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Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Morishima Acacia.

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  • rajutitus lal
    Thank you very much for the information,Actually problem is with Hindi translation,Rice is common but Barley is not common food grain . In the Translator s
    Message 1 of 37 , Oct 8, 2007
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      Thank you very much for the information,Actually problem is with Hindi translation,Rice is common but Barley is not common food grain . In the Translator's Note-(-In general, what is said about Barley applies equally well to wheat,and vice versa, although barley and especially naked barley, is more widely grown in Japan.)
      We are also femiler with barley it is used in medicine and in worship.It is natural grain comes naturally with wheat crop farmers remove it as weed.
      I want to use wheat word instead of barley in translation because oh common use.There are so many varieties of wheat in India barley is one of them.Look of crop is similer but some difference in grain.
      -Raju Titus

      Dieter Brand <diebrand@...> wrote:
      Rajititus,

      Wheat and barley are two different grains the World over. There was
      a little linguistic problem in the translation of Fukuoka's work because
      in Japanese you have different terms: "mugi" can mean both "wheat" and
      "barley" (depending on context, "small grains" could be used in English,
      even though that also includes rye etc.), "omugi" means "barley" and
      "komugi" means "wheat". I think Fukuoka probably used all three terms
      in different places. I don’t remember exactly, but the problem may have
      been that the translator didn't know whether to translate "mugi" as
      "wheat" or as "barley". Anyway, from the method-point of view it
      doesn't matter all that much since both can be used in his cropping
      rotation of: rice/clover/barley (wheat).

      I don't know which picture you looked at, but the Japanese legends
      for the colour photos illustration "Mu II" and "Shizen ni kaeru" (return to
      nature) only say "mugi" (i.e., wheat or barley). The photos are
      too small to distinguish between wheat and barley.

      The principal staple crop in Japan is of course rice. When I first
      moved to Japan 25 years ago, most Japanese hardly ate any bread.
      The consumption of bread has increased in recent years together
      with other imports from the West. However, there is traditionally
      a demand for wheat for making "ramen" and "udon" noodles. There
      is also a tradition, from since before the war, of using barley for
      making beer. Sapporo and Kirin are two Japanese beer brands
      that are not bad at all.

      How is barley used as medicine in India?

      Dieter Brand
      Portugal

      rajutitus lal <rajuktitus@...> wrote:
      Dear friend,
      Thanks for the valuable information.Simply we know that this Australian acacia.In 1988 in January Fukuoka visited our farm at that time we were not knowing its importance ,he suggested do not cut keep these trees from that day our full field is covered by this, and we are taking all adwantages from this plant.
      One more information I would like to know what is the difference between Wheat and Barly in Japan.
      In India it is two diffrent grains of the same family.Wheat is very common food grain but Barly is used in medicine or in some religius work but is not common food grain.But by look in photos of Fukuoka farm it looks like Wheat which is we using as a common food grain.
      Thanks
      Raju

      macropneuma <macropneuma@...> wrote:
      Rajutitus, that is good to have on here.
      Just a note for all:
      This Morishima Acacia is an Australian native species (as Fukuoka
      noted), the translation of its *old* name (pre at latest 1990's)
      Acacia mollissima into Japanese rendered the letters "L" as the letter
      "R" because Japanese language doesn't have a letter "L" at all (BTW
      the Japanese sound for "R" is similar to an English sound half way
      between "R" & "L"). So the old Acacia mollissima name, which was in
      use up until the 1980's in Australia, is now correctly called Acacia
      mearnsii - please see our Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) at
      http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apx?taxon_id=12438 &
      http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni?taxon_id=12121 .
      Thinking about the fact that Fukuoka wrote basics about
      plants-subjects in his 1975 [わら一本の革å`½...] "Wara Ippon no
      Kakumei..." (One Straw Revolution) or earlier writings, then Acacia
      mollissima name would have been correctly used and current then, for
      what is now recognised as Acacia mearnsii. And the transliteration
      into Japanese would be written in Romaji as mo.ri.sh.ma (Romaji is
      romanised characters of Japanese instead of Hiragana & Kanji).

