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R: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Catching up with life

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  • claudio
    ... From: Judy Phillips To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com Sent: Saturday, September 13, 2003 1:40 PM Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Catching up with life
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 13, 2003
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      ----- Original Message -----
      From: Judy Phillips
      To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Saturday, September 13, 2003 1:40 PM
      Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Catching up with life


      Larry wrote:
      I was struck with the amazing amount of
      information contained in many of the posts to this list, and once again
      aggravated that all that information goes into the intenet equivalent of a
      dusty drawer in the back of a storage room that is neither easy to enter nor
      easy to find stuff in. There HAS to be a better way to catalog and index all
      that experience/wisdom/mental gyrations.

      Hello Larry and welcome back!
      I too have been gone for several months, but do manage to pop in ocasonally
      to collect pearls of wisdom from our excellent list. Wanted to mention the
      Greenstone Digital Library software to you as a possible resouce for
      organizing and cataloging the wealth of information to be found on the
      Fukuoka website and list. This open source software is easy to use and
      completely free. Archives can be accessed online or even distributed on CDs.
      You can read more about it at http://www.greenstone.org/english/home.html.
      We talked about this approach briefly some months ago, before life swept
      both of us away from our computers. I would be happy to assist in this
      project, but it would have to wait til winter--right now 110% of my time is
      going into housebuilding, to enusre that we have a roof over our heads
      before the snow flies!
      Green blessings
      Judy Phillips



      ----- Original Message -----
      From: <fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com>
      To: <fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com>
      Sent: Wednesday, September 10, 2003 3:45 AM
      Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Digest Number 568


      >
      > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
      > fukuoka_farming-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
      >
      >
      > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
      >
      > There are 5 messages in this issue.
      >
      > Topics in this digest:
      >
      > 1. Re: Digest Number 567
      > From: Vin Lava <vinlava@...>
      > 2. Catching up with life
      > From: Larry Haftl <larry@...>
      > 3. Re: Catching up with life
      > From: Vernon Sinclair <vernon.sinclair@...>
      > 4. Re: Catching up with life
      > From: Larry Haftl <larry@...>
      > 5. Re: time for straw decomposing
      > From: "Beatrice Gilboa" <b.gilboa@...>
      >
      >
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      >
      > Message: 1
      > Date: Tue, 9 Sep 2003 18:39:14 -0700 (PDT)
      > From: Vin Lava <vinlava@...>
      > Subject: Re: Digest Number 567
      >
      > Hi,
      >
      > I found this very interesting.
      >
      > Regards.
      >
      > Vin Lava
      > Philippines
      >
      >
      > THE OVERSTORY #128--Wild Foods in Agricultural Systems
      >
      > By Ian Scoones, Mary Melnyk and Jules N. Pretty
      >
      >
      >
      > THE OVERSTORY BOOK contains the first three years of
      > The Overstory, revised, formatted, and indexed, and is
      > available for purchase at:
      > http://www.agroforestry.net/overstory/ovbook.html
      >
      >
      > ADDRESS CHANGES: Please send any changes in your
      > e-mail address to overstory@...
      >
      >
      >
      > ::::::::::::::
      >
      > The Overstory #128 - Wild Foods in Agricultural
      > Systems
      > By Ian Scoones, Mary Melnyk and Jules N. Pretty
      >
      >
      > Contents:
      >
      > : INTRODUCTION
      > : AGROECOLOGICAL CHANGE
      > : AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS
      > : HOME GARDENS
      > : WEEDS AS FOOD
      > : PESTS AS FOOD
      > : HUNTING AND GATHERING
      > : PATTERNS OF USE: SEASONALITY, REGULATION AND
      > SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES
      > : LITERATURE CITED
      > : ORIGINAL SOURCE
      > : ABOUT THE AUTHORS' ORGANIZATION
      > : WEB LINKS
      > : RELATED EDITIONS OF THE OVERSTORY
      > : PUBLISHER NOTES
      > : SUBSCRIPTIONS
      >
      >
      >
      > ::::::::
      >
      >
      > INTRODUCTION
      >
      > Throughout the world, agricultural systems are
      > potential sites for a great diversity of managed and
      > collected plant and animal foods. Conventional
      > agricultural research and extension, by focusing only
      > on the main food crops, chiefly cereals, roots and
      > domesticated livestock, have long ignored the range of
      > other plants and animals that also make up
      > agricultural systems.
