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  • cjohnvijaya@gmail.com
    I ve shared a document with you called INDIAN INSTITUTE OF HORTICULTURAL RES... : http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=dgkj3dfk_18fc78swvk&invite=330177741 It s not
    Message 1 of 1 , Jun 1, 2009
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      I've shared a document with you called "INDIAN INSTITUTE OF HORTICULTURAL
      RES...": http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=dgkj3dfk_18fc78swvk&invite=330177741
      It's not an attachment -- it's stored online at Google Docs. To open this
      document, just click the link above. --- Report on Mr.Kailash Murthy's
      Natural Farm.
      Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore � 560 089

      Research Management and Co-ordination Unit

      May 2009

      Mr. Kailas
      # 8, 10TH Block, Adhishakthi Road,
      MYSORE � 570 019, Karnataka.

      Sub: Report on �National Level Seminar on Mango Cultivation�.�.. reg.
      Please find enclosed herewith the participation report submitted by
      Dr.H.Ravishankar, Acting Head, Division of Plant Genetic Resources of this
      Institute towards his participation in the �National Level Seminar on Mnago
      Cultivation under Natural Conditions (without using pesticides, fertilizers
      and even organic manures)�. organized by Academy of Natural Farming,
      Mysore, on 2nd May 2009 at Doddainduvai village � 571 443, Kollegal Taluk,
      Chamarajanagar district.
      Kindly acknowledge the receipt.

      Yours faithfully,


      e-MAIL: kailashnatufarm@...

      Report on the participation by Dr. H.Ravishankar , Principal Scientist and
      Head (A) in One day�National Level Seminar on Mango Cultivation Under
      Natural Conditions (without using pesticides , fertilizers and even organic
      manure)� organized on 02.05.2009 at Doddainduvai village-571 443, Kollegal
      taluk, Chamarajanagar district by Academy of Natural Farming, Mysore