      So in summary, mo.ri.sh.ma is just Romaji for the english word
      mollissima, which in turn is an old synonym species of Acacia for what
      is now Acacia mearnsii.

      To confirm, I grew up in Melbourne area, Australia, where there is an
      abundance of naturally growing Acacia mearnsii, I'm a botanist by
      profession (amongst others) so I know this species intimately-well and
      I've inspected very carefully Fukuoka's photo's of it in his orchard -
      thereby I can confirm its species diagnosis as Acacia mearnsii - only
      one better confirmation would be to get a pressed specimen sent to the
      official plant identification agency in the state of Victoria,
      Australia - the MEL (Melbourne) Herbarium.

      --- In fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com, rajutitus lal <rajuktitus@...>
      wrote:
      >
      > Friends what Fukuoka is saying about this miracle tree.
      > Natural way of farming (page no-199)
      > Morishima Acacia:
      > Although Morishima Acacia serves as a fertilizer tree, I
      would like to include it plays a role also in association with ground
      cover cultivation. Up to about ten of these trees should be planted
      per quarter-acre among the fruit trees. A member of the pea family,
      this tree is effective in the following ways:
      >
      > 1) rapid improvement of deep soil layers;
      > 2) can be used to form a shelterbelt, but may serve also a
      wind break when planted between fruit trees;
      > 3) serves as a shade tree during the summer in warm region
      and protects the soil from depletion .
      > 4) effective in preventing the emergence of orchard pests,
      especially mites.
      >
      > Nor is this all .The bark of the tree is rich in tannin and
      can be sold for a good price. In addition, the wood is excellent as a
      material for making desks and chairs, and the nectar of the flower
      serves as a source of honey.
      > No other evergreen tree of the pea family grows as quickly as
      Morishima Acacia. It grows five feet or more in a year, creating a
      shelterbelt in just three to four years, and becoming about the size
      of a telephone pole in seven to eight years.
      > After five to six years of growth, I felled these and buried
      the trunks and tops in trenches within the orchard. Saplings do not
      take well, so it is better to plant the seed directly. All one has to
      do is scatter seed here and there through out the orchard, and in six
      year or so, it becomes hard to tell from afar whether one is looking
      at a citrus grove or a forest.
      > Along with growing cover crops, I started early dig trenches
      and fill them with organic matter to speed up the process of soil
      enrichment. I tried using a variety of organic materials such as straw
      ,hay, twigs and small branches, ferns, wood and bark chips, and
      lumber. After comparing the results, I found that hay, straw and ferns
      which I would have expected to be the least expensive, were in fact
      quite costly, while wood chips were not .The only problem was hauling
      this material in. As it turned out, the best material was lumber,
      whish was relatively inexpensive, but this too was at times difficult
      to carry in. This when I first decided to produce right there in my
      orchard. Figuring that the easiest and most beneficial way was to
      return to the orchard what had been grown there, I tried planting
      various types of trees and found the best to be Morishima acacia.
      > Five or six years after planting acacias, an area of more
      than 100 square yards of what had been hard, lean soil about each tree
      had become soft and porous. This was far easier than blasting with
      dynamite and burying organic matter, and much more effective. In
      addition, when cut, each tree gave as much as a half-ton of high
      quality organic material for burying. It was hard to feel enthusiastic
      about digging trenches when there was nothing to bury in them, but
      with organic material on hand, the trenches got dug.
      > Acacia Protects Natural Predators: I recommend the use of
      Morishima acacia even when replanting an old, rundown orchard. For
      example, in the case of a 40-to50-year-old orchard ,one could plant a
      large number of these acacia among the fruit trees and five to six
      year later fell all the fruit trees and acacias at ones than re plant
      the entire orchard with three to four year saplings . Not only would
      this be a far better method of replanishing the soil than running a
      bulldozer through the orchard and replanting is also rejuvenate the land.
      > The acacia grows constantly throughout the year, always
      sending out new shoots. These attract aphids and scales, which support
      a growing population of ladybugs. One important role of the acacia
      than is to serve a protective tree for beneficial insects. Planting
      five or so acacia per quarter- acre keeps scales and mites down to a
      minimum. In addition to acacia, other trees that support population of
      beneficial insects will certainly be developed in the future.
      >
      >
      > Raju Titus
      > Natural farmer of India
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > ---------------------------------
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    • Jason Stewart
      Dear friend Raju, Some understanding, some misunderstanding, you had of that post of mine. Black Wattle Acacia mearnsii ≠ Subabul (Leucana leucocephala)
      Message 37 of 37 , Nov 3, 2010
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        Dear friend Raju,

