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Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, inst ead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance b y cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles- scythes)

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  • Ruthie Aquino
    Hello Nandan, I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER SCHMID, over a year and a half ago. Here is where : www.fine-tools.com
    Message 1 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
      Hello Nandan,
      I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
      SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
      Here is where :
      www.fine-tools.com

      One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
      your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
      fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
      I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
      of stuff.
      The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
      Professional.

      Hope this helps.

      best
      RUTHIE

      2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

      > **
      >
      >
      > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
      > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
      > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and cutting.
      >
      > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool, preferably
      > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
      >
      > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
      > relevant information for me.
      >
      > Regards,
      > Nandan
      >
      > ________________________________
      >
      > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
      > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
      > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
      > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed
      > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
      > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
      > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
      > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what late
      > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds. Please
      > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
      > context of the whole... .]
      >
      > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
      > marks.
      > .
      > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
      > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
      > ..362 pages,
      > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
      > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
      > 978-4-393-74114-6;
      > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
      > .
      > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
      > Paradise Lost";
      > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
      > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
      > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
      > .
      > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
      > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
      > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
      > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed
      > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
      > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
      >
      > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
      > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
      > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
      > (Japanese)
      > writing: 無除草;
      > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
      > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
      > Japanese
      > sickles-scythes)[3]
      > .
      > .
      > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
      > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
      > 1
      > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
      > .
      > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
      > 362
      > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
      > 458
      > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
      > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
      > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
      > Japan
      > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
      > .
      > "
      > The Road Back to Nature
      > __________________________
      > Regaining the Paradise Lost
      > __________________________
      >
      > Masanobu Fukuoka
      > .
      > Japan Publications, Inc.
      > .
      > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
      > .
      > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
      > .
      > First edition: August 1987
      > .
      > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
      > .
      > Printed in Japan.
      > .
      > Contents
      > _____________________________________
      > .
      > .
      > Preface to English Edition
      > _____________________________________
      > .
      > .
      > Preface to Japanese Edition
      > _____________________________________
      > .
      > .
      > Introduction:
      > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
      > _____________________________________
      > .
      > All One Has to Do is to Live
      > .
      > .
      > [Chapter]
      > 1
      > =====================================
      > America–
      > Land of Plenty?
      > =====================================
      > .
      > .
      > Why has California Turned to Desert?
      > _____________________________________
      > .
      > .
      > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
      > ...
      > .
      > .
      > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
      > .
      > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
      > This
      > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
      > close
      > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
      > circumference.
      > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
      > glaciers
      > which wiped out the surrounding area.
      > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
      > thousand
      > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
      > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
      > "Are you
      > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
      > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
      > with a
      > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
      > many
      > things that day.
      > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
      > top of
      > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
      > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
      > replied that
      > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
      > made
      > into a national park.
      > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
      > side.
      > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
      > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
      > desert.
      > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
      > one-third of
      > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
      > Just
      > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
      > forest
      > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
      > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
      > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
      > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
      > wrong
      > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
      > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
      > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I came
      > to
      > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had brought
      > over
      > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
      > vegetation
      > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
      > that the
      > seeds set and mature around June.
      > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
      > up and
      > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
      > density
      > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
      > the
      > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
      > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
      > cannot be
      > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
      > to
      > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
      > birds and
      > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If the
      > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
      > reflected
      > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise in
      > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
      > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
      > when
      > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
      > these
      > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
      > altered the
      > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
      > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
      > was
      > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
      > before
      > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I was
      > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young woman
      > who
      > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
      > thirty
      > minutes before the meeting began.
      > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her desk.
      > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
      > "Is that a California rock?"
      > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
      > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
      > "Since
      > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
      > is,
      > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
      > the
      > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
      > California?"
      > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
      > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
      > parent rock
      > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
      > Moreover,
      > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
      > Canada.
      > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
      > Mexico. The
      > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
      > Pacific.
      > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
      > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
      > west,
      > creating two separate land masses.
      > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
      > and
      > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
      > for each
      > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
      > part
      > of one land mass.
      > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
      > on the
      > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
      > very
      > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
      > one
      > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
      > rainfall.
      > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a temperate
      > climate with four seasons.
      > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
      > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
      > at all,
      > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
      > men and
      > machines.
      > .
      > .
      >
      > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
      > .
      > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
      > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
      > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
      > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
      > straw-yellow.
      > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
      > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
      > entire city
      > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
      > it's
      > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
      > city,
      > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation here."
      > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
      > elicited
      > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
      > can be
      > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken later
      > to
      > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
      > direct
      > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
      > remained
      > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
      > which
      > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
      > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
      > Perhaps
      > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
      > below.
      > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
      > condenses
      > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
      >
      > .
      > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
      > .
      > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
      > grasses.
      > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such an
      > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
      > farming
      > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
      > pesticides.
      > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
      > the
      > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
      > now,
      > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
      > depleted.
      > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
      > twenty- or
      > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard as
      > clay.
      > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface of
      > the
      > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
      > drying
      > would cause cracks to form.
      > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
      > tractors
      > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
      > explained to
      > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
      > soil had
      > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
      > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides as
      > well
      > as machines increasingly depletes it.
      > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
      > the
      > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
      > After
      > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
      > to the
      > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
      > question is *why*?
      > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
      > one
      > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
      > poorer
      > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
      > directly
      > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner, but
      > the
      > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
      > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
      > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
      > and
      > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
      > fertilizers,
      > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
      > the
      > world as cattle feed.
      > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle and
      > hog
      > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed, America
      > is
      > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
      > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
      > that is
      > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
      > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
      > poorer
      > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
      > of the
      > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
      > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
      > growers
      > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
      > fetilizers,
      > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
      > under
      > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
      > water,
      > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
      > hundreds of
      > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
      > when it
      > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
      > deposition of
      > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt field.
      > .
      > .
      > .
      > Agriculture Run Amok
      > _____________________________________
      >
      > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
      > ...
      > .
      > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
      > ...
      > .
      > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
      > ...
      > .
      > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
      > ...
      > .
      > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
      > ...
      > .
      > .
      > The Machine Culture is doomed
      > _____________________________________
      >
      > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
      > ...
      > .
      > The Natural Foods Boom
      > _____________________________________
      >
      > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
      > ...
      > .
      > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
      > ...
      > .
      > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
      > ...
      > .
      > .
      > .
      > [Chapter]
      > 2
      > =====================================
      > Europe
      > As I Saw It
      > =====================================
      > ...
      > ...
      > ...
      > "
      > .
      > .
      > .
      > Ref's in my lead–in words:
      > =======================
      > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
      > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
      > page 33.
      > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
      > Larry
      > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
      > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
      > (edition).
      > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
      > -updated
      > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
      > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
      > Publications.
      > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
      > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
      > edition)
      > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
      > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
      > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
      > standing-walking
      > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
      > other
      > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
      > and
      > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi)
      > and
      > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
      > Rodale
      > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
      > (edition).
      > .
      > Wikipedia links
      > ============
      > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
      > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
      > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
      > .
      > .
      > .
      > Not against nature!
      > With nature, entirely!!!
      > .
      > .
      > .
      > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
      > .
      > Jason Stewart
      > busy in south eastern Oz.
      >
      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >
      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >
      >
      >