      In pursuance of the office order F.No.RMCU/1.9.2/2009/127 DT.
      24th April,2009 of the Chairman, RMCU ,IIHR, Bangalore, the undersigned
      participated in the One day �National Level Seminar on Mango Cultivation
      Under Natural Conditions (without using pesticides , fertilizers and even
      organic manure)� held at Doddainduvai village-571 443, Kollegal taluk,
      Chamarajanagar district by Academy of Natural Farming, Mysore on
      The programme was presided over by Dr.Yellappareddy , IFS, (Rtd)
      Principal Secretary to Department of Environment and Forest, Government of
      Karnataka , while Dr.Deshpande, Director, Institute for Social and Economic
      change, Bangalore inaugurated with guests of honour, Dr.Kanwarpal, IFS,
      Dr.Basappa, IFS and Dr.H.Ravishankar . The staff and students of Department
      of Environmental Science, Bangalore University, KVK (UAS, Bangalore) ,
      Assistant Conservator of Forests, GOK, farmers of the surrounding area and
      other districts , practicing farmers of natural farming from Tamil Nadu
      participated in the deliberations.
      Background information about the farming unit:
      The farming unit with an area of 6.5 acres is owned by Mr.
      Kailash Murthy since 1984 and located in a dry terrain. The land area is
      situated by the side of a stream which is seasonal in nature and the soil
      is sandy loam in texture, quite friable and fairly dark in colour perhaps
      attributable to the rich organic matter status prevailing (confirmed by
      visual examination of soil samples displayed at the site representing
      situation �before� and �after� adoption of natural farming ). It was
      informed by the farmer that in the initial years of farming, he pursued
      chemical intensive approach ending up with no appreciable remedies to the
      different problems encountered in the farm, though record yields were
      harvested for some years, subsequently yields started declining, pest and
      disease problems became unmanageable and hence he decided to switch over to
      natural farming from 1988 onwards with no tillage, fertilizers, even
      organic manures and pesticides used. In nutshell, no external inputs are
      reported to be used. According to him , he was inspired by the practices
      advocated by the Japanese natural farming pioneer Masonob Fukuwoka that
      believed in the principle of natural farming which is of the nature, by the
      nature and for the nature improving soil productivity .The entire unit is
      under drip irrigation and in some parts, a cover crop of Pureria adopted.
      Fairly good population of earthworms could be noticed in the unit. No
      weeding is practiced in the unit but allowed to grow naturally, complete
      life cycle with litter recycling along with other crop wastes viz. areca
      nut-coconut fronds dropping and other residues. The entire unit was
      observed to be covered with a thick layer (about 6-9�) of leaf litter
      falling from a variety of trees /shrubs /herbs and accumulating naturally
      on the ground. A process of natural litter recycling appeared to be
      facilitated with no human intervention. Peacock egg laying, nesting by
      Great Hornbill and habitat for snakes could be noticed. The prevailing
      situation almost mimicked a forest ecosystem. The entire unit, it is
      claimed is managed by one labour.
      Crop components in the farming unit:
      A pattern similar to multi-storied cropping system exists
      predominantly horti - silviculture type with no systematic arrangement of
      component crops. The different crops appear to have been introduced into
      the system at different times. The major plant components involved in the
      effort are represented here below:
      Horticulture components � Mango (Mangifera indica), Guava (Psidium
      guajava), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Butter fruit (Persea
      americana), Cordia myxa, Coconut (Cocos nucifera), Arecanut (Areca
      catechu), Papaya (Carica papaya) different varieties , Jamun (Syzgium
      jambos), Litchi (Litchi chinensis), wild ber (Zizyphus spp.), Pomegranate
      (Punica granatum), Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia), lemon (Citrus limon) ,
      Pummelo (Citrus grandis), Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), Banana (Musa
      paradisiaca), Sitaphal (Annona squamosa), Sapota (Manilkara achras M.
      Fosberg), Drumstick (Moringa oleifera), Coffee (Coffea arabica); seasonal
      Silviculture components � Teak (Tectona grandis), Honne (Pterocarpus
      marsupium), Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia), Kadu Seege ( Acacia
      spinosa),Nilotika (Acacia nilotica) , Silk cotton (Bombax malabarica ),
      Neem tree (Azadiracta indica), Kakke mara / �Raja vriksha� ( Cassia
      fistula) , Bage (Albizia lebeck) . A good number of medicinal plant species
      were also found growing in the system .
      In the ground cover (first storey) , a wide range of weed species
      belonging to Solanaceae (S.nigrum, S.xanthocarpum, Datura spp.),
      Leguminoceae (Sesbania spp.), Acanthaceae (Andrographis spp. Thunbergia
      alata, Jesticia spp.), Asclepidiaceae (Calotropis gigantean, Tylophora
      indica), Amaranthaceae ( Achyranthus aspera, Amaranthus spinosus,
      A.tricolor,A.viridis Alternanthera spp. Celosia argentia, Gomphrena
      celosoides),Asteraceae (Acanthospermum hispidum, Ageratum conyzoides,Bidens
      biternata, Eupatorium odoratum, Lagasca mollis, Parthenium
      hysterophorus,Tridax procumbens,Xanthium strumarium),Cyperaceae (Cyperus
      rotundus), Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbia hirta, Acalypha indica,Croton spp.
      Phyllanthus spp.) Abaceae (Cassia serricea, ), Poaceae (Cyanadon dactylon,
      Panicum prostratum, Setaria spp.), Verbenaceae (Lantana camara,
      Stachytarpeta indica), Zygophyllaceae (Tribulus terrestris) along with many
      other unidentified species could be seen. In some parts of the farming unit
      under areca nut, a cover crop of Pureria growing luxuriantly was observed.
      This diversified ground cover flora together with other crop residues in
      the farming system, it is presumed could be contributing to dynamic natural
      litter recycling and humus build up over a period of time. In some portion
      of the unit Coffea arabica was also found planted, the performance of
      which is however average.
      In the second storey, many perennial shrubs/fruit trees of
      horticultural importance were found planted though not systematically
      arranged. Notable among them include, mango (a few of them reportedly more
      than four generations old), sapota, papaya, annona, banana, drumstick which
      appear to have contributed to the sustainability of the system.
      In the third storey, perennial trees, both horticultural and
      forest species could be seen. They include, areca nut, coconut, teak,
      honne, rose wood, Kakke, neem etc.,
      Thus the above system presents a multi-storied cropping pattern
      thriving under the dynamics of natural forces quite close to the ones
      prevalent in some of the forest ecosystems of the Western Ghats.
      Some observations:
      During the brief period of visit of the undersigned, there was
      little scope for gathering precise information on the performance of
      different components of the farming unit, a cursory appraisal after
      collating information generated by the researchers of Department of
      Environmental Science, Bangalore University however was attempted. The
      salient aspects of the same are indicated as below:
      � The soil of the unit is dark, light in texture,
      friable and with good water holding capacity and soil aeration ; rich in
      organic matter ( OC-2.7 per cent- DOES, BU)
      � Good earthworm activity; large quantities of
      earthworm castings in the area
      � Maximum Land Use Index(LUI), maximum use of solar
      energy, ; greater biomass production ; good vigour, canopy development and
      general good health of component crops (broadly indicated by the dark green
      colour and larger leaf sizes of respective crops; minimum pests and
      diseases attack); High yields of good quality produce (sweet taste,
      flavour, better keeping quality) in areca nut, coconut, mango, banana ,
      papaya ,drumstick .
      � Areca nut plants are found healthy and productive and appear to be
      the mainstay of the sustainability factor of the farming unit followed by
      mango and coconut. Mango trees though were found infested by gall midge and
      symptoms of Colletotrichum incidence observed, trees produced good yields.
      In quite a few mango trees, fruit fly traps developed by our Institute
      could be seen hanging. Eryophid mite incidence in coconut was found quite
      minimum. Banana plants with average bunch weights of approximately 40-45 kg
      were reportedly harvested and TricoRich, a IIHR product for management of
      nematodes was informed to be used. Drumstick plants were found heavily
      laden with fruits of good quality (bold, plump and tender). The varietal
      status of papaya was unclear, though plant growth was found satisfactory,
      the fruit size and quality (attractive colour, firm pulp and sweet taste)
      were very good and no incidence of PRSV was observed. Citrus crops
      presented however presented a range of nutrient related problems with
      symptoms of interveinal chlorosis and varying patterns of leaf mottling
      which need further investigations.
      � Diversity of flora and fauna (butterflies, Peacocks,
      Great Hornbills, variety of other birds visits and their nesting, small
      mammals, reptiles etc.,) - rich biota; Rich microbial consortia of
      bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were reportedly found in the soil samples
      of the rhizosphere (DOES, BU)
      � Possibilities of checking of soil erosion because of
      thick ground cover
      � Scope for recharging of ground water aquifers
      resulting from good percolation of rain water
      � Possibilities of greater sequestration of
      carbon-di-oxide ( a study of DOES-BU has estimated that annually 1085 tons
      of Carbon is sequestered by the farming unit largely represented by areca
      nut, mango, neem, teak, rose wood , silver oak totaling about 3069 trees)
      � The farming unit is reported to be managed by a
      single labour with no external inputs being used.

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