Re: [fukuoka_farming] Compost question
- Thankyou for sharing the information.
Varanashi Krishna Moorthy wrote:Dear friends,
I have copied here below the VRF method of composting. Questions and
comments are wel come
VRF Method of Composting
Composting is an ideal method to recycle organic material. It plays an
important role in organic farming.
After detailed study of and several methods of composting, and several years
of experimentation, Varanashi Research Foundation, Adyanadka has developed a
new technology named "VRF Method of Composting". To enrich the compost like
FYM, rock phosphate, cowdung slurry, neem cake, poultry manure etc. are
added. Varanashi Composter is a bio inoculant containing bio degraders,
No-fixers, P-solubilizeers and bio pesticides is added while composting. As
an example, three recipes are given in table-1. VRF Method could compost
any biodegradable organic waste.
Table-1. Compost Recipe for different materials (quantity, in kg)
Combination I layer
II layer III layer IV layer
1. FYM+Fr.L./Dr.L. 250 Fr.L./Dr.L. 0.5 V.C.
250 FYM 5 R.P. Repeat
2. C.P.+P.M. 250 C.P.
0.75 V.C. 125 P.M. Repeat
3. Coffee husk/ Coffee fruit skin 250 Coffee husk/ fruit skin
0.5 V.C. 3.75 R.P. Repeat
V.C. - Varanashi Composter; FYM - Farm Yard Manure; R.P. - Rock
Phosphate(18-20% P2O5); Fr.L. - Forest leaves;
Dr.L. - Dry leaves; C.P. - Coir pith; P.M. - Poultry manure.
The VRF Composting methodology involves the following steps:
* On a level land, mark an area of 1.8 m (6 feet) width and 8 m (26 feet)
length and construct a mud bund to a height of about 10 cm (4 inches)
on all the four sides.
* Spread a black HMHDPE (90 gauge thick) plastic sheet of 2.7 m (9 feet)
width over the built-in area, so that a shallow tank is formed. Over this
sheet, construct the heap to about 1 m height layer by layer using
different materials (examples in Table-1). Materials with wide C/N ratio
should be sandwitched with materials with narrow C/N ratio
* If necessary, water is sprinkled after each set of layers is made, so
that the moisture content in the material at the time of heaping is
about 70 per cent and also that about 2.5 cm (one inch) height of water
accumulates at the bottom of the heap. If dry, pre-wet the material 5 to 10
days before heap formation.
* The heap is covered fully with the black HMHDPE sheet. It is made
secure by pressing wet mud all around along the base of the heap. The
sheets are further covered using coconut leaves/dry grass/old gunny bags so
as to protect them from deterioration due to sunlight. Heaps under natural
shade do not require the additional covering. Protect the heaps from animal
* Heat develops inside the heap within 2-4 days of heaping. After a
month, remove the plastic cover and give a turning to the heap material,
without damaging the sheet below.
* If dry, moisten the material before re-heaping.
* The compost is ready for application within three to six months. It
could be stored for some period. Mix the material well before applying.
* A standard heap (2.1 m wide x 8 m long x 1 m high) can take about
4-6 tones of wet material. The final composted material would weigh
approximately 60% of original material.
The advantages of VRF method are given below:
* Adaptable practically in all regions and in all seasons and choice of
place of compost preparation wide in the plantation.
* Watering, in summer dispensed with and nutrients getting washed-off
during rainy season do not arise.
* There is no necessity of mixing or turning the compost meant for
perennial crops where C:N ratio of about 20:1 is ideal.
* For annual crops, a narrower C:N ratio could be obtained either by
extending the composting duration (5-6 months) or by giving two turnings.
This operation is also necessary when the material is suspected to contain
* Because of the plastic lining to the whole heap, there is (i) higher
retention of nutrients; (ii) higher ratio of the composted material to the
raw material and (iii) consequently; a perceptible increase in the total
quantity of the nutrients recovered per unit mass of the original material.
* The Method amenable for multiplication of beneficial organisms such as
Trichoderma, Azotobacter, Azospyrullum, P-solubilizing bacteria etc.
Properly prepared Compost is cheaper than fertilizers.
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