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  • Jewelle Baker
    Hello Group.... Another interesting Day In History gleaned for you from Sally Pavia. The day is 9 November .... so I m a tad late in forwarding to you.....
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 6, 2011
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      Hello Group....
      Another interesting "Day In History" gleaned for you from Sally
      Pavia. The day is 9 November .... so I'm a tad late in forwarding to
      you..... still..... very interesting facts!!
      Jewelle

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      ----- Original Message -----
      Sent: Wednesday, November 09, 2011 8:12 AM
      Subject: 9 NOVEMBER - TODAY IN HISTORY


      1780 : Sumter evades Wemyss in South Carolina

      On this day in 1780, British Major James Wemyss, commanding a force of 140
      Horsemen, attempts to surprise 300 South Carolina militiamen under General
      Thomas Sumter at Fishdam Ford, South Carolina. Instead of capturing Sumter
      as planned, Wemyss, "the second most hated man in the British army," was
      wounded in the arm and knee, and captured by Sumter.

      Sumter and Wemyss were major figures in the bloody civil war that raged
      along the Santee River of South Carolina during the American War of
      Independence. British Colonel Banastre Tarleton, the man Carolinians most
      hated, for his brutal destruction of life and property, had burned Sumter's
      plantation on the Santee in the early summer of 1780. Enraged, Sumter
      recruited a militia, which dubbed him the "Gamecock" for his willingness to
      fight, and began returning Tarleton's terror tactics in kind.

      James Wemyss found his way to the Carolinas after being commanded by British
      General Charles Cornwallis to find a way to defeat the cagey brigadier
      general of the South Carolina militia, Francis Marion, known as the "swamp
      fox." Wemyss, the younger son of a British earl, was just as willing to burn
      homes and terrify civilians as his less noble counterparts.

      Although Wemyss failed to capture Sumter on November 9, his fearsome
      compatriot Tarleton succeeded in wounding Sumter on November 20, forcing
      Sumter to give up his command. In his wake, the able Marion took the reigns
      of power in the Carolinas and was instrumental in driving the British out of
      the sister colonies to Virginia, where General George Washington would
      finish the job and the war less than a year later at Yorktown.

      The guerilla war waged by Sumter, Marion, Tarleton and Wemyss served as
      partial inspiration for Mel Gibson's film, The Patriot (2000).


      1862 : Burnside assumes command of the Union Army of the Potomac
      On this day in 1862, General Ambrose Burnside assumes command of the Union
      Army of the Potomac following the removal of George B. McClellan.
      McClellan was well liked by many soldiers, and had a loyal following among
      some in the command structure. However, others detested him, and his
      successor would have a difficult time reconciling the pro- and
      anti-McClellan factions within the army's leadership. Furthermore, Ambrose
      Burnside was not the obvious choice to replace McClellan. Many favored
      General Joseph Hooker, who, like Burnside, commanded a corps in the army.
      Hooker had a strong reputation as a battlefield commander but had several
      liabilities: a penchant for drinking and cavorting with prostitutes and an
      acrimonious history with Henry Halleck, the general in chief of the Union
      armies. Halleck urged President Abraham Lincoln to name Burnside to head the
      Union's premier fighting force.

      Burnside was a solid corps commander, but by his own admission was not fit
      to command an army. The Indiana native graduated from West Point in 1847,
      and after serving for five years in the military, entered private business.
      He worked to develop a new rifle, but his firm went bankrupt when he refused
      to pay a bribe to secure a contract to sell his weapon to the U.S. army.
      Burnside then worked as treasurer for the Illinois Central Railroad under
      McClellan, who was president of the line.

      When the Civil War erupted, Burnside became a colonel in charge of the First
      Rhode Island volunteers. He fought at the First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia
      in July 1861 then headed an expeditionary force that captured Cape
      Hatteras
      North Carolina, in February 1862. Burnside returned to the Army of the
      Potomac and was given command of the Ninth Corps, which fought hard at the
      Battle of Antietam in Maryland in September 1862. Afterward, he was tapped
      for the top position in the army over his own protestations. He reluctantly
      assumed command in November and proceeded to plan an attack on Robert E. Lee
      s
      Army of Northern Virginia. In December 1862, Burnside's army moved toward
      Lee at Fredericksburg, Virginia. His forces attacked Lee's entrenched troops
      on December 13 and suffered heavy loses.

      Within one month, officers began to mutiny against Burnside's authority, and
      Hooker assumed command of the Army of the Potomac in late January 1863.
      After the war, Burnside (whose unusual facial hair is said to have inspired
      the word sideburns) served as governor of Rhode Island and as a U.S. senator
      He died in 1881 at age 57.


      1914 : Australian warship Sydney sinks German Emden

      On this day in 1914, in the first ever wartime action by an Australian
      warship, the cruiser Sydney sinks the German raider Emden in the Indian
      Ocean during the first autumn of World War I.

      When World War I broke out in the summer of 1914, the Emden was part of
      Germany's East Asiatic Squadron, commanded by Maxmilian von Spee. While the
      rest of the squadron set out for the coast of South America, Spee allowed
      the ship's commander, Karl von Muller, to detach the ship from the rest of
      the squadron in order to effectively threaten British commerce where it was
      vulnerable, in the Indian Ocean. Beginning on September 10, the Emden
      wreaked havoc on Allied commercial interests in the Indian Ocean, raiding
      the towns of Madras and Penang and capturing over 20 unarmed merchant
      vessels. Muller's crew also sank two warships, a Russian cruiser and a
      French destroyer.

