Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, inst ead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance b y cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles- scythes)

Expand Messages
  • Ruthie Aquino
    You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be made by a handyman? Cheers RUTHIE 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil
    Message 1 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
    • 0 Attachment
      You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be
      made by a handyman?

      Cheers
      RUTHIE

      2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

      > **
      >
      >
      > Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length
      > mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
      >
      > http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm
      >
      > Regards,
      > Nandan
      >
      > ________________________________
      > From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
      > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
      > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
      > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed
      > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
      > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > Hello Nandan,
      > I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
      > SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
      > Here is where :
      > www.fine-tools.com
      >
      > One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
      > your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
      > fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
      > I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
      > of stuff.
      > The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
      > Professional.
      >
      > Hope this helps.
      >
      > best
      > RUTHIE
      >
      > 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
      >
      > > **
      >
      > >
      > >
      > > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
      > > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
      > > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and
      > cutting.
      > >
      > > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool,
      > preferably
      > > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
      > >
      > > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
      > > relevant information for me.
      > >
      > > Regards,
      > > Nandan
      > >
      > > ________________________________
      > >
      > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
      > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
      > > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
      > > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
      > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
      > weed
      > > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled
      > kama
      > > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
      > >
      > >
      > >
      > >
      > > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
      > > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
      > > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what
      > late
      > > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds.
      > Please
      > > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
      > > context of the whole... .]
      > >
      > > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
      > > marks.
      > > .
      > > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
      > > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
      > > ..362 pages,
      > > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
      > > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
      > > 978-4-393-74114-6;
      > > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
      > > .
      > > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
      > > Paradise Lost";
      > > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
      > > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
      > > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
      > > .
      > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
      > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
      > > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
      > > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
      > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
      > weed
      > > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
      > > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
      > >
      > > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
      > > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu
      > sensei,
      > > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
      > > (Japanese)
      > > writing: 無除草;
      > > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
      > > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
      > > Japanese
      > > sickles-scythes)[3]
      > > .
      > > .
      > > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
      > > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
      > > 1
      > > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
      > > .
      > > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
      > > 362
      > > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
      > > 458
      > > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
      > > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
      > > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
      > > Japan
      > > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN
      > 978-0-87040-673-7.
      > > .
      > > "
      > > The Road Back to Nature
      > > __________________________
      > > Regaining the Paradise Lost
      > > __________________________
      > >
      > > Masanobu Fukuoka
      > > .
      > > Japan Publications, Inc.
      > > .
      > > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
      > > .
      > > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
      > > .
      > > First edition: August 1987
      > > .
      > > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
      > > .
      > > Printed in Japan.
      > > .
      > > Contents
      > > _____________________________________
      > > .
      > > .
      > > Preface to English Edition
      > > _____________________________________
      > > .
      > > .
      > > Preface to Japanese Edition
      > > _____________________________________
      > > .
      > > .
      > > Introduction:
      > > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
      > > _____________________________________
      > > .
      > > All One Has to Do is to Live
      > > .
      > > .
      > > [Chapter]
      > > 1
      > > =====================================
      > > America–
      > > Land of Plenty?
      > > =====================================
      > > .
      > > .
      > > Why has California Turned to Desert?
      > > _____________________________________
      > > .
      > > .
      > > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > .
      > > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
      > > .
      > > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
      > > This
      > > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
      > > close
      > > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
      > > circumference.
      > > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
      > > glaciers
      > > which wiped out the surrounding area.
      > > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
      > > thousand
      > > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
      > > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
      > > "Are you
      > > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
      > > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
      > > with a
      > > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
      > > many
      > > things that day.
      > > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
      > > top of
      > > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
      > > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
      > > replied that
      > > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
      > > made
      > > into a national park.
      > > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
      > > side.
      > > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
      > > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
      > > desert.
      > > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
      > > one-third of
      > > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
      > > Just
      > > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
      > > forest
      > > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
      > > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
      > > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
      > > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
      > > wrong
      > > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
      > > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
      > > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I
      > came
      > > to
      > > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had
      > brought
      > > over
      > > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
      > > vegetation
      > > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
      > > that the
      > > seeds set and mature around June.
      > > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
      > > up and
      > > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
      > > density
      > > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
      > > the
      > > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
      > > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
      > > cannot be
      > > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
      > > to
      > > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
      > > birds and
      > > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If
      > the
      > > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
      > > reflected
      > > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise
      > in
      > > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
      > > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
      > > when
      > > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
      > > these
      > > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
      > > altered the
      > > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
      > > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
      > > was
      > > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
      > > before
      > > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I
      > was
      > > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young
      > woman
      > > who
      > > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
      > > thirty
      > > minutes before the meeting began.
      > > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her
      > desk.
      > > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
      > > "Is that a California rock?"
      > > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
      > > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
      > > "Since
      > > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
      > > is,
      > > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
      > > the
      > > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
      > > California?"
      > > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
      > > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
      > > parent rock
      > > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
      > > Moreover,
      > > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
      > > Canada.
      > > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
      > > Mexico. The
      > > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
      > > Pacific.
      > > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
      > > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
      > > west,
      > > creating two separate land masses.
      > > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
      > > and
      > > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
      > > for each
      > > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
      > > part
      > > of one land mass.
      > > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
      > > on the
      > > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
      > > very
      > > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
      > > one
      > > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
      > > rainfall.
      > > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a
      > temperate
      > > climate with four seasons.
      > > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
      > > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
      > > at all,
      > > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
      > > men and
      > > machines.
      > > .
      > > .
      > >
      > > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
      > > .
      > > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
      > > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
      > > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
      > > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
      > > straw-yellow.
      > > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
      > > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
      > > entire city
      > > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
      > > it's
      > > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
      > > city,
      > > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation
      > here."
      > > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
      > > elicited
      > > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
      > > can be
      > > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken
      > later
      > > to
      > > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
      > > direct
      > > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
      > > remained
      > > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
      > > which
      > > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
      > > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
      > > Perhaps
      > > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
      > > below.
      > > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
      > > condenses
      > > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
      > >
      > > .
      > > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
      > > .
      > > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
      > > grasses.
      > > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such
      > an
      > > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
      > > farming
      > > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
      > > pesticides.
      > > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
      > > the
      > > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
      > > now,
      > > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
      > > depleted.
      > > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
      > > twenty- or
      > > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard
      > as
      > > clay.
      > > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface
      > of
      > > the
      > > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
      > > drying
      > > would cause cracks to form.
      > > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
      > > tractors
      > > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
      > > explained to
      > > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
      > > soil had
      > > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
      > > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides
      > as
      > > well
      > > as machines increasingly depletes it.
      > > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
      > > the
      > > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
      > > After
      > > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
      > > to the
      > > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
      > > question is *why*?
      > > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
      > > one
      > > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
      > > poorer
      > > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
      > > directly
      > > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner,
      > but
      > > the
      > > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
      > > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
      > > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
      > > and
      > > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
      > > fertilizers,
      > > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
      > > the
      > > world as cattle feed.
      > > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle
      > and
      > > hog
      > > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed,
      > America
      > > is
      > > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
      > > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
      > > that is
      > > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
      > > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
      > > poorer
      > > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
      > > of the
      > > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
      > > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
      > > growers
      > > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
      > > fetilizers,
      > > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
      > > under
      > > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
      > > water,
      > > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
      > > hundreds of
      > > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
      > > when it
      > > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
      > > deposition of
      > > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt
      > field.
      > > .
      > > .
      > > .
      > > Agriculture Run Amok
      > > _____________________________________
      > >
      > > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > .
      > > The Machine Culture is doomed
      > > _____________________________________
      > >
      > > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > The Natural Foods Boom
      > > _____________________________________
      > >
      > > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
      > > ...
      > > .
      > > .
      > > .
      > > [Chapter]
      > > 2
      > > =====================================
      > > Europe
      > > As I Saw It
      > > =====================================
      > > ...
      > > ...
      > > ...
      > > "
      > > .
      > > .
      > > .
      > > Ref's in my lead–in words:
      > > =======================
      > > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
      > > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
      > > page 33.
      > > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
      > > Larry
      > > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
      > Rodale
      > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
      > > (edition).
      > > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
      > > -updated
      > > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
      > > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
      > > Publications.
      > > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
      > > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
      > > edition)
      > > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
      > > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
      > > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
      > > standing-walking
      > > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
      > > other
      > > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
      > > and
      > > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa
      > Tsunemichi)
      > > and
      > > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
      > > Rodale
      > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
      > > (edition).
      > > .
      > > Wikipedia links
      > > ============
      > > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
      > > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
      > > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
      > > .
      > > .
      > > .
      > > Not against nature!
      > > With nature, entirely!!!
      > > .
      > > .
      > > .
      > > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
      > > .
      > > Jason Stewart
      > > busy in south eastern Oz.
      > >
      > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      > >
      > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      > >
      > >
      > >
      >
      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >
      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >
      >
      >


