Fw: A DAY IN HISTORY
- Hello Group.....
Even though the below info, gleaned for you from Sally Pavia,
speaks of 28 Oct day..... I'm forwarding to you for your files........
Thanks Sally...... on this December morn :)
Researching: (Main Capitalized)
BAKER, Barrow, BEAMAN, BLOUNT, Bonner, Bours, Braxton, CANNON, Carraway,
COX, Chester, Dail, ELLIS, Faircloth, Gardner, HANCOCK, HARDEE, Hardison,
Harris, Harper, Harrington, Heath, Hollyman (all sp), JACKSON, Johnson,
Jones, Letchworth, Manning, McGLOHON (all sp), McGOWAN, McKeel, Mills,
Mitchell, Mumford, PHILLIPS, Price, Shaw, Smith, Sumrell, Stocks, Stokes,
Tyson, Vandiford, Walls, Walston, Weeks, Wilkerson, WINGATE, Wetherington,
Worthington, plus ++++
GenealogyPITT Co NC Friends In Research
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----- Original Message -----
Subject: 28 OCTOBER --- A DAY IN HISTORY -- A VERY BUSY DAY
1775 : British proclamation forbids residents from leaving Boston
The new commander in chief of the British army, Major General Sir William
Howe, issues a proclamation to the residents of Boston on this day in 1775.
Speaking from British headquarters in Boston, Howe forbade any person from
leaving the city and ordered citizens to organize into military companies in
order to "contribute all in his power for the preservation of order and good
government within the town of Boston."
Almost four months earlier, on July 3, 1775, George Washington had formally
taken command of the Continental Army. Washington, a prominent Virginia
planter and veteran of the French and Indian War, had been appointed
commander in chief by the Continental Congress two weeks before in an
attempt to turn the impromptu siege of Boston, instigated by New Englanders
enraged by the Battle of Lexington and Concord the previous April into a
congressionally organized inter-colonial revolt against parliamentary
oppression. The ad hoc siege of Boston enjoyed it greatest moment when New
Englanders under the command of Israel Putnam and William Prescott managed
to kill 226 and wound 838 members of the world-famous British army before
withdrawing their rag-tag force from Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775.
The newly minted General Washington was unimpressed upon meeting his
supposed army outside Boston a few weeks after their momentous success. Just
as the British had during the French and Indian War, he saw "stupidity"
among the enlisted men, who were used to the easy familiarity of being
commanded by neighbors in local militias with elected officers. Washington
promptly insisted that the officers behave with decorum and the enlisted men
with deference. Although he enjoyed some success with this original army,
the New Englanders went home to their farms at the end of 1775, and
Washington had to start fresh with new recruits in 1776.
The British did not leave Boston until March 27, 1776, after Washington's
successful occupation of Dorchester Heights 13 days earlier, during which he
had turned the cannon captured from the British at Fort Ticonderoga on May
10, 1775 upon the British-held city. More afraid of their own cannon than
Patriot soldiers, the British departed, thus allowing Bostonians to move
freely in and out of their own city for the first time in six months.
1864 : Second Battle of Fair Oaks concludes
On this day in 1864, at the Second Battle of Fair Oaks, Virginia, Union
forces withdraw after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around
Richmond. The assault was actually a diversion to draw attention from a
larger Union offensive around Petersburg, Virginia.
Fair Oaks, the scene of one of the Seven Days Battles in June 1862, was
located on the defensive perimeter around the Confederate capital of
Richmond. Confederate General Robert E. Lee's army constructed five lines of
trenches that stretched 25 miles south to Petersburg. For five months, Lee's
troops had been under siege by the forces of Union General Ulysses S. Grant.
The monotony of the siege was suspended only periodically by a Union attempt
to break Lee's lines. One such attack came at Hatcher's Run, southwest of
Petersburg, on October 27. At the same time, Grant ordered an attack at Fair
Oaks, about 24 miles from the assault at Hatcher's Run.
The Richmond defenses were formidable, so any direct assault was unlikely to
succeed. By attacking at Fair Oaks, Grant hoped to prevent Lee from shifting
any troops along the Richmond-Petersburg line to reinforce the lines at
Hatcher's Run. Troops from Union General Benjamin Butler's Tenth Corps moved
north of the James River and conducted a two-pronged offensive against
Richmond on October 27. Confederate General James Longstreet, in charge of
the Richmond section of the Confederate defenses, skillfully positioned
troops to thwart the Yankees. Union General Godfrey Weitzel, commander of
part of the attack, enjoyed some initial success but could not significantly
penetrate the Rebel trenches. On October 28, Weitzel determined that he had
accomplished all he could and withdrew his troops.
Some 1,100 Union men were killed, wounded, or captured during the attack,
while the Confederates lost some 450 troops. The planned diversion did not
work--at the far end of the defenses, the Yankees failed to move around the
end of the Confederate line at Hatcher's Run.
1886 : Statue of Liberty dedicated
The Statue of Liberty, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the
people of the United States, is dedicated in New York Harbor by President
Originally known as "Liberty Enlightening the World," the statue was
proposed by the French historian Edouard de Laboulaye to commemorate the
Franco-American alliance during the American Revolution. Designed by French
sculptor Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi, the 151-foot statue was the form of a
woman with an uplifted arm holding a torch. Its framework of gigantic steel
supports was designed by Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-Le-Duc and
Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel, the latter famous for his design of the Eiffel
Tower in Paris.