      >
      > Studies of this diversity and attendant complexity are
      > demonstrating the importance of understanding the full
      > range of products harvested. For instance, in the
      > apparently maize-dominated agricultural system of
      > Bungoma in Kenya, people consume at least 100
      > different species of vegetables and fruits drawn from
      > 70 genera and belonging to 35 families (88; 729).
      > Similarly, the agropastoral Tswana people in Botswana
      > use 126 plant species and 100 animal species as
      > sources of food (261). Similar patterns are shown in
      > SE Asia (179; 132; 152; 188), Himalayan areas (160),
      > Central America (682), Latin America (2; 3; 126),
      > northern Europe (866; 867) and elsewhere in Africa
      > (47-49; 82; 273; 400a; 493; 494; 770).
      >
      > Studies of settled agriculture worldwide, whether in
      > semi-arid, temperate or humid settings, on the plains
      > or in mountain areas, show that hunting and gathering
      > remains an important component of the livelihoods of
      > agricultural peoples. There is no progressive
      > evolutionary trend of 'development' from
      > hunter-gatherer to small-scale settled agriculture and
      > livestock keeping to intensive agricultural systems.
      > Livelihood strategies in all social, economic and
      > ecological settings encompass a wide range of
      > activities. These include the exploitation of a hidden
      > harvest of wild food sources. Diversification of
      > livelihood strategies, combining agricultural sources
      > of food and income with that derived from wild
      > resources, is particularly important for the
      > poorest households, and for women and children (48;
      > 49; 608-630).
      >
      >
      > AGROECOLOGICAL CHANGE
      >
      > As agroecosystems change through expansion of
      > cultivated areas or changes in cropping patterns, so
      > the availability of wild foods alters. As woodlands
      > are cleared, new edible weeds and pests linked with
      > agricultural lands appear as other foods associated
      > with the woodland ecology disappear (170; 171 for
      > southern Zimbabwe). The simplification of
      > agroecosystems, such as in the conversion of forest
      > areas to cattle pastures in Brazil and the
      > intensification of small-scale agriculture through
      > Green Revolution technologies worldwide, has the
      > greatest impact on the poor, as key sources of food
      > are lost (76).
      >
      > Although the greatest diversity of wild foods are
      > found in multi-layered, complex agroforestry systems
      > and home gardens, wild foods are still important in
      > apparently simple, monoculture systems. For instance,
      > canals feeding extensive rice areas are habitats for
      > fish, frogs and plants associated with excess
      > irrigation water (4; 69; 152). Similarly, other forms
      > of intensive agriculture may harbour particular pests
      > such as rats, mice and locusts, which may be eaten.
      > Intensification of agriculture, with increased use of
      > pesticides and fertilisers, may have a negative effect
      > on the wild food crop by killing off the potential
      > foods 'pests' or 'weeds'. However fertiliser inputs
      > may increase the prevalence of certain species (152).
      >
      > Wild foods are not only associated with undisturbed
      > systems that replicate the ecological diversity of the
      > uncleared forest, they are also found in degraded
      > sites. Sometimes disturbance increases the diversity
      > of wild products (173). For instance, in Kenya and
      > Tanzania, the greatest prevalence of wild vegetables
      > was found in gullies caused by erosion on farmland
      > (90; 173). Pathways, roadsides, home sites and field
      > edges are also potential sites for wild products;
      > sites which otherwise might be considered valueless.
      > Areas that are logged within forests may become the
      > site for mushroom fruiting (861).