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Nandan Palaparambil
      Yes, probably will look in that direction.. Regards, Nandan ________________________________ From: Ruthie Aquino To:
      Message 2 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
      • 0 Attachment
        Yes, probably will look in that direction..


        Regards,
        Nandan




        ________________________________
        From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
        To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 3:35 PM
        Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)


         
        You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be
        made by a handyman?

        Cheers
        RUTHIE

        2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

        > **
        >
        >
        > Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length
        > mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
        >
        > http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm
        >
        > Regards,
        > Nandan
        >
        > ________________________________
        > From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
        > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
        > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
        > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
        > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed
        > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
        > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Hello Nandan,
        > I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
        > SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
        > Here is where :
        > www.fine-tools.com
        >
        > One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
        > your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
        > fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
        > I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
        > of stuff.
        > The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
        > Professional.
        >
        > Hope this helps.
        >
        > best
        > RUTHIE
        >
        > 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
        >
        > > **
        >
        > >
        > >
        > > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
        > > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
        > > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and
        > cutting.
        > >
        > > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool,
        > preferably
        > > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
        > >
        > > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
        > > relevant information for me.
        > >
        > > Regards,
        > > Nandan
        > >
        > > ________________________________
        > >
        > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
        > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
        > > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
        > > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
        > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
        > weed
        > > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled
        > kama
        > > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
        > >
        > >
        > >
        > >
        > > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
        > > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
        > > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what
        > late
        > > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds.
        > Please
        > > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
        > > context of the whole... .]
        > >
        > > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
        > > marks.
        > > .
        > > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
        > > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
        > > ..362 pages,
        > > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
        > > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
        > > 978-4-393-74114-6;
        > > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
        > > .
        > > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
        > > Paradise Lost";
        > > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
        > > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
        > > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
        > > .
        > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
        > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
        > > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
        > > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
        > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
        > weed
        > > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
        > > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
        > >
        > > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
        > > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu
        > sensei,
        > > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
        > > (Japanese)
        > > writing: 無除草;
        > > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
        > > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
        > > Japanese
        > > sickles-scythes)[3]
        > > .
        > > .
        > > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
        > > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
        > > 1
        > > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
        > > .
        > > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
        > > 362
        > > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
        > > 458
        > > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
        > > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
        > > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
        > > Japan
        > > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN
        > 978-0-87040-673-7.
        > > .
        > > "
        > > The Road Back to Nature
        > > __________________________
        > > Regaining the Paradise Lost
        > > __________________________
        > >
        > > Masanobu Fukuoka
        > > .
        > > Japan Publications, Inc.
        > > .
        > > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
        > > .
        > > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
        > > .
        > > First edition: August 1987
        > > .
        > > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
        > > .
        > > Printed in Japan.
        > > .
        > > Contents
        > > _____________________________________
        > > .
        > > .
        > > Preface to English Edition
        > > _____________________________________
        > > .
        > > .
        > > Preface to Japanese Edition
        > > _____________________________________
        > > .
        > > .
        > > Introduction:
        > > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
        > > _____________________________________
        > > .
        > > All One Has to Do is to Live
        > > .
        > > .
        > > [Chapter]
        > > 1
        > > =====================================
        > > America–
        > > Land of Plenty?
        > > =====================================
        > > .
        > > .
        > > Why has California Turned to Desert?
        > > _____________________________________
        > > .
        > > .
        > > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > .
        > > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
        > > .
        > > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
        > > This
        > > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
        > > close
        > > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
        > > circumference.
        > > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
        > > glaciers
        > > which wiped out the surrounding area.
        > > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
        > > thousand
        > > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
        > > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
        > > "Are you
        > > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
        > > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
        > > with a
        > > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
        > > many
        > > things that day.
        > > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
        > > top of
        > > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
        > > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
        > > replied that
        > > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
        > > made
        > > into a national park.
        > > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
        > > side.
        > > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
        > > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
        > > desert.
        > > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
        > > one-third of
        > > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
        > > Just
        > > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
        > > forest
        > > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
        > > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
        > > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
        > > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
        > > wrong
        > > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
        > > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
        > > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I
        > came
        > > to
        > > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had
        > brought
        > > over
        > > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
        > > vegetation
        > > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
        > > that the
        > > seeds set and mature around June.
        > > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
        > > up and
        > > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
        > > density
        > > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
        > > the
        > > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
        > > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
        > > cannot be
        > > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
        > > to
        > > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
        > > birds and
        > > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If
        > the
        > > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
        > > reflected
        > > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise
        > in
        > > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
        > > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
        > > when
        > > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
        > > these
        > > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
        > > altered the
        > > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
        > > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
        > > was
        > > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