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Nandan Palaparambil
      Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
      Message 2 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
        Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama

        http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm



        Regards,
        Nandan




        ________________________________
        From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
        To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
        Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)


         
        Hello Nandan,
        I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
        SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
        Here is where :
        www.fine-tools.com

        One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
        your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
        fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
        I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
        of stuff.
        The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
        Professional.

        Hope this helps.

        best
        RUTHIE

        2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

        > **
        >
        >
        > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
        > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
        > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and cutting.
        >
        > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool, preferably
        > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
        >
        > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
        > relevant information for me.
        >
        > Regards,
        > Nandan
        >
        > ________________________________
        >
        > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
        > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
        > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
        > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
        > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed
        > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
        > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
        > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
        > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what late
        > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds. Please
        > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
        > context of the whole... .]
        >
        > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
        > marks.
        > .
        > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
        > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
        > ..362 pages,
        > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
        > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
        > 978-4-393-74114-6;
        > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
        > .
        > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
        > Paradise Lost";
        > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
        > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
        > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
        > .
        > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
        > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
        > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
        > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
        > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed
        > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
        > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
        >
        > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
        > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
        > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
        > (Japanese)
        > writing: 無除草;
        > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
        > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
        > Japanese
        > sickles-scythes)[3]
        > .
        > .
        > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
        > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
        > 1
        > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
        > .
        > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
        > 362
        > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
        > 458
        > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
        > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
        > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
        > Japan
        > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
        > .
        > "
        > The Road Back to Nature
        > __________________________
        > Regaining the Paradise Lost
        > __________________________
        >
        > Masanobu Fukuoka
        > .
        > Japan Publications, Inc.
        > .
        > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
        > .
        > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
        > .
        > First edition: August 1987
        > .
        > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
        > .
        > Printed in Japan.
        > .
        > Contents
        > _____________________________________
        > .
        > .
        > Preface to English Edition
        > _____________________________________
        > .
        > .
        > Preface to Japanese Edition
        > _____________________________________
        > .
        > .
        > Introduction:
        > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
        > _____________________________________
        > .
        > All One Has to Do is to Live
        > .
        > .
        > [Chapter]
        > 1
        > =====================================
        > America–
        > Land of Plenty?
        > =====================================
        > .
        > .
        > Why has California Turned to Desert?
        > _____________________________________
        > .
        > .
        > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
        > ...
        > .
        > .
        > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
        > .
        > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
        > This
        > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
        > close
        > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
        > circumference.
        > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
        > glaciers
        > which wiped out the surrounding area.
        > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
        > thousand
        > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
        > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
        > "Are you
        > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
        > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
        > with a
        > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
        > many
        > things that day.
        > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
        > top of
        > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
        > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
        > replied that
        > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
        > made
        > into a national park.
        > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
        > side.
        > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
        > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
        > desert.
        > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
        > one-third of
        > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
        > Just
        > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
        > forest
        > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
        > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
        > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
        > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
        > wrong
        > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
        > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
        > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I came
        > to
        > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had brought
        > over
        > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
        > vegetation
        > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
        > that the
        > seeds set and mature around June.
        > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
        > up and
        > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
        > density
        > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
        > the
        > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
        > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
        > cannot be
        > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
        > to
        > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
        > birds and
        > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If the
        > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
        > reflected
        > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise in
        > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
        > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
        > when
        > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
        > these
        > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
        > altered the
        > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
        > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
        > was
        > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
        > before
        > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I was
        > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young woman
        > who
        > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
        > thirty
        > minutes before the meeting began.
        > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her desk.
        > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
        > "Is that a California rock?"
        > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
        > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
        > "Since
        > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
