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Fw: Today in History - October 31 -- HALLOWEEN

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  • Jewelle Baker
    G morning Group..... Read on....... a very interesting Today in History for your perusal, gleaned from Sally Pavia. Enjoy! Jewelle jewelle@coastalnet.com
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 31, 2011
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      G'morning Group.....
      Read on.......
      a very interesting "Today in History" for your perusal,
      gleaned from Sally Pavia.
      Enjoy!
      Jewelle
      jewelle@...
      jewellebaker@...
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      ----- Original Message -----
      1517 : Martin Luther posts 95 theses

      On this day in 1517, the priest and scholar Martin Luther approaches the
      door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, and nails a piece of paper
      to it containing the 95 revolutionary opinions that would begin the
      Protestant Reformation.

      In his theses, Luther condemned the excesses and corruption of the Roman
      Catholic Church, especially the papal practice of asking payment-called
      indulgences"-for the forgiveness of sins. At the time, a Dominican priest
      named Johann Tetzel, commissioned by the Archbishop of Mainz and Pope Leo X,
      was in the midst of a major fundraising campaign in Germany to finance the
      renovation of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Though Prince Frederick III the
      Wise had banned the sale of indulgences in Wittenberg, many church members
      traveled to purchase them. When they returned, they showed the pardons they
      had bought to Luther, claiming they no longer had to repent for their sins.

      Luther's frustration with this practice led him to write the 95 Theses,
      which were quickly snapped up, translated from Latin into German and
      distributed widely. A copy made its way to Rome, and efforts began to
      convince Luther to change his tune. He refused to keep silent, however, and
      in 1521 Pope Leo X formally excommunicated Luther from the Catholic Church.
      That same year, Luther again refused to recant his writings before the Holy
      Roman Emperor Charles V of Germany, who issued the famous Edict of Worms
      declaring Luther an outlaw and a heretic and giving permission for anyone to
      kill him without consequence. Protected by Prince Frederick, Luther began
      working on a German translation of the Bible, a task that took 10 years to
      complete.

      The term "Protestant" first appeared in 1529, when Charles V revoked a
      provision that allowed the ruler of each German state to choose whether they
      would enforce the Edict of Worms. A number of princes and other supporters
      of Luther issued a protest, declaring that their allegiance to God trumped
      their allegiance to the emperor. They became known to their opponents as
      Protestants; gradually this name came to apply to all who believed the
      Church should be reformed, even those outside Germany. By the time Luther
      died, of natural causes, in 1546, his revolutionary beliefs had formed the
      basis for the Protestant Reformation, which would over the next three
      centuries revolutionize Western civilization.

      1776 : King speaks for first time since independence declared
      On this day in 1776, in his first speech before British Parliament since the
      leaders of the American Revolution came together to sign of the Declaration
      of Independence that summer, King George III acknowledges that all was not
      going well for Britain in the war with the United States.
      In his address, the king spoke about the signing of the U.S. Declaration of
      Independence and the revolutionary leaders who signed it, saying, "for
      daring and desperate is the spirit of those leaders, whose object has always
      been dominion and power, that they have now openly renounced all allegiance
      to the crown, and all political connection with this country." The king went
      on to inform Parliament of the successful British victory over General
      George Washington and the Continental Army at the Battle of Long Island on
      August 27, 1776, but warned them that, "notwithstanding the fair prospect,
      it was necessary to prepare for another campaign."
      Despite George III's harsh words, General William Howe and his brother,
      Admiral Richard Howe, still hoped to convince the Americans to rejoin the
      British empire in the wake of the colonists' humiliating defeat at the
      Battle of Long Island. The British could easily have prevented Washington's
      retreat from Long Island and captured most of the Patriot officer corps,
      including the commander in chief. However, instead of forcing the former
      colonies into submission by executing Washington and his officers as
      traitors, the Howe brothers let them go with the hope of swaying Patriot
      opinion towards a return to the mother country.
      The Howe brothers' attempts at negotiation failed, and the War for
      Independence dragged on for another four years, until the formal surrender
      of the British to the Americans on October 19, 1781, after the Battle of
      Yorktown.
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