        > > before
        > > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I
        > was
        > > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young
        > woman
        > > who
        > > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
        > > thirty
        > > minutes before the meeting began.
        > > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her
        > desk.
        > > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
        > > "Is that a California rock?"
        > > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
        > > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
        > > "Since
        > > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
        > > is,
        > > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
        > > the
        > > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
        > > California?"
        > > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
        > > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
        > > parent rock
        > > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
        > > Moreover,
        > > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
        > > Canada.
        > > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
        > > Mexico. The
        > > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
        > > Pacific.
        > > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
        > > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
        > > west,
        > > creating two separate land masses.
        > > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
        > > and
        > > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
        > > for each
        > > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
        > > part
        > > of one land mass.
        > > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
        > > on the
        > > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
        > > very
        > > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
        > > one
        > > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
        > > rainfall.
        > > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a
        > temperate
        > > climate with four seasons.
        > > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
        > > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
        > > at all,
        > > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
        > > men and
        > > machines.
        > > .
        > > .
        > >
        > > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
        > > .
        > > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
        > > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
        > > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
        > > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
        > > straw-yellow.
        > > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
        > > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
        > > entire city
        > > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
        > > it's
        > > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
        > > city,
        > > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation
        > here."
        > > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
        > > elicited
        > > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
        > > can be
        > > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken
        > later
        > > to
        > > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
        > > direct
        > > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
        > > remained
        > > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
        > > which
        > > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
        > > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
        > > Perhaps
        > > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
        > > below.
        > > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
        > > condenses
        > > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
        > >
        > > .
        > > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
        > > .
        > > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
        > > grasses.
        > > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such
        > an
        > > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
        > > farming
        > > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
        > > pesticides.
        > > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
        > > the
        > > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
        > > now,
        > > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
        > > depleted.
        > > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
        > > twenty- or
        > > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard
        > as
        > > clay.
        > > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface
        > of
        > > the
        > > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
        > > drying
        > > would cause cracks to form.
        > > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
        > > tractors
        > > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
        > > explained to
        > > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
        > > soil had
        > > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
        > > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides
        > as
        > > well
        > > as machines increasingly depletes it.
        > > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
        > > the
        > > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
        > > After
        > > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
        > > to the
        > > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
        > > question is *why*?
        > > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
        > > one
        > > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
        > > poorer
        > > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
        > > directly
        > > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner,
        > but
        > > the
        > > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
        > > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
        > > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
        > > and
        > > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
        > > fertilizers,
        > > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
        > > the
        > > world as cattle feed.
        > > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle
        > and
        > > hog
        > > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed,
        > America
        > > is
        > > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
        > > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
        > > that is
        > > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
        > > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
        > > poorer
        > > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
        > > of the
        > > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
        > > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
        > > growers
        > > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
        > > fetilizers,
        > > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
        > > under
        > > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
        > > water,
        > > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
        > > hundreds of
        > > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
        > > when it
        > > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
        > > deposition of
        > > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt
        > field.
        > > .
        > > .
        > > .
        > > Agriculture Run Amok
        > > _____________________________________
        > >
        > > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > .
        > > The Machine Culture is doomed
        > > _____________________________________
        > >
        > > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > The Natural Foods Boom
        > > _____________________________________
        > >
        > > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
        > > ...
        > > .
        > > .
        > > .
        > > [Chapter]
        > > 2
        > > =====================================
        > > Europe
        > > As I Saw It
        > > =====================================
        > > ...
        > > ...
        > > ...
        > > "
        > > .
        > > .
        > > .
        > > Ref's in my lead–in words:
        > > =======================
        > > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
        > > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
        > > page 33.
        > > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
        > > Larry
        > > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
        > Rodale
        > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
        > > (edition).
        > > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
        > > -updated
        > > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
        > > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
        > > Publications.
        > > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
        > > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
        > > edition)
        > > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
        > > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
        > > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
        > > standing-walking
        > > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
        > > other
        > > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
        > > and
        > > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa
        > Tsunemichi)
        > > and
        > > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
        > > Rodale
        > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
        > > (edition).
        > > .
        > > Wikipedia links
        > > ============
        > > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
        > > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
        > > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
        > > .
        > > .
        > > .
        > > Not against nature!
        > > With nature, entirely!!!
        > > .
        > > .
        > > .
        > > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
        > > .
        > > Jason Stewart
        > > busy in south eastern Oz.
        > >
        > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        > >
        > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        > >
        > >
        > >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Sumant Joshi
        I think if you get a good picture with dimensions, a blacksmith will be able to make one out of a truck leaf spring Sent from my BSNL landline B-fone Warm
        Message 3 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
        • 0 Attachment
          I think if you get a good picture with dimensions, a blacksmith will be able to make one out of a truck leaf spring