        > is,
        > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
        > the
        > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
        > California?"
        > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
        > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
        > parent rock
        > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
        > Moreover,
        > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
        > Canada.
        > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
        > Mexico. The
        > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
        > Pacific.
        > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
        > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
        > west,
        > creating two separate land masses.
        > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
        > and
        > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
        > for each
        > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
        > part
        > of one land mass.
        > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
        > on the
        > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
        > very
        > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
        > one
        > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
        > rainfall.
        > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a temperate
        > climate with four seasons.
        > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
        > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
        > at all,
        > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
        > men and
        > machines.
        > .
        > .
        >
        > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
        > .
        > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
        > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
        > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
        > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
        > straw-yellow.
        > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
        > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
        > entire city
        > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
        > it's
        > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
        > city,
        > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation here."
        > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
        > elicited
        > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
        > can be
        > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken later
        > to
        > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
        > direct
        > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
        > remained
        > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
        > which
        > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
        > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
        > Perhaps
        > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
        > below.
        > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
        > condenses
        > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
        >
        > .
        > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
        > .
        > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
        > grasses.
        > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such an
        > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
        > farming
        > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
        > pesticides.
        > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
        > the
        > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
        > now,
        > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
        > depleted.
        > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
        > twenty- or
        > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard as
        > clay.
        > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface of
        > the
        > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
        > drying
        > would cause cracks to form.
        > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
        > tractors
        > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
        > explained to
        > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
        > soil had
        > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
        > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides as
        > well
        > as machines increasingly depletes it.
        > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
        > the
        > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
        > After
        > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
        > to the
        > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
        > question is *why*?
        > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
        > one
        > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
        > poorer
        > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
        > directly
        > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner, but
        > the
        > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
        > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
        > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
        > and
        > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
        > fertilizers,
        > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
        > the
        > world as cattle feed.
        > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle and
        > hog
        > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed, America
        > is
        > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
        > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
        > that is
        > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
        > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
        > poorer
        > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
        > of the
        > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
        > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
        > growers
        > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
        > fetilizers,
        > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
        > under
        > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
        > water,
        > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
        > hundreds of
        > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
        > when it
        > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
        > deposition of
        > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt field.
        > .
        > .
        > .
        > Agriculture Run Amok
        > _____________________________________
        >
        > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
        > ...
        > .
        > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
        > ...
        > .
        > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
        > ...
        > .
        > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
        > ...
        > .
        > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
        > ...
        > .
        > .
        > The Machine Culture is doomed
        > _____________________________________
        >
        > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
        > ...
        > .
        > The Natural Foods Boom
        > _____________________________________
        >
        > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
        > ...
        > .
        > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
        > ...
        > .
        > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
        > ...
        > .
        > .
        > .
        > [Chapter]
        > 2
        > =====================================
        > Europe
        > As I Saw It
        > =====================================
        > ...
        > ...
        > ...
        > "
        > .
        > .
        > .
        > Ref's in my lead–in words:
        > =======================
        > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
        > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
        > page 33.
        > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
        > Larry
        > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
        > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
        > (edition).
        > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
        > -updated
        > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
        > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
        > Publications.
        > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
        > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
        > edition)
        > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
        > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
        > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
        > standing-walking
        > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
        > other
        > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
        > and
        > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi)
        > and
        > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
        > Rodale
        > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
        > (edition).
        > .
        > Wikipedia links
        > ============
        > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
        > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
        > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
        > .
        > .
        > .
        > Not against nature!
        > With nature, entirely!!!
        > .
        > .
        > .
        > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
        > .
        > Jason Stewart
        > busy in south eastern Oz.
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Ruthie Aquino
        You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be made by a handyman? Cheers RUTHIE 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil
        Message 3 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
          You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be
          made by a handyman?