        Some understanding, some misunderstanding, you had of that post of mine.

        Black Wattle Acacia mearnsii ≠ Subabul (Leucana leucocephala)

        Subabul (Leucana leucocephala) seems Okay to me in your farm from all your
        photos and your words i've seen.

        I did not say nor quote any words about Subabul (Leucana leucocephala).

        The word science (originally) means: to know - at it's most basic.
        Great Spirit God understands knows much what we humans do not understand know.
        Scientists took Acacia mearnsii Black Wattle to India, in Kerala state, creating
        the problem, and then wrote up about that problem in that paper. There is no
        reason to use it in India at all, or for Acacia mearnsii Black Wattle to grow in
        India at all, Great Spirit God did not provide it in to India.

        etcetera

        Of course, Mr. Fukuoka sensei was by the way an excellent botanist, using
        correct names for plants throughout his books - correct common names - so that
        we all people all around the world are enabled by him to communicate and
        understand what he says and what he means in terms of plant names.

        etcetera
        ...

        ======================================================

        Separately and more generally from above,
        A small quote from Mr. Fukuoka sensei
        * 1992
        wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no kakumei」
        (わら一本お革命・総括編 「神と自然と人と革命」?);
        Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?,
        One of Mr. Fukuoka's own self-publishing-publisher-names) in 1992 Dec.,
        230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.
        --* 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A
        RECAPITULATION"
        -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned this English-retranslation and printing in an
        extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN,
        printed by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a
        (小心舎)".
        -from page 66:
        "
        Of course, the fundamental idea behind the natural farming method is the
        *dharma* (natural law) of do-nothing nature.
        " - It is Mr. Fukuoka sensei's emphasis using stars * where he writes it in
        Italics.

        The same sentence quoting Mr. Fukuoka sensei, in his own Japanese from:
        * 2001
        wara ippon no kakumei sōkatsuhen -nendo dango no tabi-
        (わら一本の革命 総括編 —粘土団子の旅—?);
        Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's
        own self-publishing-publisher-names) in 2001 May,
        hundreds of captioned photographs from his farm and travels all around Earth,
        reproduced drawings & diagrams, and
        a full book of text pages also,
        271 pp., A4 30x21cm, ISBN 978-4938743024; ISBN 4938743027;
        Re-published in 2010 April by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) ISBN 978-4393741511.
        --* Title translation only: The One Straw Revolution Recapitulation -Journeying
        [around Earth] with clay seed balls-. In Japanese only, not translated (yet).:

        "
        もちろん自然農法の根本思想は無為自然である。
        "
        keywords
        --------
        自然農法 - nature farming
        無為自然 - in Dharma (natural law [buddhist terms]) meaning unconditioned nature or
        "do-nothing" nature.


        ==============


        Another parallel Japanese and translated-into-English-by-Mr.-Fukuoka-sensei
        quote:

        "
        [Japanese (1992):] 私は西洋j人から “do nothingの男” と言われるが、ただ時計を捨てただけである。
        [Mr. Fukuoka sensei's own commissioned translation to English (1996):]
        Westerners call me a "do-nothing man", but I simply threw away my watch. In
        fact, fool that I am, I even discarded the Buddha."
        "

        =================

        No one is a guru! No idols! Not any one of us! Idolatry! Most important to not
        oneself let one's self get put up on a pedastal by those around us. Pedastal
        means to stand above, higher, than people around us, eg. a guru. This compassion
        for each of our true identities consisting of connections, continuities, of
        identity as a part within nature, rather than of ego(s), makes major compassion
        for all, including especially particularly for all around us who have been
        trying to put us up on a pedastal, when i/we want them all to raise themselves
        to no ego and identify with as a part of nature.

