Fwd: FYI: NC Indian History - Jernigan's and Coree Indians
>Date: Tue, 9 Oct 2001 10:50:50 -0500[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
>From: "Fairfax, Dan" <DFairfax@...>
>Subject: [NC-SC] NC Indian History - Jernigan's and Coree Indians
>Could be a good start for all of our Indian Heritage loose roots in NC and
>Who Are The Coree?
>"The fate of the Chicora Nation is a strange blank place in our history. The
>Coree lacuna is an abscess that no one wants opened since we have forgotten
>its origin and have become accustomed to the pain."
>We are privileged to be able to experience a Wondrous World...that of the
>Internet and all the wonders residing therein. Depending on your expertise
>and interests this World can be an aimless maze or, as I hope it has become
>for those of you who are reading this particular page, it has become place
>of comfort and learning. Conflict too...but, even midst the conflict
>education is taking place. Yes?
>It has been my privilege, due to involvement in Lee Sultzman's work with the
>Compact First Nations Histories, to encounter a gentleman who has written a
>wonderful piece of work, The Coree Are Not Extinct. This writing sees the
>first light of day here at First Nations...I find this pretty damn
>I've asked Lee Sultzman to educate me (thence you) re the Coree and am
>offering his advice here so that you will have some idea as to what may be
>coming on following pages...Lee's advice has absolutely nothing to do with
>The Coree Are Not Extinct. I offer that advice here only so as to introduce
>those who have never heard of the Coree to a sense of what the word means.
>One last comment...unravelling history seems to me to be a tedious process.
>It requires a peculiar dedication and committment...and, as I see it
>"historians" are going to disagree as to what is what. However, it is the
>*basis* of this disagreement that actually furthers the unravelling...see?
>In agreeing to disagree Al and Lee are carrying on this grand tradition..and
>we, the Armchair CyberNauts, can do naught but sit back and marvel at the
>marvel they unfold...JS Dill.
>Lee Sultzman now speaks...Just east of the original Cherokee homeland
>resided a number of Nations:
>Hassinunga, Manahoac (Mahock), Ontponea, Shackonia, Stegaraki (Stenkenock),
>Tauxitania (Tanx), Tegninateo, Whonkentia, Massinacac, Meipontsky,
>Mohemencho, Monacan (Manakin), Monahassano (Nahyssan), Monasiccapano,
>Moneton, Occaneechi, Saponi, Tutelo, Adshusheer, Backhook, Cape Fear
>(Neccoes), Cheraw (Sara, Saraw, Saura, Sauro. Their Cherokee name was the
>Sauali), Congaree, Eno (Enoree), Hook, Keyauwee, Nahyssan, Pedee, Santee,
>Saxaphaw, Sewee, Shakori (Shoccoree), Shuteree, Sissipahaw, Sugaree,
>Waccamaw, Warrennuncock, Wateree, Waxhaw, Winyaw, Woccon.
>Collectively, these peoples are what I prefer to call, because of their
>related Siouan languages, the Southeastern Siouan, and as you can see, there
>were a bunch of them. Just to be on the safe side on what is meant by
>"related languages" ...these conclusions are based on the certain core words
>(man, woman, etc.) and/or common gramatical structure and do imply that that
>there was mutual intellibility. Catawba and a Lakota speakers would have as
>much difficulty understanding each other as for instance, a Greek and a
>Most of the Southeastern Siouan ended up as part of the Catawba during the
>1700s. Several groups also moved north during this period and joined the
>Iroquois covenant chain in Pennsylvania and New York, and others simply
>remained in remote areas of the Carolinas and were gradually absorbed by the
>general population. That is until recently, when they have started coming
>out of the woodwork like the group in Virginia (whose name I forget) which
>you inquired about last spring. The largest present-day group-, the Lumbee,
>however, seem to be descended from Algonquin-speakers. At least this is what
>their tradition says because of the lost Roanoke Colony (Virginia Dare and
>all that). From their location in Robeson County NC, it would seem more
>likely that the Lumbee were Siouan, but who knows, and I have not found any
>reason to dispute their claim.
>Not much has been written about the Southeastern Siouan tribes relative to
>the Algonquin-speaking Powhatan and the Tsalagi who spoke an Iroquian
>language, but they were generally organized into small and independent bands
>which were generally hostile to both the neighboring Tsalagi and Powhatan at
>the time that Jamestown was settled in 1607. Their initial contact with
>Europeans began much earlier through a series of Spanish slave raids along
>the Carolina coasts during the early 1500s which originated from Cuba and
>Puerto Rico. One of these, led by Pedro de Quejo and Francisco Gordillo and
>funded by Lucas Vsquez de Aylln, landed at Winyaw Bay SC in 1521 and
>captured 60 people. Because of sickness, only a few of these prisoners lived
>to reach Cuba, but they lasted long enough for the Spanish to learn that
>they called either themselves or their homeland Chicora. One young warrior
>did survive the capture and voyage south, and after an apparent conversion
>to Christianity, was renamed Francisco of Chicora. Francisco volunteered to
>serve the Spanish as a guide and interpreter, and in 1525 Aylln sent Quejo
>back to area with two ships and 60 men. Francisco accompanied the
>expedition, but the Spanish had no sooner hit the beach than he took to the
>woods. Aylln later attempted to establish a permanent settlement on the SC
>and GA coast but this failed soon after he got ill and died. Note that all
>of these things occurrred 15-20 years before De Soto's grand tour of the
>region in 1539-43.