      >
      > More often, the diversity of wild foods declines
      > during the conversion of complex woodland to
      > simplified cropped land. For instance, in three
      > Tanzanian villages there is a correlation between the
      > diversity of edible plants being eaten and the degree
      > of deforestation (400a). Similarly, twenty years of
      > agricultural change in Kenya have had a major impact
      > on Mbeere wild food collection and use strategies,
      > causing them to use fewer wild food sources, because
      > of reduced access to bush land as a result of land
      > privatisation (28-30; 137).
      >
      > As agricultural systems change there are new pressures
      > on wild food resources. One response is actively to
      > domesticate the wild foods. Vegetables and fruit
      > trees, formerly harvested in the forest or grazing
      > areas, are increasingly protected or planted (1). In
      > north-west Uganda valuable weeds in the diet of
      > farmers
      > have started to be cultivated within the home
      > compounds (156; 729 for western Kenya). Similarly
      > bush-fallow systems may be transformed by enrichment
      > planting (108), such as the planting of fruit trees in
      > fruit-poor Acacia fallow areas (39).
      >
      >
      > AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS
      >
      > Farmers have always incorporated trees into farming
      > systems. An increased interest in agroforestry during
      > the past decades has resulted in a more thorough
      > documentation of agroforestry practices from Africa
      > (1; 24; 56; 89; 105; 114; 138; 139), home gardens in
      > SE Asia (40; 62; 102-104; 116; 151a; 151b; 168),
      > kitchen gardens in the West Indies (27) and
      > agroforestry systems in Latin America (2; 3; 9; 53;
      > 58; 99; 117-119). The complexity and diversity of many
      > managed agroforestry systems is immense (23).
      >
      > The inclusion of trees as a component of the
      > agricultural system increases the structural
      > complexity of the field environment, provides a degree
      > of complementarity in seasonal and interannual
      > production patterns with annual crops and changes the
      > labour commitments to an area of land. Retaining trees
      > on farm land during clearance for agriculture or
      > subsequent planting of trees produces a range of
      > ecological habitats and seasonal niches ideal for wild
      > food production.
      >
      > During the selective clearing of land for agriculture,
      > farmers usually retain particular tree species. These
      > are often fruit trees, the providers of seasonally
      > important wild foods. In Zimbabwe, clearing of
      > Julbernadia globiflora dominated miombo woodland
      > reduced canopy cover from 52% to 8%. But the canopy
      > cover of fruit trees was only reduced from 7% to 1%.
      > Some favoured fruit tree species, notably Diospyros
      > mespilliformis, Strychnos cocculoides and Azanza
      > garkeana, showed no reduction in cover when forested
      > areas and cultivated areas were compared. Despite
      > widespread deforestation for land clearance in one
      > site, patterns of fruit use in two agricultural areas
      > were similar because trees had been selectively
      > retained in cleared fields during woodland clearance
      > (36).
      >
      > In other settings, trees within farming systems have
      > been enriched by planting. The complex multi-storey
      > home garden systems found in Indonesia (104), Mexico
      > (7), Tanzania (63), Kenya (110), tropical America
      > (165) and elsewhere (56; 65; 101; 102) are examples of
      > intensively managed multi-species systems. Within such
      > gardens wild foods can be found occupying a diversity
      > of ecological niches.
      >
      > Wild fruit trees may be collected from forest areas
      > and planted in agricultural land to enrich on-farm
      > tree species. This has been recorded in many instances
      > (89; 126; 132). The fruit producing potential of wild
      > cultivars can also be upgraded by simple grafting and
      > breeding techniques (115).
      >
      >
      > HOME GARDENS
      >
      > Complex home gardens have been described in West
      > Sumatra (104) and Java (102; 151a) in Indonesia. Here
      > a range of annual and perennial crops are grown
      > together, complementing the main rice crop derived
      > from other fields. In Java, home gardens containing
      > 500 species are found within a single village (102).
      > There are several different types of garden, including
      > the intensively managed home garden, the
      > village/forest gardens and the forest fringe gardens.