        Mr. Fukuoka sensei himself in his genuine genius still steadfastly remained true
        that he himself is not perfect, not a perfect example. His admission of this is
        part of his genius!
        This is also classic Japanese-cultural humility.
        Also it is true in a dharma (natural law) sense that all of us humans however
        enlightened, we are not, cannot be absolutely perfect.
        The Dalai Lama comes even closer but still is not so by his own admission.
        Mother Theresa comes closer but still is not. Sin if you like to call it that.
        I'm critical friend Raju of your shrill comments toward scientists.
        I don't like science either, but i want everyone to work with scientists.
        i want yo to call it bad science, and to call bad scientists bad scientist, of
        which there is much & many. Mr. Fukuoka sensei in the sense of the word science
        meaning to know remained a Mu philosopher, natural-Buddhist, natural-Christian,
        wrote some sympathetically of Islam, etcetera and a good scientist, and
        Oriental-natural-philosophy based good scientist. Even if: to know - means to
        recognise and know nothing.
        Not a western philosophy based scientist. That's a good distinction to make for
        all. For example Rene Descartes (Western philosophy originator) was wrong!
        I'm not a western philosophy based scientist.
        If i know that i have even better evidence regarding nature, than the
        scientists, then what am I?
        I'm a bushie -a bushman, here in south-eastern Oz, over all of my professional
        career in nature-restoration, natural history, computing (GIS), etc..
        So if i do actually have better evidence regarding nature than the scientists
        then i should and i do work with the scientists to *help them* to understand
        better -- most importantly to *help them* to appreciate the unknown, for example
        dharma nothingness Mr. Fukuoka sensei called "無" (Mu), and the lesser the
        uncertainties. The unknown and the uncertainties as information.


        Dear friend Raju, if only i could reply for you in Hindi!


        Biggest best wishes,

        Jason
        SE Oz



        ________________________________
        From: Raju Titus <rajuktitus@...>
        To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Wednesday, November 3, 2010 23:52:07
        Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Black Wattle, India! Botanical name: Acacia
        mearnsii -Re: Morishima Acacia.


        प्रिय मित्र,
        ये जानकारी भेजने के लिए धन्यवाद. ये जानकारी एक वैज्ञानिक के द्वारा दी गयी
        है. हमारा ग्रुप कुदरत से संबधित है हम कुदरत की निगाह से देखते हैं जबकि एक
        वैज्ञानिक विज्ञानं की निगाह से देखता है. फुकुओकाजी ने हमें धर्म और विज्ञानं
        के बदले कुदरती निगाह से देखना सिखाया है. हमने ये पाया है की वीड नाम की कोई
        भी चीज़ नहीं है. वीड और वीड किलर इन्सान ने बनाया है. हम इस बात से बिलकुल
        इतफाक नहीं रखते हैं की सुबबूल एक वीड है. और भविष्य में इस से कोई खतरा है.
        अनेक वैज्ञानिकों का अनुसन्धान फुकुओका की कुदरती खेती के बाद बेकार सिद्ध हो
        गया है. जैसे जमीन की जुताई, खाद, दवाई और वीड नाशक उपायों का अब कोई मोल नहीं
        रह गया है. इन उपायों के कारन ही आज हम कुदरती खान ,पान और हवा की कमी में मर
        रहे हैं. गरमाती धरती, बदलता मोसम और पर्यावरण प्रदुषण के कारन अब जीना न
        मुमकिन हो रहा है.
        हमारे खेत पूरे सुबबूल से भरे हैं जिस से हमें कुदरती हवा,पानी और फसलों के
        साथ साथ कुदरती आहार और भरपूर आमदनी है. अब भारत में अनेक लोग इस की खेती करने
        लगे हैं. खरपतवार का भय उन्हें नहीं है. खरपतवारों का भय पैदा कर अनेक लोग उसे
        मारने के जहरों का धंदा कर रहे हैं. ये बात उनके मतलब की है. फुकुओकाजी के सभी
        दोस्त अहिंसा में विश्वाश रखते हैं. कान्स घास भी वीड नहीं है. वो तो जमीन की
        जुताई के कारण पनपते रेगिस्थान को बचाने के लिए आती है. इसी प्रकार गाजर घास है
        जो बहुत काम की है. इसे वीड बताकर इसे मारने की अनेक दवाइयों का बाजार गरम है.
        हम इन वज्ञानिक जी के अनुसन्धान को बकवास मानते हैं.
        राजू