      On November 9, the Australian light cruiser Sydney surprised the Emden as
      the latter ship was raiding a British wireless communications station on the
      Cocos Islands. The attack killed 134 of the ship's crew members, while
      Muller and the other survivors were taken prisoner by the British. British
      newspapers at the time praised Muller for his chivalry towards the crews and
      passengers of the captured vessels. "If all the Germans had fought as well
      as the captain of the Emden," claimed The Times, "the German people would
      not today be reviled by the world."

      Despite the demise of the Emden on November 9, the exploits of its crew
      continued, as Muller had put a landing party ashore at nearby Direction
      Island. The group promptly seized a schooner and sailed to Yemen, crossing
      the Red Sea and braving Arab attacks on its way to Damascus and finally to
      Constantinople in May 1915.


      1923 : Nazis suppressed in Munich

      In Munich, armed policeman and troops loyal to Germany's democratic
      government crush the Beer Hall Putsch, the first attempt by the Nazi Party
      at seizing control of the German government.

      After World War I, the victorious allies demanded billions of dollars in war
      reparations from Germany. Efforts by Germany's democratic government to
      comply hurt the country's economy and led to severe inflation. The German
      mark, which at the beginning of 1921 was valued at five marks per dollar,
      fell to a disastrous four billion marks per dollar in 1923. Meanwhile, the
      ranks of the nationalist Nazi Party swelled with resentful Germans who
      sympathized with the party's bitter hatred of the democratic government,
      leftist politics, and German Jews. In early November 1923, the government
      resumed war reparation payments, and the Nazis decided to strike.

      Hitler planned a coup against the state government of Bavaria, which he
      hoped would spread to the dissatisfied German army, which in turn would
      bring down the central, democratic government. Same question as above. On
      the evening of November 8, Nazi forces under Hermann Goering surrounded the
      Munich beer hall where Bavarian government officials were meeting with local
      business leaders. A moment later, Hitler burst in with a group of Nazi storm
      troopers, discharged his pistol into the air, and declared that "the
      national revolution has begun." Threatened at gunpoint, the Bavarian leaders
      reluctantly agreed to support Hitler's new regime.

      In the early morning of November 9, however, the Bavarian leaders repudiated
      their coerced support of Hitler and ordered a rapid suppression of the Nazis
      At dawn, government troops surrounded the main Nazi force occupying the
      War
      Ministry building. A desperate Hitler responded by leading a march toward
      the center of Munich in a last-ditch effort to rally support. Near the War
      Ministry building, 3,000 Nazi marchers came face to face with 100 armed
      policemen. Shots were exchanged, and 16 Nazis and three policemen were
      killed. Hermann Goering was shot in the groin, and Hitler suffered a
      dislocated elbow but managed to escape.

      Three days later, Hitler was arrested. Convicted of treason, he was given
      the minimum sentence of five years in prison. He was imprisoned in the
      Landsberg fortress and spent his time writing his autobiography, Mein Kampf,
      and working on his oratorical skills. Political pressure from the Nazis
      forced the Bavarian government to commute Hitler's sentence, and he was
      released after serving only nine months. In the late 1920s, Hitler
      reorganized the Nazi Party as a fanatical mass movement that was able to
      gain a majority in the Reichstag in 1932. By 1934, Hitler was the sole
      master of a nation intent on war and genocide.


      1938 : Nazis launch Kristallnacht

      On this day in 1938, in an event that would foreshadow the Holocaust, German
      Nazis launch a campaign of terror against Jewish people and their homes and
      businesses in Germany and Austria. The violence, which continued through
      November 10 and was later dubbed "Kristallnacht," or "Night of Broken Glass,
      after the countless smashed windows of Jewish-owned establishments, left
      approximately 100 Jews dead, 7,500 Jewish businesses damaged and hundreds of
      synagogues, homes, schools and graveyards vandalized. An estimated 30,000
      Jewish men were arrested, many of whom were then sent to concentration camps
      for several months; they were released when they promised to leave Germany.
      Kristallnacht represented a dramatic escalation of the campaign started by
      Adolf Hitler in 1933 when he became chancellor to purge Germany of its
      Jewish population.

      The Nazis used the murder of a low-level German diplomat in Paris by a
      17-year-old Polish Jew as an excuse to carry out the Kristallnacht attacks.
      On November 7, 1938, Ernst vom Rath was shot outside the German embassy by
      Herschel Grynszpan, who wanted revenge for his parents' sudden deportation
      from Germany to Poland, along with tens of thousands of other Polish Jews.
      Following vom Rath's death, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels ordered
      German storm troopers to carry out violent riots disguised as "spontaneous
      demonstrations" against Jewish citizens. Local police and fire departments
      were told not to interfere. In the face of all the devastation, some Jews,
      including entire families, committed suicide.

      In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, the Nazis blamed the Jews and fined them
      1 billion marks (or $400 million in 1938 dollars) for vom Rath's death. As
      repayment, the government seized Jewish property and kept insurance money
      owed to Jewish people. In its quest to create a master Aryan race, the Nazi
      government enacted further discriminatory policies that essentially excluded
      Jews from all aspects of public life.

      Over 100,000 Jews fled Germany for other countries after Kristallnacht. The
      international community was outraged by the violent events of November 9 and
      10. Some countries broke off diplomatic relations in protest, but the Nazis
      suffered no serious consequences, leading them to believe they could get
      away with the mass murder that was the Holocaust, in which an estimated 6
      million European Jews died.
      ------------------------------------
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