      > The importance of wild foods increases in gardens
      > towards the forest fringe; these gardens resemble more
      > closely the ecological conditions of the forest
      > itself. In Western Sumatra a range wild foods
      > including 22 fruits, 8 vegetables and spices and 3
      > fern species are protected and harvested in different
      > garden types, while in migrant communities' gardens in
      > Mexico some 338 species are found (7). Home gardens
      > are also important as a site for experimentation with
      > new varieties, domestication attempts and evaluation
      > of different cropping rotations and patterns (128;
      > 188; 243).
      >
      >
      > WEEDS AS FOOD
      >
      > Trees are not the only component of the agricultural
      > system that are potential sources of food. Along with
      > the major crops planted by the farmer, a range of
      > plant material can be found in agricultural fields
      > that represent potential food (25; 70; 90; 111-113;
      > 175; 703b). These wild foods (vegetables, tubers,
      > grasses) may be potential competitors with the major
      > crop, but whether they are weeds depends on the
      > observer. To many agronomists anything but the major
      > crop itself is regarded as a weed, and so the monocrop
      > ideal (or at most, simple intercropping) is preached
      > by agricultural extension workers throughout the
      > world. Yet many plants deemed 'weeds' may have a
      > variety of uses to local people. To a woman attempting
      > to find cheap and nutritious ingredients for relish,
      > the wild food resource found in agricultural lands may
      > be critical.
      >
      > Many studies document the importance of wild
      > vegetables in local diets; many of these are available
      > from farmlands. A particularly extensive set of
      > literature exists for east and southern Africa (e.g.
      > 79; 86; 135; 143 for Zambia; 111-113 for Swaziland;
      > 171; 172 for Zimbabwe; 98, 139 for Kenya; 90 for
      > Tanzania; 50; 148; 149 for southern Sudan; 96 for
      > Zaire). Most studies note that it is women who are
      > primarily engaged in the collection and management of
      > wild vegetables in Africa (139). Similar findings
      > are reported from elsewhere (876 for Assam; 152, 153
      > for SE Asia; 528 for Mexico).
      >
      > Plants collected from fields may be either managed or
      > simply left to grow. Four categories of weed have been
      > identified in southern Sudan: self-sown species, wild
      > species whose seeds are collected and scattered in the
      > fields, those collected as they appear and those eaten
      > only when under severe food shortage (148; 149).
      >
      >
      > PESTS AS FOOD
      >
      > Arable lands also attract certain pest species.
      > Rodents tend to be at a higher density in fields
      > compared to surrounding areas (51). The abundance of
      > rodent species thus often changes with agricultural
      > clearance (e.g. 57 for the New Guinea Highlands).
      > Rodents of various sorts are an important source of
      > food in agricultural communities (317; 747). In
      > Zimbabwe, roasted mice fetch a high premium as a snack
      > food at beer parties (172). The African giant rat
      > (Cricetomys gambiani) is also important in southern
      > Nigeria (382; 286). Changes in bushmeat availability
      > have occurred as a result of land clearance in West
      > Africa with increasing rodent hunting possibilities,
      > e.g. of the grasscutter rodent, Thyrononmys
      > swinderianus (292).
      >
      > Insects also represent an important dietary component
      > in many agricultural societies (21; 54; 140; 547).
      > Such insects may also be crop pests, but their role as
      > supplementary food is well documented. For instance,
      > termites are an important fat and protein supplement
      > across southern Africa (97; 109; 172) and in southern
      > Sudan (148; 149). Caterpillars (e.g. Gonimbrasia
      > belina
      > - the mopane worm) are also widely eaten and marketed
      > (26; 106). In Zambia there is a wide range of edible
      > insects in the diet (159). This has a seasonal
      > dimension. The importance of caterpillars may rise to
      > 40% of relish items in the period November to January
      > (159). Locust or cricket swarms can also provide
      > important additions to local diets (45; 100; 155).
      >
      >
      > HUNTING AND GATHERING
      >
      > There are few groups who can sustain livelihoods
      > solely on the basis of hunting and gathering from wild
      > resources (19). Most 'hunting and gathering'
      > communities have some food inputs from arable
      > agriculture or livestock, either from their own plots
      > (48; 49; 65) or through trade and exchange with
      > farming communities (55; 212; 236).
