzha-sala.
                > Most important cemetery is Almalyk â€" it gives rich comlices of late 4
                > â€" late 8 cc AD. Ther are some graves with luxury finds of type
                > Untersiebenbrunn. It even not only similar â€" some is identical. Here
                > also fount one cremation grave, two kurgans and horse graves (similar
                > to Djurso cemetery near Anapa â€" which belonged as they think to
                > tetraxites). We found there also some swords (2 short and 2 spatha),
                > many arrowheads of hunnic type and plates of bone for bows.
                > One spath with silber buckles was fount in a separate pit inside
                > chamber grave â€" it was hidden.
                > Two years I have found in a grave of early 6 c. an umbo (shield-boss)
                > of type very close to Horula. Seems like swords was not rare here
                > â€" there are many pieces of it found with a flintstones in sets for
                > ignition, but it was not common to put it inside grave. This fact is
                > surprised a bit because this population was alano-gothic mixture and
                > for alans swords in graves are common.
                > Materials of near 100 graves of Almalyk and some nearest cemetries of
                > this type is now processed by Dr. Magdalena Manczynska (Lodz) and this
                > year I hope will be published as a catalogue in Germany.
                > RGZM taken samples of 30 skeletons of DNA from Almalyk â€" soon we will
                > know results
                > I have many publications in PDF (like Chatyr-Dag, Sacharnaya Golovka
                > (Sovkhoz 10) etc.
                > If anybody need it I can put it on rapidshare. Sorry it is Russian
                > language.
                >
                > The best book about Goths in Ukraine and Crimea is MB Schukin “Gotskij
                > Put’” â€" “Gothish way” â€" in it you can find almost all
                bibliography.
                > http://rapidshare.com/files/85431329/Shukin_Gotish_way.pdf.html
                >
                > I have made a website about Mangup excavations
                > It has English version. http://mangexp.narod.ru/index.html
                >
                >
                > Some photos from Almalyk
                > Glass bowl from chamber grave 2 (5th century)- 3D reconstruction
                > http://img167.imageshack.us/img167/9185/glassmiswh1.jpg
                >
                > Artificially deformed scull from Chamber grave 191 (early 6 cent)
                > http://img261.imageshack.us/img261/5479/scull1lm3.jpg
                >
                > Inside a chamber grave
                > http://img261.imageshack.us/img261/1172/ksjuqj4.jpg
                >
                > Gold anthropomorphic plates (V c AD)
                > http://img86.imageshack.us/img86/8719/plaquesqw4.jpg
                >
                > Best wishes
                > Serge
                >
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