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Fertile Crescent Agriculture started 11-13000 yr ago -the word's English sense

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  • macropneuma
    Agriculture, in the sense of the definition, concept and tradition of the English language (Latin) word, started in the (then) Fertile Crescent 11-13,000
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 2, 2008
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      "Agriculture, in the sense of the definition, concept and tradition of
      the English language (Latin) word, started in the (then) Fertile
      Crescent 11-13,000 years ago and spread across all of the area now
      covered by languages in the Indo-European language family - from
      Ireland and England east to India, north to Scandanavia, and including
      Italy -Roman empire-, Greece, etc."


      Reference
      -----------
      One of many
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/files/Hillman%20et%20al-Late%20Glacial%20Cereal%20Cult%20-Abu%20Hureyra-2001.pdf
      This paper may be found in full, in the files section here in this
      group if you are a member, try the web url address above.
      It can be used as a good, very recent introduction to this wider
      literature on Fertile Crescent derived agriculture.
      Farming from other traditions such as China and Papua, which started
      in the same era as this, may be found out about in other literature.
      ********************************************************************

      The Holocene, Vol. 11, No. 4, 383-393 (2001)
      DOI: 10.1191/095968301678302823
      © 2001 SAGE Publications

      New evidence of Lateglacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the
      Euphrates
      ======================================================================

      Gordon Hillman
      --------------
      (Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 31–34 Gordon
      Square, London WC1H 0PY, UK

      Robert Hedges
      -------------
      Research Laboratory for Archaeology and History, University of Oxford,
      6 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3QJ, UK

      Andrew Moore
      ------------
      Office of the Dean, College of Liberal Arts, Rochester Institute of
      Technology, 92 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623–5604, USA)

      Susan Colledge
      --------------
      (Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 31–34 Gordon
      Square, London WC1H 0PY, UK

      Paul Pettitt
      ------------
      Research Laboratory for Archaeology and History, University of Oxford,
      6 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3QJ, UK


      Hitherto, the earliest archaeological finds of domestic cereals in
      southwestern Asia have involved wheats and barleys dating from the
      beginning of the Holocene, 11–12000 calendar years ago. New evidence
      from the site of Abu Hureyra suggests that systematic cultivation of
      cereals in fact started well before the end of the Pleistocene by at
      least 13000 years ago, and that rye was among the first crops. The
      evidence also indicates that hunter-gatherers at Abu Hureyra first
      started cultivating crops in response to a steep decline in wild
      plants that had served as staple foods for at least the preceding four
      centuries. The decline in these wild staples is attributable to a
      sudden, dry, cold, climatic reversal equivalent to the `Younger Dryas'
      period. At Abu Hureyra, therefore, it appears that the primary trigger
      for the occupants to start cultivating caloric staples was climate
      change. It is these beginnings of cultivation in the late Pleistocene
      that gave rise to the integrated grain-livestock Neolithic farming
      systems of the early Holocene.

      Key Words: Agricultural origins • cereal cultivation •
      hunter-gatherers • domestication • palaeoclimate • rye • Abu Hureyra •
      Euphrates • southwestern Asia • Lateglaical • early Holocene
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