      >
      > Hunting and gathering is dependent on a diverse source
      > of products that can offset seasonal and interannual
      > variability in wild food production (11; 49; 67; 174).
      > Alternatively a highly reliable and plentiful food
      > source must be available. For instance, the !Kung San
      > rely on mongongo (Ricinodendron rautenenii) as their
      > major food source, with two to three days' supply
      > gathered at any one time (20; 93; 94; 154; 415).
      > Together with the hunting of a variety of wild animals
      > and the collection of a range of wild plants, this is
      > a highly labour and energy efficient survival strategy
      > for the harsh environment of the Kalahari (92-94;
      > 415). Similarly, in the past, Australian aborigines
      > were able to collect a day's food from the bush in two
      > to four hours (259; 260). In the Fertile Crescent of
      > the Middle East, highly nutritious wild wheat and
      > barley provided food for people before the origins of
      > agriculture some 10,000 years ago (134; 263; 279b,
      > 264). With such an abundance of wild produce, the
      > alternative investment of land, labour and capital
      > into the domestication of plants and animals with
      > settled agriculture and livestock keeping appears to
      > make little sense.
      >
      >
      > PATTERNS OF USE: SEASONALITY, REGULATION AND
      > SUSTAINABILITY
      > ISSUES
      >
      > Wild foods in agricultural systems often fit a
      > particular seasonal niche. They may provide green
      > vegetables early in the rainy season, or can be dried
      > and stored for the dry season. They may also provide
      > counter-seasonal food with fruit bearing in the dry
      > season when little else is available. Wild foods may
      > be
      > particularly important in years when harvests fail
      > (49; 170; 400a-d; 484; see 374-452).
      >
      > Wild foods may only be available occasionally. For
      > instance, insect outbreaks may only be sporadic (or
      > cyclical) or mushroom fruiting dependent on particular
      > (rare) conditions. Diets changed rapidly in a Sudanese
      > village following locust swarms (45), and in Kenyan
      > agricultural areas after rat outbreaks (157). However
      > when such events do occur, as in extensive mushroom
      > fruiting, labour may be diverted away from normal
      > agricultural activities to collection and marketing
      > (121 for southern Zaire; 123 for Zambia; 861 for
      > northern Thailand; 146 for north India).
      >
      > Collection and consumption of wild foods is often
      > differentiated between socio-economic groups and
      > gender (see 608-630). Women are primarily engaged in
      > wild food management and harvesting, particularly of
      > green vegetables (90; 113). Wild foods are also
      > important nutritional supplements for children (139;
      > 623 for Kenyan case material; 617 for forest edge
      > communities in Sierra Leone; 125 for central Indian
      > tribal areas). These may be eaten as snack foods or as
      > main meals. The importance of wild foods is greatest
      > amongst poorer households, where main field crops are
      > often insufficient to provide food for the family for
      > the whole year. In a dry miombo area of Zimbabwe poor
      > households use fruits as the alternative to grain for
      > a quarter of all dry season meals (172).
      >
      > The use of wild products may be regulated by local
      > rules and institutions (see 569-607). Large fruit
      > trees in farmland are often protected (170 for
      > Zimbabwe; 129 for West Africa) by local communities.
      > Rights over wild products may change as land is
      > cleared for agriculture. In Zimbabwe, fruit trees
      > retained on farm plots effectively become individually
      > owned by farmers during the cropping season, although
      > they may revert to common property in the dry season
      > (but still are protected from cutting by community
      > rules). In other settings all products are privatised
      > by the process of conversion of land to agriculture,
      > reducing the access of those without control over
      > land. Recently, Malawian farmers have sold the rights
      > to the collection of wild resources to Mozambican
      > refugees (171).
      >
      > Few studies, however, have addressed the degree of
      > dependency on these food sources or their economic
      > value as part of agroecosystems and peoples'
      > livelihoods (see 631-702b). As a consequence, it is
      > difficult to assess the impact of patterns of land-use
      > and land tenure change on different groups of people.