        Dear Friend,

        Thanks for sharing this information. This report was published by a
        scientist. Our group deals with nature and we look at things from nature’s
        view point, whereas a scientist looks at things from science’s view point.
        Fukuoka has taught us to look at things from nature’s view instead of
        religious (Dharma) or scientific views. I found that there is no such thing
        as a weed. Weed and weed killer are manufactured by man. I do not agree with
        the view that Subabool(Acacia) is a weed and there is no harm from it in
        future. The research of many scientists has been proven useless after
        Fukuoka’s natural farming revelations. There is no more value in ideas of
        tilling, fertilizers, pesticides and weed killers. It is precisely because
        of these ‘killer’ ideas that we are living devoid of natural food, water and
        air. Living has become impossible on this hotter earth, changing climate and
        environmental pollution.

        My farm is completely occupied by Subabool trees and provide me natural
        air, water, crops and good income. Many farmers in India have taken up this
        farming. They are not afraid of weeds. Many people and institutions have
        created the fear of weeds in the farmer’s mind and are doing good business
        by selling weed killers. This report pertains to them. Fukuoka’s friends
        believe in non-violence. Kans grass is also not a weed. It came up to
        protect my farms that were turning into deserts due to tilling. Same is the
        case withGaajar grass (Parthenium)’ which is actually a useful plant. The
        market is replete with chemicals to kill this plant. This research report by
        this scientist is crap to me.

        (Thank you very much Yugandher for quick translation)

        Raju

        On Tue, Nov 2, 2010 at 7:12 PM, Jason <macropneuma@...> wrote:

