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Fwd: FYI: NC Indian History - Jernigan's and Coree Indians

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  • Jewelle Baker
    ... [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 9, 2001
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      >Date: Tue, 9 Oct 2001 10:50:50 -0500
      >From: "Fairfax, Dan" <DFairfax@...>
      >Subject: [NC-SC] NC Indian History - Jernigan's and Coree Indians
      >Could be a good start for all of our Indian Heritage loose roots in NC and
      >THANKS GWJCAL@...
      >Who Are The Coree?
      >"The fate of the Chicora Nation is a strange blank place in our history. The
      >Coree lacuna is an abscess that no one wants opened since we have forgotten
      >its origin and have become accustomed to the pain."
      >Al Pate
      >We are privileged to be able to experience a Wondrous World...that of the
      >Internet and all the wonders residing therein. Depending on your expertise
      >and interests this World can be an aimless maze or, as I hope it has become
      >for those of you who are reading this particular page, it has become place
      >of comfort and learning. Conflict too...but, even midst the conflict
      >education is taking place. Yes?
      >It has been my privilege, due to involvement in Lee Sultzman's work with the
      >Compact First Nations Histories, to encounter a gentleman who has written a
      >wonderful piece of work, The Coree Are Not Extinct. This writing sees the
      >first light of day here at First Nations...I find this pretty damn
      >I've asked Lee Sultzman to educate me (thence you) re the Coree and am
      >offering his advice here so that you will have some idea as to what may be
      >coming on following pages...Lee's advice has absolutely nothing to do with
      >The Coree Are Not Extinct. I offer that advice here only so as to introduce
      >those who have never heard of the Coree to a sense of what the word means.
      >One last comment...unravelling history seems to me to be a tedious process.
      >It requires a peculiar dedication and committment...and, as I see it
      >"historians" are going to disagree as to what is what. However, it is the
      >*basis* of this disagreement that actually furthers the unravelling...see?
      >In agreeing to disagree Al and Lee are carrying on this grand tradition..and
      >we, the Armchair CyberNauts, can do naught but sit back and marvel at the
      >marvel they unfold...JS Dill.
      >Lee Sultzman now speaks...Just east of the original Cherokee homeland
      >resided a number of Nations:
      >Hassinunga, Manahoac (Mahock), Ontponea, Shackonia, Stegaraki (Stenkenock),
      >Tauxitania (Tanx), Tegninateo, Whonkentia, Massinacac, Meipontsky,
      >Mohemencho, Monacan (Manakin), Monahassano (Nahyssan), Monasiccapano,
      >Moneton, Occaneechi, Saponi, Tutelo, Adshusheer, Backhook, Cape Fear
      >(Neccoes), Cheraw (Sara, Saraw, Saura, Sauro. Their Cherokee name was the
      >Sauali), Congaree, Eno (Enoree), Hook, Keyauwee, Nahyssan, Pedee, Santee,
      >Saxaphaw, Sewee, Shakori (Shoccoree), Shuteree, Sissipahaw, Sugaree,
      >Waccamaw, Warrennuncock, Wateree, Waxhaw, Winyaw, Woccon.
      >Collectively, these peoples are what I prefer to call, because of their
      >related Siouan languages, the Southeastern Siouan, and as you can see, there
      >were a bunch of them. Just to be on the safe side on what is meant by
      >"related languages" ...these conclusions are based on the certain core words
      >(man, woman, etc.) and/or common gramatical structure and do imply that that
      >there was mutual intellibility. Catawba and a Lakota speakers would have as
      >much difficulty understanding each other as for instance, a Greek and a
      >Most of the Southeastern Siouan ended up as part of the Catawba during the
      >1700s. Several groups also moved north during this period and joined the
      >Iroquois covenant chain in Pennsylvania and New York, and others simply
      >remained in remote areas of the Carolinas and were gradually absorbed by the
      >general population. That is until recently, when they have started coming
      >out of the woodwork like the group in Virginia (whose name I forget) which
      >you inquired about last spring. The largest present-day group-, the Lumbee,
      >however, seem to be descended from Algonquin-speakers. At least this is what
      >their tradition says because of the lost Roanoke Colony (Virginia Dare and
      >all that). From their location in Robeson County NC, it would seem more
      >likely that the Lumbee were Siouan, but who knows, and I have not found any
      >reason to dispute their claim.
      >Not much has been written about the Southeastern Siouan tribes relative to
      >the Algonquin-speaking Powhatan and the Tsalagi who spoke an Iroquian
      >language, but they were generally organized into small and independent bands
      >which were generally hostile to both the neighboring Tsalagi and Powhatan at
      >the time that Jamestown was settled in 1607. Their initial contact with
      >Europeans began much earlier through a series of Spanish slave raids along
      >the Carolina coasts during the early 1500s which originated from Cuba and
      >Puerto Rico. One of these, led by Pedro de Quejo and Francisco Gordillo and
      >funded by Lucas Vsquez de Aylln, landed at Winyaw Bay SC in 1521 and
      >captured 60 people. Because of sickness, only a few of these prisoners lived
      >to reach Cuba, but they lasted long enough for the Spanish to learn that
      >they called either themselves or their homeland Chicora. One young warrior
      >did survive the capture and voyage south, and after an apparent conversion
      >to Christianity, was renamed Francisco of Chicora. Francisco volunteered to
      >serve the Spanish as a guide and interpreter, and in 1525 Aylln sent Quejo
      >back to area with two ships and 60 men. Francisco accompanied the
      >expedition, but the Spanish had no sooner hit the beach than he took to the
      >woods. Aylln later attempted to establish a permanent settlement on the SC
      >and GA coast but this failed soon after he got ill and died. Note that all
      >of these things occurrred 15-20 years before De Soto's grand tour of the
      >region in 1539-43.