      >
      > The sustainability of wild food use has also received
      > relatively little attention in the literature.
      > Sustainable harvesting levels for different plant and
      > animal populations remain largely unknown. A number of
      > studies report that wild foods are diminishing with
      > the clearance of forest areas (e.g. 152 for NE
      > Thailand; 90; 400a for Tanzania) or the heavy
      > harvesting of wild animals (108; 284; 353). The
      > consequences of agricultural intensification on wild
      > food production are also poorly studied (152).
      >
      > Unlike large game animals (342), small animals,
      > especially rodents, may be heavily harvested without
      > affecting the viability of the population (170; 353).
      > They are also less susceptible to changes in
      > agricultural land-use and agronomic practice. Indeed
      > rodent populations increase with arable land expansion
      > (292). The same applies to weedy plant species which
      > quickly regenerate following collection and can
      > survive in ephemeral environments on field edges or
      > degraded lands (170; 172; 628). This is in contrast to
      > many fruit tree species which are less resilient to
      > agroecological change, as they may take many years to
      > regrow to maturity.
      >
      > The study of wild foods in agricultural systems
      > requires an interdisciplinary approach that can
      > examine the role of wild foods in the context of local
      > people's livelihoods.
      >
      >
      > ::::::::::::::
      > LITERATURE CITED
      >
      > Due to the extremely large number of references cited
      > in this article (well over 200), the reader is
      > referred to the original source for cited literature.
      > The citation numbers in the text correspond to the
      > numbers in the bibliography of the original source.
      > See below under Original Source for the citation and
      > information about where to purchase the book.
      >
      >
      > ::::::::::::::
      > ORIGINAL SOURCE
      >
      > This article is excerpted with the generous permission
      > of the publisher and authors from:
      >
      > Scoones, I., M. Melnyk and J. Pretty. 1992. The Hidden
      > Harvest: Wild Foods and Agricultural Systems, A
      > Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. IIED,
      > London.
      >
      > To order this publication online, visit:
      > http://www.iied.org/sarl/pubs/hidharvest.html or
      > contact:
      >
      > EARTHPRINT Ltd.
      > P.O. Box 119
      > Stevenage
      > Hertfordshire
      > SG1 4TP
      > England
      > Telephone: +44 1438 748 111
      > Fax: +44 1438 748 844
      > Email: customerservices@...
      >
      >
      > ::::::::::::::
      > ABOUT THE AUTHORS' ORGANIZATION
      >
      > This article was authored by Ian Scoones, Mary Melnyk
      > and Jules N. Pretty, and published by the Sustainable
      > Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods (SARL) Programme of
      > the International Institute for Environment and
      > Development (IIED). The SARL Programme seeks to
      > promote sustainable, equitable, decentralised
      > agri-food systems based on local diversity and
      > participatory democracy, thereby contributing to
      > improved livelihoods and entitlements, poverty
      > reduction, and long-term ecological and economic
      > sustainability. By working to develop more effective
      > and equitable forms of agriculture and natural
      > resource management, the SARL Programme helps
      > different interest groups to understand trade-offs
      > relating to their livelihood strategies, identify
      > common ground, and negotiate pathways to positive
      > actions that support rural regeneration.
      >
      > Established in 1986, the aim of the SARL Programme was
      > to provide key policy makers, project designers, and
      > rural development practitioners with concepts, tools,
      > and methods to put into practice the challenges facing
      > sustainable agricultural development. Since then, the
      > SARL approach has evolved, and has emerged out of a
      > growing recognition that sustainable agriculture and
      > rural development cannot be treated in isolation from
      > broader ecological, economic, social, and political
      > processes. It is these broader processes, particularly
      > counterproductive and inappropriate policies, and weak
      > and ineffective institutions, which are limiting the
      > spread of sustainable agriculture and the regeneration
      > of rural economies.