          Sent from my BSNL landline B-fone


          Warm regards,

          Sumant Joshi
          Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161



          >________________________________
          > From: Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
          >To: "fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com" <fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com>
          >Sent: Monday, 1 October 2012 4:05 PM
          >Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
          >
          >

          >Yes, probably will look in that direction..
          >
          >Regards,
          >Nandan
          >
          >________________________________
          >From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
          >To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
          >Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 3:35 PM
          >Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
          >
          >

          >You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be
          >made by a handyman?
          >
          >Cheers
          >RUTHIE
          >
          >2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
          >
          >> **
          >>
          >>
          >> Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length
          >> mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
          >>
          >> http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm
          >>
          >> Regards,
          >> Nandan
          >>
          >> ________________________________
          >> From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
          >> To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
          >> Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
          >> Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
          >> herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed
          >> suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
          >> (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
          >>
          >>
          >>
          >>
          >> Hello Nandan,
          >> I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
          >> SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
          >> Here is where :
          >> www.fine-tools.com
          >>
          >> One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
          >> your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
          >> fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
          >> I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
          >> of stuff.
          >> The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
          >> Professional.
          >>
          >> Hope this helps.
          >>
          >> best
          >> RUTHIE
          >>
          >> 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
          >>
          >> > **
          >>
          >> >
          >> >
          >> > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
          >> > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
          >> > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and
          >> cutting.
          >> >
          >> > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool,
          >> preferably
          >> > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
          >> >
          >> > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
          >> > relevant information for me.
          >> >
          >> > Regards,
          >> > Nandan
          >> >
          >> > ________________________________
          >> >
          >> > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
          >> > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
          >> > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
          >> > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
          >> > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
          >> weed
          >> > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled
          >> kama
          >> > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
          >> >
          >> >
          >> >
          >> >
          >> > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
          >> > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
          >> > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what
          >> late
          >> > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds.
          >> Please
          >> > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
          >> > context of the whole... .]
          >> >
          >> > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
          >> > marks.
          >> > .
          >> > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
          >> > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
          >> > ..362 pages,
          >> > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
          >> > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
          >> > 978-4-393-74114-6;
          >> > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
          >> > .
          >> > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
          >> > Paradise Lost";
          >> > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
          >> > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
          >> > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
          >> > .
          >> > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
          >> > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
          >> > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
          >> > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
          >> > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
          >> weed
          >> > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
          >> > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
          >> >
          >> > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
          >> > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu
          >> sensei,
          >> > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
          >> > (Japanese)
          >> > writing: 無除草;
          >> > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
          >> > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
          >> > Japanese
          >> > sickles-scythes)[3]
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
          >> > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
          >> > 1
          >> > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
          >> > .
          >> > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
          >> > 362
          >> > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
          >> > 458
          >> > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
          >> > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
          >> > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
          >> > Japan
          >> > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN
          >> 978-0-87040-673-7.
          >> > .
          >> > "
          >> > The Road Back to Nature
          >> > __________________________
          >> > Regaining the Paradise Lost
          >> > __________________________
          >> >
          >> > Masanobu Fukuoka
          >> > .
          >> > Japan Publications, Inc.
          >> > .
          >> > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
          >> > .
          >> > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
          >> > .
          >> > First edition: August 1987
          >> > .
          >> > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
          >> > .
          >> > Printed in Japan.
          >> > .
          >> > Contents
          >> > _____________________________________
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > Preface to English Edition
          >> > _____________________________________
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > Preface to Japanese Edition
          >> > _____________________________________
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > Introduction:
          >> > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
          >> > _____________________________________
          >> > .
          >> > All One Has to Do is to Live