      >Anyway, that is where the name of Chicora originated. Which tribe was this?
      >People have been trying to figure this out ever since. Was there ever a
      >Chicora Nation? Rather doubt this myself because as far as I can tell, the
      >Southeastern Siouan tribes were never organized politically much beyond the
      >village or band level until encouraged to do so by the SC colonists after
      >1720 when Iroquois war parties began to terrorize the region. Even then, the
      >individual Siouan tribes were very reluctant to surrender their individual
      >identities, traditions, and leadership.
      >Al [the author of The Coree Are Not Extinct] proposes that the Coree were
      >the Chicora, but others have suggested the Shakori as better possibility. A
      >lot of these names sound pretty alike, especially after being mauled though
      >different European languages over the years. No one knows and few care, but
      >Al has apparently done a lot of digging where "angels fear to tread" which,
      >because of the obvious implications of racial mixing, has been shoved under
      >the carpet, and I would be very interested in looking a good look at what he
      >has found. However, it appears that he has fallen love with "his tribe"
      >since he has some pretty harsh words for other tribes: i.e., the Tuscarora
      >and Cherokee were vassels of the Iroquois and British; the Catawba were the
      >butt-end of different tribes; and he seems to concluded that the Cofachiqui
      >were Siouan speakers. It seems fairly certain that the Cofachiqui who were
      >visited by De Soto in the spring of 1540 were Muskogean speakers (related to
      >the Creek) who had moved into the Columbia SC area from the southwest during
      >the 1300s. According to the De Soto Chronicles, the Cofachiqui had a lot of
      >Mississippian cultural characteristics (mounds, temples, priests, ossaries
      >or bone houses). The Southeastern Siouan tribes were matrilineal and farmed,
      >but beyond this had none of these other traits....Lee Sultzman
      >So...now you have some sense of what might have been, what might be,
      >actually...and we can move on...it is with great pleasure I welcome you to a
      >Prologue to The Coree Are Not Extinct .
      >Who are the Coree
      >Family History Relating to the Coree Indians
      >The Historical Problem
      >Coree - Intro
      >Coree - Chapter One
      >Coree - Chapter Twelve
      >Coree - Chapter Twenty
      >Coree - Chapter Twenty-eight
      >Coree - Chapter Thirty-one
      >Coree - Chapter Thirty-two
      >This site is maintained by JS Dill.
      >Please provide an opinion regarding this site...
      >-----Original Message-----
      >From: GWJCAL@... [mailto:GWJCAL@...]
      >Sent: Sunday, October 07, 2001 5:55 PM
      >Subject: [JERNIGAN-L] Jernigan's and Coree Indians
      > <A HREF="http://www.dickshovel.com/coreeal.html">Click here: Coree?</A>
      >Barna Jernigan, was the grandson of my great x 5 grandfather "Lame David"
      >Jernigan, the grandfather of Christian Ammons Pate. Barner Jernigan, his
      >brother Lovett, his and grandfather David, were all three hung for
      >in Wayne, Duplin and Sampson Counties arising out of the War of 1812, in
      >which they were allied with Indians.
      >They were accused of stealing and transporting slaves to Georgia for sale.
      >These slaves had been subsisting as families in the woods for over eight
      >months, when the Jernigans became involved with them, and I believe these
      >slave were Indians, in lifestyle and identity--with perhaps some African and
      >European ancestry.
      >"Lame David" Jernigan ran to his friend "Round-Headed Billy" Powell, for
      >asylum, after murdering Sheriff John Coor-Pender. However, when 18-year-old
      >Paul Coor-Pender (son of Sheriff Coor-Pender) went to apprehend him, Powell
      >turned the old man over to him.
      >The Wayne County Jernigans were served badly by the War of 1812 and
      >subsequent events, that resulted in the hanging of a beloved patriarch, and
      >two of his most promising grandsons.Most of the Jernigans ended up south of
      >Neuse River, where there were many Jacobses, Wynns, Carrs, Simmonses,
      >Hedgepeths, Ammones, Bakers and other families associated with North
      >Siouan tribes. These folks were a varied lot. Some were holders of slaves.
      >Some were free. Some were not. Some had "something". Others had a lot of
      >debt. Conflicts ran high, and political strife was polarized between
      >and Patetown. "Lame David" Jernigan, a disgruntled hero of the Revolutionary
      >War, was a founder of Waynesboro.
      >Waynesboro was poorly sited. The site for the county seat should have been
      >high ground, at Everettsville, south of the Neuse, or north of the river on
      >the present site of Cherry Hospital, where a Siouan town survived after
      >Torhunta's destruction. In 1740 the Quaker Kennedy family came into Wayne
      >County and settled in the present day area of Cherry Hospital and O'Berry
      >Center, and began to buy up slaves to ameliorate their condition. This was a
      >source of agitation and conflict during the Civil War, for which the
      >suffered greatly.There's real drama in our East Carolina history.
      >Inter-tribal Indian warfare provided much of it. Early and late in their
      >history, the Carolina Siouans sided wrong in wars, however.
      >The Coree were officially doomed to oblivion, the cultural and economic
      >equivalent of annihilation, even though most of the common folk hid in the
      >woods and watched the massacres at Torhunta and Neooheroka. I hope younger
      >students of our history will go to the old records about what I've tried to
      >explain, and tell the story more sympathetically to the people who were
      >driven from their homes, to make way for European settlement. The politics,
      >economics and sociology of the Coree history is complex.
      >Grant Johnston, Chico, CA
      >Maybe the grass is really greener on the other side of the fence. But it's
      >probably because your neighbor uses more fertilizer and water.
      > -----------------------------------------------

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