      >
      > Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods
      > Programme International Institute for Environment and
      > Development
      > 3 Endsleigh Street
      > London WC1H 0DD
      > United Kingdom
      > Tel: +44 (0) 20 7388-2117; Fax: +44 (0)20 7388-2826
      > Email: sustag@...
      > Web site: http://www.iied.org/sarl/index.html
      >
      >
      > ::::::::::::::
      > WEB LINKS
      >
      > Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor (IKDM)
      > serves those with an interest in the role of
      > indigenous knowledge in participatory approaches to
      > sustainable development:
      > <http://www.nuffic.nl/ciran/ikdm/index.html>
      >
      > Biodiversity Support Programme:
      > <http://www.BSPonline.org/>
      >
      >
      > ::::::::::::::
      > RELATED EDITIONS OF THE OVERSTORY
      >
      > The Overstory #127--Food Security
      > The Overstory #117--Between Wildcrafting and
      > Monocultures
      > The Overstory #109--Cultural Landscapes
      > The Overstory #106--Hidden Bounty of the Urban Forest
      > The Overstory #105--Complex Agroforests
      > The Overstory #93--Trees, Forests and Sacred Groves
      > <http://www.agroforestry.net/overstory/overstory93.html>
      > The Overstory #77--Tropical Forest Conservation
      > <http://www.agroforestry.net/overstory/overstory77.html>
      > The Overstory #76--Ethnoforestry
      > <http://www.agroforestry.net/overstory/overstory76.html>
      > The Overstory #71--Nontimber Forest Products
      > (temperate)
      > <http://www.agroforestry.net/overstory/overstory71.html>
      > The Overstory #64--Homegardens
      > <http://www.agroforestry.net/overstory/overstory64.html>
      > The Overstory #56--Integrating Understory and Tree
      > Crops
      > <http://www.agroforestry.net/overstory/overstory56.html>
      > The Overstory #53--Nontimber Forest Products--An
      > Introduction
      > <http://www.agroforestry.net/overstory/overstory53.html>
      > The Overstory #51--Protecting and Expanding
      > Traditional Agroforests in
      > the
      > Pacific
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      >
      > Message: 2
      > Date: Tue, 09 Sep 2003 21:48:24 -0700
      > From: Larry Haftl <larry@...>
      > Subject: Catching up with life
      >
      > Hello all,
      >
      > FInally got caught up reading all of the Fukuoka Farming messages for the
      > past few months. No point in making comments on specific messages that are
      a
      > month or two old, especially since the thread seems to have ended or at
      > least died down. So I'd like to make a few general comments and
      > obeservations.
      >
      > The first is that once again I was struck with the amazing amount of
      > information contained in many of the posts to this list, and once again
      > aggravated that all that information goes into the intenet equivalent of a
      > dusty drawer in the back of a storage room that is neither easy to enter
      nor
      > easy to find stuff in. There HAS to be a better way to catalog and index
      all
      > that experience/wisdom/mental gyrations. I have all of the messages in the
      > Yahoo archive stored on my computer, so if I can work out a mechanism to
      do
      > a search through that stuff I'll look at putting that up on the website.
      >
      > Speaking of putting stuff on the website. I saw where a number of files
      were
      > uploaded to Yahoo. These are NOT available to everybody, only Yahoo
      members.
      > Any chance someone could upload them to the website pub directory (do an
      > FTP) so that they can be more easily accessed?
      >
      > I got all the messages with proposed links separated and will check out
      the
      > links and add them to the website as soon as I can.
      >
      > And finally, has anyone ever considered that maybe, just maybe, Fukuoka is
      a
      > fraud? Consider this: his own farm no longer follows his methods. Even as
      > his books were going to print his rice fields had become so overrun with
      > weeds as to make them not commercially viable. Does anyone know of any
      farm
      > anywhere that is actually using Fukuoka's method? And where are the
      > hundreds of people who lived and worked with him as apprentices, and what
      > have they been up to? And finally, why does he go on and on about Buddhism
      > when the essence of what he is talking about is much more Taoist?
      >
      > Just a few thoughts... :)
      >
      > Larry Haftl
      > larry@...