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > [Chapter]
          >> > 1
          >> > =====================================
          >> > America–
          >> > Land of Plenty?
          >> > =====================================
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > Why has California Turned to Desert?
          >> > _____________________________________
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
          >> > .
          >> > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
          >> > This
          >> > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
          >> > close
          >> > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
          >> > circumference.
          >> > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
          >> > glaciers
          >> > which wiped out the surrounding area.
          >> > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
          >> > thousand
          >> > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
          >> > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
          >> > "Are you
          >> > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
          >> > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
          >> > with a
          >> > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
          >> > many
          >> > things that day.
          >> > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
          >> > top of
          >> > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
          >> > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
          >> > replied that
          >> > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
          >> > made
          >> > into a national park.
          >> > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
          >> > side.
          >> > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
          >> > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
          >> > desert.
          >> > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
          >> > one-third of
          >> > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
          >> > Just
          >> > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
          >> > forest
          >> > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
          >> > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
          >> > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
          >> > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
          >> > wrong
          >> > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
          >> > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
          >> > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I
          >> came
          >> > to
          >> > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had
          >> brought
          >> > over
          >> > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
          >> > vegetation
          >> > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
          >> > that the
          >> > seeds set and mature around June.
          >> > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
          >> > up and
          >> > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
          >> > density
          >> > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
          >> > the
          >> > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
          >> > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
          >> > cannot be
          >> > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
          >> > to
          >> > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
          >> > birds and
          >> > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If
          >> the
          >> > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
          >> > reflected
          >> > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise
          >> in
          >> > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
          >> > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
          >> > when
          >> > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
          >> > these
          >> > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
          >> > altered the
          >> > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
          >> > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
          >> > was
          >> > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
          >> > before
          >> > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I
          >> was
          >> > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young
          >> woman
          >> > who
          >> > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
          >> > thirty
          >> > minutes before the meeting began.
          >> > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her
          >> desk.
          >> > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
          >> > "Is that a California rock?"
          >> > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
          >> > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
          >> > "Since
          >> > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
          >> > is,
          >> > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
          >> > the
          >> > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
          >> > California?"
          >> > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
          >> > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
          >> > parent rock
          >> > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
          >> > Moreover,
          >> > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
          >> > Canada.
          >> > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
          >> > Mexico. The
          >> > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
          >> > Pacific.
          >> > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
          >> > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
          >> > west,
          >> > creating two separate land masses.
          >> > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
          >> > and
          >> > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
          >> > for each
          >> > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
          >> > part
          >> > of one land mass.
          >> > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
          >> > on the
          >> > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
          >> > very
          >> > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
          >> > one
          >> > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
          >> > rainfall.
          >> > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a
          >> temperate
          >> > climate with four seasons.
          >> > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
          >> > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
          >> > at all,
          >> > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
          >> > men and
          >> > machines.
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> >
          >> > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
          >> > .
          >> > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
          >> > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
          >> > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
          >> > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
          >> > straw-yellow.
          >> > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
          >> > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
          >> > entire city
          >> > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
          >> > it's
          >> > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
          >> > city,
          >> > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation
          >> here."
          >> > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
          >> > elicited
          >> > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
          >> > can be
          >> > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken
          >> later
          >> > to