        >
        >
        > I just discovered some information about:
        > Black Wattle
        > Botanical name: Acacia mearnsii
        > growing in India! -- three years later i'm replying!!
        >
        > Quoting a 2002 paper:
        > "
        > Black Wattle Problem Emerges in Indian Forests
        >
        > Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) is a fast growing leguminous tree native to
        > Australia. It is widely used as a source of tannin, fuel wood, charcoal,
        > poles, green manure and windbreak. Suited to cooler tropics, this tree grows
        > well in tropical areas where the annual rainfall is more than 1000 mm.
        >
        > Extensive areas of black wattle plantations have been established in South
        > Africa, South America, southern Europe and Southeast Asia. The main purpose
        > of introduction was for the commercial production of tannins, which is used
        > for leather tanning and in products such as wood adhesive.
        >
        > In Kerala State in southern India, A. mearnsii was introduced in the 1980s
        > and mainly grown in the high altitude areas (over 1000 m above sea level;
        > masl). It was preferred over other candidate forestry species because of its
        > fast growth rate and the minimum post-planting care required. However,
        > attempts to grow A. mearnsii on a plantation scale were not successful in
        > most places in Kerala owing to high seedling mortality, eco-climatic stress
        > and other factors. Hence, it now occupies only a very small area in the
        > State, and fresh planting is not undertaken because of recurrent failure in
        > establishment.
        >
        > The experiment with black wattle plantations has left an ominous legacy,
        > however, for A. mearnsii has not simply gone away. Recent surveys conducted
        > by the Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) indicate that in certain
        > isolated pockets in the high altitude areas, some trees of A. mearnsii
        > survived against the odds and are now growing luxuriantly, forming small
        > scrub jungles. At Vattavada (1800 masl) in Idukki District, it was noticed
        > that, within a period of 3 years, A. mearnsii has penetrated and spread over
        > a 1 km2 area in the dense subtropical montane (shola) forests, suppressing
        > the native vegetation. Spread of the trees into the core areas of the highly
        > diverse shola forests at Kolukkumalai (2480 masl) in the same district was
        > also observed. The high competitive ability and seed production, prolonged
        > seed dormancy and high rate of seed viability of the species probably helped
        > the tree to spread like a wildfire into these forests. Collection of
        > branches and logs of A. mearnsii by the local people for firewood purposes
        > will also have helped spread of the tree species. Wild animals such as bison
        > and deer also aid in seed dispersal. The allelopathic properties of leaves
        > and branches are other possible factors favouring the gregarious growth of
        > the species.
        >
        > Needless to say, the biodiversity of the subtropical montane forests in
        > Kerala is now under great threat owing to this unchallenged invasion by A.
        > mearnsii. Control methods need to be considered urgently, and in this
        > context it should be noted that this species is a serious weed in South
        > Africa, where it was introduced much earlier than in Kerala.
        >
        > By: Dr K. V. Sankaran, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi - 680 653,
        > Kerala, India
        > Email: sankaran@... <sankaran%40kfri.org>
        > "
        >
        > Found via the wikipedia Acacia mearnsii page at a bio-control web page
        > (from 2002 writing, archived in 2005):
        > ->
        >http://web.archive.org/web/20050404234030/http://pest.cabweb.org/Journals/BNI/Bni23-1/Gennews.htm
        >m
        >
        > The conclusion i make is:
        > 1) be very very careful using this species Acacia mearnsii.
        > It's a potent plant, and can damage our Mother Earth in those places where
        > our Mother Earth is healthy already with healthy forests already, growing
        > naturally.
        > Mr. Fukuoka sensei did recognise seriously hazardous noxious weeds and
        > pests as compared to everyday weeds and pests. Weeding in terms of
        > eradication on a day-to-day-labour basis proves unnecessary, it really does,
        > completely, after all.
        > Over many years or even over decades the long-term and only-strategic
        > approach of eradication of only the seriously hazardous *noxious* weeds and
        > pests is in the purview of Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature farming - caring for
        > ourselves in Mother Earth.
        > It's not a 'grey subject' for subjective decisions of the discriminating
        > mind to choose this plant which i like and that plant which i don't like --
        > weed eradication clearly is only a subject when there's
        > patently-clear-evidence of dramatically hazardous noxious weediness. That
        > (God) decides Mother Earth needs protection by us as Mother Earth's
        > servants, not decided by human discriminating judgements, not intellectual
        > judgements, not by make believe!
        > And, the methods used for eradicating the noxious weed also must be not
        > violent!, not damaging-to our Mother Earth.
        > Friend & facilitator Raju's natural methods for overcoming Kans grass, he
        > previously described in this group, are a good example of "do-nothing"