>Anyway, that is where the name of Chicora originated. Which tribe was this?
>People have been trying to figure this out ever since. Was there ever a
>Chicora Nation? Rather doubt this myself because as far as I can tell, the
>Southeastern Siouan tribes were never organized politically much beyond the
>village or band level until encouraged to do so by the SC colonists after
>1720 when Iroquois war parties began to terrorize the region. Even then, the
>individual Siouan tribes were very reluctant to surrender their individual
>identities, traditions, and leadership.
>Al [the author of The Coree Are Not Extinct] proposes that the Coree were
>the Chicora, but others have suggested the Shakori as better possibility. A
>lot of these names sound pretty alike, especially after being mauled though
>different European languages over the years. No one knows and few care, but
>Al has apparently done a lot of digging where "angels fear to tread" which,
>because of the obvious implications of racial mixing, has been shoved under
>the carpet, and I would be very interested in looking a good look at what he
>has found. However, it appears that he has fallen love with "his tribe"
>since he has some pretty harsh words for other tribes: i.e., the Tuscarora
>and Cherokee were vassels of the Iroquois and British; the Catawba were the
>butt-end of different tribes; and he seems to concluded that the Cofachiqui
>were Siouan speakers. It seems fairly certain that the Cofachiqui who were
>visited by De Soto in the spring of 1540 were Muskogean speakers (related to
>the Creek) who had moved into the Columbia SC area from the southwest during
>the 1300s. According to the De Soto Chronicles, the Cofachiqui had a lot of
>Mississippian cultural characteristics (mounds, temples, priests, ossaries
>or bone houses). The Southeastern Siouan tribes were matrilineal and farmed,
>but beyond this had none of these other traits....Lee Sultzman
>So...now you have some sense of what might have been, what might be,
>actually...and we can move on...it is with great pleasure I welcome you to a
>Prologue to The Coree Are Not Extinct .
>Who are the Coree
>Family History Relating to the Coree Indians
>The Historical Problem
>Coree - Intro
>Coree - Chapter One
>Coree - Chapter Twelve
>Coree - Chapter Twenty
>Coree - Chapter Twenty-eight
>Coree - Chapter Thirty-one
>Coree - Chapter Thirty-two
>This site is maintained by JS Dill.
>Please provide an opinion regarding this site...
>From: GWJCAL@... [mailto:GWJCAL@...]
>Sent: Sunday, October 07, 2001 5:55 PM
>Subject: [JERNIGAN-L] Jernigan's and Coree Indians
> <A HREF="http://www.dickshovel.com/coreeal.html">Click here: Coree?</A>
>Barna Jernigan, was the grandson of my great x 5 grandfather "Lame David"
>Jernigan, the grandfather of Christian Ammons Pate. Barner Jernigan, his
>brother Lovett, his and grandfather David, were all three hung for
>in Wayne, Duplin and Sampson Counties arising out of the War of 1812, in
>which they were allied with Indians.
>They were accused of stealing and transporting slaves to Georgia for sale.
>These slaves had been subsisting as families in the woods for over eight
>months, when the Jernigans became involved with them, and I believe these
>slave were Indians, in lifestyle and identity--with perhaps some African and
>"Lame David" Jernigan ran to his friend "Round-Headed Billy" Powell, for
>asylum, after murdering Sheriff John Coor-Pender. However, when 18-year-old
>Paul Coor-Pender (son of Sheriff Coor-Pender) went to apprehend him, Powell
>turned the old man over to him.
>The Wayne County Jernigans were served badly by the War of 1812 and
>subsequent events, that resulted in the hanging of a beloved patriarch, and
>two of his most promising grandsons.Most of the Jernigans ended up south of
>Neuse River, where there were many Jacobses, Wynns, Carrs, Simmonses,
>Hedgepeths, Ammones, Bakers and other families associated with North
>Siouan tribes. These folks were a varied lot. Some were holders of slaves.
>Some were free. Some were not. Some had "something". Others had a lot of
>debt. Conflicts ran high, and political strife was polarized between
>and Patetown. "Lame David" Jernigan, a disgruntled hero of the Revolutionary
>War, was a founder of Waynesboro.
>Waynesboro was poorly sited. The site for the county seat should have been
>high ground, at Everettsville, south of the Neuse, or north of the river on
>the present site of Cherry Hospital, where a Siouan town survived after
>Torhunta's destruction. In 1740 the Quaker Kennedy family came into Wayne
>County and settled in the present day area of Cherry Hospital and O'Berry
>Center, and began to buy up slaves to ameliorate their condition. This was a
>source of agitation and conflict during the Civil War, for which the
>suffered greatly.There's real drama in our East Carolina history.
>Inter-tribal Indian warfare provided much of it. Early and late in their
>history, the Carolina Siouans sided wrong in wars, however.
>The Coree were officially doomed to oblivion, the cultural and economic
>equivalent of annihilation, even though most of the common folk hid in the
>woods and watched the massacres at Torhunta and Neooheroka. I hope younger
>students of our history will go to the old records about what I've tried to
>explain, and tell the story more sympathetically to the people who were
>driven from their homes, to make way for European settlement. The politics,
>economics and sociology of the Coree history is complex.
>Grant Johnston, Chico, CA
>Maybe the grass is really greener on the other side of the fence. But it's
>probably because your neighbor uses more fertilizer and water.