      > http://LarryHaftl.com
      > http://FukuokaFarmingOL.net
      >
      >
      >
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      >
      > Message: 3
      > Date: Tue, 09 Sep 2003 22:51:47 -0700
      > From: Vernon Sinclair <vernon.sinclair@...>
      > Subject: Re: Catching up with life
      >
      > Hi,
      >
      > I'm a relatively new member to the list. I don't have land right now, I'm
      > growing a few things in my yard, and I'm loving reading all the practical
      > suggestions. I used to get practical farming suggestions from my granddad,
      > but now he is gone and you all fill a void.
      >
      > I'm writing about the quote below that Larry wrote. I don't know if you
      > know this, but Yahoo has searchable archives. You can just go to the
      > messages page which you find by clicking on that word on the left hand
      side
      > of the Fukuoka Farming email list main page, and there is a search field
      on
      > the right side of that page. Enter your search words and you are in
      business!
      >
      > take care,
      >
      > Melanie Sinclair
      > Long Beach, California
      >
      > >The first is that once again I was struck with the amazing amount of
      > >information contained in many of the posts to this list, and once again
      > >aggravated that all that information goes into the intenet equivalent of
      a
      > >dusty drawer in the back of a storage room that is neither easy to enter
      nor
      > >easy to find stuff in. There HAS to be a better way to catalog and index
      all
      > >that experience/wisdom/mental gyrations.
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      >
      > Message: 4
      > Date: Tue, 09 Sep 2003 23:04:30 -0700
      > From: Larry Haftl <larry@...>
      > Subject: Re: Catching up with life
      >
      > Hi Melanie,
      > In case nobody else said it, welcome to the list.
      >
      > I like the Yahoo search function except for two things. It requires you to
      > accept cookies and popups, and it is also limited to members of
      Yahoogroups.
      > I personally don't like either and am not a member so this becomes
      > problematical for me, but not necessarily for others. Thank you for
      > mentioning this function because I'm sure there are others who are not
      aware
      > of it who are willing to put up with Yahoo's requirements.
      >
      > Larry Haftl
      > larry@...
      > http://LarryHaftl.com
      > http://FukuokaFarmingOL.net
      >
      >
      >
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      >
      > Message: 5
      > Date: Wed, 10 Sep 2003 10:04:12 +0200
      > From: "Beatrice Gilboa" <b.gilboa@...>
      > Subject: Re: time for straw decomposing
      >
      > Hi Larry, and all of you on the list
      >
      > >> I'm just going to cut the grass/weeds short in that area and then cover
      > the entire area with a thick layer of straw. Wet the straw to start it on
      > its way to decomposing, do a little localized turning through the winter
      as
      > the more ambitious plants push through the straw (lift the straw mulch so
      > the plants are pulled back through it, and then lay the mulch layer back
      on
      > top of those weeds to cover them and make them expend more energy trying
      to
      > poke through the mulch layer.) Come spring I'll just plant right into the
      > area, probably with a combination of transplants (my greenhouse will no
      > longer be a chicken coop by then) and some direct seeding.
      >
      > - I'll be very curious to know if the straw will be decomposed by the
      spring
      > to be able to seed directly... It wouldn't be enough time under the cold
      > and wet weather near the Alpes mountains I'm knowing in France, (which
      is
      > the most similar to your climate I'm knowing )
      >
      > - Except of that wondering, the plan seems excellent to me
      >
      > - Keep out of back-breaking labor, there is no need at all! ...and maybe
      > you should find a better solution than the dangerous sacks of chicken feed
      > than to carry them by yourself. By the way... do you know exactly the
      > content of what you are giving them to eat? are they feed as naturally as
      > you are? ;-)
      > Question ask by a one of the old europe quite choked with absurd and
      > irrespectful feeding (and not only feeding)
      > of animals.
      >
      > Best wishes
      >
      > Beatrice
      > Udim, Israel
      >
      >
      >
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      > ________________________________________________________________________
      >
      >
      >
      > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
      >


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