        > strategic weed eradication over several years without damage of our Mother
        > Earth, without violence, without tilling which really does kill, kill
        > networks of roots between different plants in the soil, in which plants of
        > different types fuse their roots together and share foods with each other
        > (this in written science evidence not mystical-made-up raving stuff - tell
        > me if you want the references, i will then prioritise it, compared with my
        > busy work);
        > Raju did, with in fact with healing Mother Earth. :
        > -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/8993
        > -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/7764
        > -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5361
        >
        > Critically it would not have happened, would not have died out by Raju's
        > ceasing tilling, by the soil & crops healing, and different plants and
        > different weeds growing instead, if Raju had decided that Kans grass was a
        > good weed, discriminatingly-good for making special efforts to keep
        > propagating it, and to spread it around more and more, over and over again,
        > not letting it die out by itself, with practices healing our Mother Earth.
        >
        > Mr. Fukuoka sensei gives very clear evidence in the example of Queensland
        > Fruit Flies and Med-Flies, noxious fruit pests, threatening, in Japan, to
        > effectively damage Mother Earth (at least by indirect effects on agriculture
        > practices and threatening massively increased chemical use).
        >
        > 2) Don't, please, don't discriminate Acacia mearnsii Black Wattle as
        > superior to any different plants, leguminous plants, which grow already in
        > your own area of the world. It is not superior! Great spirit God would have
        > put it there already many thousands of years ago if it was best for there.
        > Acacia mearnsii Black Wattle grows indigenous here where i live in
        > south-eastern Australia, and so as Great Spirit God decided, *it is* the
        > best for here.
        >
        > There are indigenous legumes all over the world, naturally by Great Spirit
        > God. Of course.
        > A few common northern hemisphere names are:
        > Clovers -many types
        > Medics - Medicago - many types
        > Lupins - various types
        > Gorse or Furze - Ulex spp. - many types in Europe.
        > Brooms (shrubs) - Genista spp., Cytisus spp., Chaemaecytistus spp.,
        > Spartium spp.
        > -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broom_(shrub)
        > etcetera etcetera -- there are thousands more names of types of indigenous
        > legumes, and potent ones of course, in of course USA, Canada, South America,
        > Asia, Mediterranean Europe, Western Europe, Russia, Middle East, Africa and
        > so on. Save them, please, your local indigenous legumes before
        > desertification destroys them from their home which Great Spirit God gave
        > them in.
        > (Many of these northern-hemisphere-indigenous-only legumes have in
        > plentiful-evidence over often massive geographic-areas here in Australia
        > often been very damaging dramatic noxious weeds to our Oz indigenous forests
        > made by Mother Earth, Great Spirit God, mainly because they too are very
        > potent nitrogen fixing legumes, also growing very fast and also producing
        > often tens of thousands of plants per year.)
        >
        > 3) Therefore please use your local indigenous plant species first and
        > foremost, as Great Spirit God provided!
        > Rather than discriminating-as-better some sort of plant types' species
        > coming indigenously from different lands.
        > It beats-me-why these northern hemisphere indigenous nitrogen fixing
        > legumes, a small proportion of examples listed above, are not massively used
        > in re-vegetating European & north American man-made deserts.
        > It's really not that difficult, even if they've become scarce regionally
        > from the desertification.
        > They grow so easily from seed, and a small area in your various nature farm
        > orchards will provide in a few years tens of thousands of additional seeds,
        > which you can then sow across the man-made deserts. Dear friends Panos,
        > Raju, Karoubas and all in Europe and North America, i say these
        > critically-encouraging suggestions particularly for you. Thank you so much
        > for your great works over so many years and so many decades, may more get
        > accomplished going forward.
        >
        > Biggest best wishes to all,
        >
        > Jason - I'm a bushie above all (above careers and entertainments)
        > south-eastern Oz (slang for Australia - as i'm not south of any other
        > continent, just south & east of the centre of this continent. <smile>)
        >
        > --- In fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>,
        > edward barton <siliconvalley47@...> wrote:
        > >
        > > Hi,
        > > Thanks for very enlightening info.
        > > What is the Hindi ,Marathi,Gujerati
        > > name for Morishima Acacia.
        > > Thanks for your help.
        > > regards
        > > edward
        > > --- rajutitus lal <rajuktitus@...> wrote:
        > >
        > > > Friends what Fukuoka is saying about this miracle
        > > > tree.
        > > > Natural way of farming (page no-199)
        > > > Morishima Acacia:
        > > > Although Morishima Acacia serves as a
        > > > fertilizer tree, I would like to include it plays a
        > > > role also in association with ground cover
        > > > cultivation. Up to about ten of these trees should