          >> > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
          >> > direct
          >> > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
          >> > remained
          >> > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
          >> > which
          >> > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
          >> > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
          >> > Perhaps
          >> > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
          >> > below.
          >> > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
          >> > condenses
          >> > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
          >> >
          >> > .
          >> > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
          >> > .
          >> > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
          >> > grasses.
          >> > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such
          >> an
          >> > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
          >> > farming
          >> > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
          >> > pesticides.
          >> > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
          >> > the
          >> > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
          >> > now,
          >> > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
          >> > depleted.
          >> > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
          >> > twenty- or
          >> > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard
          >> as
          >> > clay.
          >> > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface
          >> of
          >> > the
          >> > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
          >> > drying
          >> > would cause cracks to form.
          >> > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
          >> > tractors
          >> > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
          >> > explained to
          >> > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
          >> > soil had
          >> > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
          >> > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides
          >> as
          >> > well
          >> > as machines increasingly depletes it.
          >> > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
          >> > the
          >> > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
          >> > After
          >> > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
          >> > to the
          >> > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
          >> > question is *why*?
          >> > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
          >> > one
          >> > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
          >> > poorer
          >> > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
          >> > directly
          >> > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner,
          >> but
          >> > the
          >> > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
          >> > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
          >> > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
          >> > and
          >> > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
          >> > fertilizers,
          >> > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
          >> > the
          >> > world as cattle feed.
          >> > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle
          >> and
          >> > hog
          >> > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed,
          >> America
          >> > is
          >> > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
          >> > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
          >> > that is
          >> > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
          >> > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
          >> > poorer
          >> > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
          >> > of the
          >> > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
          >> > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
          >> > growers
          >> > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
          >> > fetilizers,
          >> > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
          >> > under
          >> > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
          >> > water,
          >> > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
          >> > hundreds of
          >> > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
          >> > when it
          >> > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
          >> > deposition of
          >> > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt
          >> field.
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > Agriculture Run Amok
          >> > _____________________________________
          >> >
          >> > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > The Machine Culture is doomed
          >> > _____________________________________
          >> >
          >> > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > The Natural Foods Boom
          >> > _____________________________________
          >> >
          >> > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
          >> > ...
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > [Chapter]
          >> > 2
          >> > =====================================
          >> > Europe
          >> > As I Saw It
          >> > =====================================
          >> > ...
          >> > ...
          >> > ...
          >> > "
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > Ref's in my lead–in words:
          >> > =======================
          >> > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
          >> > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
          >> > page 33.
          >> > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
          >> > Larry
          >> > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
          >> Rodale
          >> > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
          >> > (edition).
          >> > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
          >> > -updated
          >> > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
          >> > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
          >> > Publications.
          >> > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
          >> > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
          >> > edition)
          >> > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
          >> > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
          >> > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
          >> > standing-walking
          >> > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
          >> > other
          >> > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
          >> > and
          >> > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa
          >> Tsunemichi)
          >> > and
          >> > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
          >> > Rodale
          >> > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
          >> > (edition).
          >> > .
          >> > Wikipedia links
          >> > ============
          >> > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
          >> > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
          >> > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > Not against nature!
          >> > With nature, entirely!!!
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > .
          >> > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
          >> > .
          >> > Jason Stewart
          >> > busy in south eastern Oz.
          >> >
          >> > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >> >
          >> > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >> >
          >> >
          >> >
          >>
          >> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >>
          >> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >>
          >>
          >>
          >
          >[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >
          >[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.