In February 1877, Congress approved the use of a site on New York Bedloe's
Island, which was suggested by Bartholdi. In May 1884, the statue was
completed in France, and three months later the Americans laid the
cornerstone for its pedestal in New York Harbor. In June 1885, the
dismantled Statue of Liberty arrived in the New World, enclosed in more than
200 packing cases. Its copper sheets were reassembled, and the last rivet of
the monument was fitted on October 28, 1886, during a dedication presided
over by President Cleveland and attended by numerous French and American
On the pedestal was inscribed "The New Colossus," a sonnet by American poet
Emma Lazarus that welcomed immigrants to the United States with the
declaration, "Give me your tired, your poor, / Your huddled masses yearning
to breathe free, / The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. / Send these,
the homeless, tempest-tost to me. / I lift my lamp beside the golden door."
In 1892, Ellis Island, adjacent to Bedloe's Island, opened as the chief
entry station for immigrants to the United States, and for the next 32 years
more than 12 million immigrants were welcomed into New York harbor by the
sight of "Lady Liberty." In 1924, the Statue of Liberty was made a national
monument, and in 1956 Bedloe's Island was renamed Liberty Island. The statue
underwent a major restoration in the 1980s.
1919 : Congress enforces prohibition
Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. The
Volstead Act provided for the enforcement of the 18th Amendment to the U.S.
Constitution, also known as the Prohibition Amendment.
The movement for the prohibition of alcohol began in the early 19th century,
when Americans concerned about the adverse effects of drinking began forming
temperance societies. By the late 19th century, these groups had become a
powerful political force, campaigning on the state level and calling for
national liquor abstinence. In December 1917, the 18th Amendment,
prohibiting the "manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating
liquors for beverage purposes," was passed by Congress and sent to the
states for ratification. In January 1919, the 18th amendment achieved the
necessary two-thirds majority of state ratification, and prohibition became
the law of the land.
The Volstead Act, passed nine months later, provided for the enforcement of
prohibition, including the creation of a special unit of the Treasury
Department. Despite a vigorous effort by law-enforcement agencies, the
Volstead Act failed to prevent the large-scale distribution of alcoholic
beverages, and organized crime flourished in America. In 1933, the 21st
Amendment to the Constitution was passed and ratified, repealing prohibition
1940 : Italy invades Greece
On this day in 1940, Mussolini's army, already occupying Albania, invades
Greece in what will prove to be a disastrous military campaign for the
Mussolini surprised everyone with this move against Greece; even his ally,
Adolf Hitler, was caught off-guard, especially since the Duce had led Hitler
to believe he had no such intention. Hitler denounced the move as a major
strategic blunder. According to Hitler, Mussolini should have concentrated
on North Africa, continuing the advance into Egypt. Even Mussolini's own
chief of army staff found out about the invasion only after the fact. But
despite being warned off an invasion of Greece by his own generals, despite
the lack of preparedness on the part of his military, despite that it would
mean getting bogged down in a mountainous country during the rainy season
against an army willing to fight tooth and nail to defend its autonomy,
Mussolini moved ahead out of sheer hubris, convinced he could defeat the
Greeks in a matter of days. He also knew a secret, that millions of lire had
been put aside to bribe Greek politicians and generals not to resist the
Italian invasion. Whether the money ever made it past the Italian fascist
agents delegated with the responsibility is unclear; if it did, it clearly
made no difference whatsoever-the Greeks succeeded in pushing the Italian
invaders back into Albania after just one week, and the Axis power spent the
next three months fighting for its life in a defensive battle. To make
matters worse, virtually half the Italian fleet at Taranto had been crippled
by a British carrier-based attack. Mussolini had been humiliated.
1965 :Workers complete the famous Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri
On this day in 1965, workers "top out" the final section of the Gateway Arch
in St. Louis, Missouri, completing construction of the nation's tallest
memorial after four years of work.
A graceful 603-foot high ribbon of gleaming stainless steel, the Gateway
Arch spans 630 feet at the ground and is meant to symbolically mark the
gateway from the eastern United States to the West. Architect Eero Saarinen
s dramatic design was chosen during a 1947 competition, and has since become
a landmark famous around the world.
The Gateway Arch is the most prominent feature of St. Louis's Jefferson
National Expansion Memorial Park, which also includes an Underground
Visitors Center featuring exhibits charting the 100-year history of America
s westward expansion. Although St. Louis was by no means the only
jumping-off point for emigrants moving westward, during much of the 19th
century the city's advantageous location, just below the confluence of the
Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, made it an important hub for much of the
nation's western expansion. Most famously, Lewis and Clark began their
exploration of the newly acquired Louisiana Territory when they departed
from St. Louis in May 1804, and Zebulon Pike also started his western
explorations there in 1805. Once these famous trailblazers had shown the way
thousands of other followed in their footsteps.
For a time, St. Louis was also a center for the fur trade, as the mountain
men scoured the western streams and lakes for valuable animals and sent
their skins back East through the city. As the tide of easterners emigrating
West steadily grew, St. Louis also became a popular jumping-off point for
the main overland trails to Santa Fe, California, and Oregon. The arrival of
the first steamboat, the Pike, along the docks of St. Louis in 1817 began
the city's role as a hub for steam-powered water transportation along the
Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.
Railroads, too, ensured that St. Louis would be an important transportation
center for the second half of the 19th century. However, railroads also made
it possible for the upstart city of Chicago to begin challenging St. Louis's
role as the gateway to the West. With its easy access to the extensive
network of eastern lakes, canals, and railroads, after 1850 Chicago began to
supplant St. Louis as the major railway hub and economic center of the West.