        > > > be planted per quarter-acre among the fruit trees. A
        > > > member of the pea family, this tree is effective in
        > > > the following ways:
        > > >
        > > > 1) rapid improvement of deep soil layers;
        > > > 2) can be used to form a shelterbelt, but may
        > > > serve also a wind break when planted between fruit
        > > > trees;
        > > > 3) serves as a shade tree during the summer
        > > > in warm region and protects the soil from depletion
        > > > .
        > > > 4) effective in preventing the emergence of
        > > > orchard pests, especially mites.
        > > >
        > > > Nor is this all .The bark of the tree is rich
        > > > in tannin and can be sold for a good price. In
        > > > addition, the wood is excellent as a material for
        > > > making desks and chairs, and the nectar of the
        > > > flower serves as a source of honey.
        > > > No other evergreen tree of the pea family
        > > > grows as quickly as Morishima Acacia. It grows five
        > > > feet or more in a year, creating a shelterbelt in
        > > > just three to four years, and becoming about the
        > > > size of a telephone pole in seven to eight years.
        > > > After five to six years of growth, I felled
        > > > these and buried the trunks and tops in trenches
        > > > within the orchard. Saplings do not take well, so it
        > > > is better to plant the seed directly. All one has to
        > > > do is scatter seed here and there through out the
        > > > orchard, and in six year or so, it becomes hard to
        > > > tell from afar whether one is looking at a citrus
        > > > grove or a forest.
        > > > Along with growing cover crops, I started
        > > > early dig trenches and fill them with organic matter
        > > > to speed up the process of soil enrichment. I tried
        > > > using a variety of organic materials such as straw
        > > > ,hay, twigs and small branches, ferns, wood and bark
        > > > chips, and lumber. After comparing the results, I
        > > > found that hay, straw and ferns which I would have
        > > > expected to be the least expensive, were in fact
        > > > quite costly, while wood chips were not .The only
        > > > problem was hauling this material in. As it turned
        > > > out, the best material was lumber, whish was
        > > > relatively inexpensive, but this too was at times
        > > > difficult to carry in. This when I first decided to
        > > > produce right there in my orchard. Figuring that the
        > > > easiest and most beneficial way was to return to the
        > > > orchard what had been grown there, I tried planting
        > > > various types of trees and found the best to be
        > > > Morishima acacia.
        > > > Five or six years after planting acacias, an
        > > > area of more than 100 square yards of what had been
        > > > hard, lean soil about each tree had become soft and
        > > > porous. This was far easier than blasting with
        > > > dynamite and burying organic matter, and much more
        > > > effective. In addition, when cut, each tree gave as
        > > > much as a half-ton of high quality organic material
        > > > for burying. It was hard to feel enthusiastic about
        > > > digging trenches when there was nothing to bury in
        > > > them, but with organic material on hand, the
        > > > trenches got dug.
        > > > Acacia Protects Natural Predators: I recommend the
        > > > use of Morishima acacia even when replanting an old,
        > > > rundown orchard. For example, in the case of a
        > > > 40-to50-year-old orchard ,one could plant a large
        > > > number of these acacia among the fruit trees and
        > > > five to six year later fell all the fruit trees and
        > > > acacias at ones than re plant the entire orchard
        > > > with three to four year saplings . Not only would
        > > > this be a far better method of replanishing the soil
        > > > than running a bulldozer through the orchard and
        > > > replanting is also rejuvenate the land.
        > > > The acacia grows constantly throughout the
        > > > year, always sending out new shoots. These attract
        > > > aphids and scales, which support a growing
        > > > population of ladybugs. One important role of the
        > > > acacia than is to serve a protective tree for
        > > > beneficial insects. Planting five or so acacia per
        > > > quarter- acre keeps scales and mites down to a
        > > > minimum. In addition to acacia, other trees that
        > > > support population of beneficial insects will
        > > > certainly be developed in the future.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > Raju Titus
        > > > Natural farmer of India
        > > >
        > > >
        > > >
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > ---------------------------------
        > > > Be a better Heartthrob. Get better relationship
        > > > answers from someone who knows.
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        > > >
        > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been
        > > > removed]
        > > >
        > > >
        > >
        > >
        > >
        > > __________________________________________________________
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        >
        >
        >

        --
        Raju Titus. Hoshangabad. 461001.India.
        +919179738049.
        http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus<http://picasawebalbum.google.com/rajuktitus>

        fukuoka_farming yahoogroup

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