          Cheers
          RUTHIE

          2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

          > **
          >
          >
          > Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length
          > mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
          >
          > http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm
          >
          > Regards,
          > Nandan
          >
          > ________________________________
          > From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
          > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
          > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
          > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
          > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed
          > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
          > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > Hello Nandan,
          > I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
          > SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
          > Here is where :
          > www.fine-tools.com
          >
          > One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
          > your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
          > fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
          > I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
          > of stuff.
          > The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
          > Professional.
          >
          > Hope this helps.
          >
          > best
          > RUTHIE
          >
          > 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
          >
          > > **
          >
          > >
          > >
          > > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
          > > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
          > > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and
          > cutting.
          > >
          > > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool,
          > preferably
          > > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
          > >
          > > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
          > > relevant information for me.
          > >
          > > Regards,
          > > Nandan
          > >
          > > ________________________________
          > >
          > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
          > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
          > > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
          > > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
          > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
          > weed
          > > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled
          > kama
          > > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
          > > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
          > > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what
          > late
          > > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds.
          > Please
          > > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
          > > context of the whole... .]
          > >
          > > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
          > > marks.
          > > .
          > > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
          > > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
          > > ..362 pages,
          > > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
          > > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
          > > 978-4-393-74114-6;
          > > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
          > > .
          > > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
          > > Paradise Lost";
          > > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
          > > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
          > > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
          > > .
          > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
          > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
          > > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
          > > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
          > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
          > weed
          > > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
          > > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
          > >
          > > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
          > > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu
          > sensei,
          > > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
          > > (Japanese)
          > > writing: 無除草;
          > > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
          > > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
          > > Japanese
          > > sickles-scythes)[3]
          > > .
          > > .
          > > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
          > > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
          > > 1
          > > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
          > > .
          > > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
          > > 362
          > > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
          > > 458
          > > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
          > > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
          > > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
          > > Japan
          > > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN
          > 978-0-87040-673-7.
          > > .
          > > "
          > > The Road Back to Nature
          > > __________________________
          > > Regaining the Paradise Lost
          > > __________________________
          > >
          > > Masanobu Fukuoka
          > > .
          > > Japan Publications, Inc.
          > > .
          > > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
          > > .
          > > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
          > > .
          > > First edition: August 1987
          > > .
          > > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
          > > .
          > > Printed in Japan.
          > > .
          > > Contents
          > > _____________________________________
          > > .
          > > .
          > > Preface to English Edition
          > > _____________________________________
          > > .
          > > .
          > > Preface to Japanese Edition
          > > _____________________________________
          > > .
          > > .
          > > Introduction:
          > > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
          > > _____________________________________
          > > .
          > > All One Has to Do is to Live
          > > .
          > > .
          > > [Chapter]
          > > 1
          > > =====================================
          > > America–
          > > Land of Plenty?
          > > =====================================
          > > .
          > > .
          > > Why has California Turned to Desert?
          > > _____________________________________
          > > .
          > > .
          > > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > .
          > > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
          > > .
          > > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
          > > This
          > > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
          > > close
          > > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
          > > circumference.
          > > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
          > > glaciers
          > > which wiped out the surrounding area.
          > > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
          > > thousand
          > > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
          > > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
          > > "Are you
          > > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
          > > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
          > > with a
          > > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
          > > many
          > > things that day.
          > > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
          > > top of
          > > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
          > > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
          > > replied that
          > > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
          > > made
          > > into a national park.
          > > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
          > > side.
          > > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
          > > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
          > > desert.
          > > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
          > > one-third of
          > > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
          > > Just
          > > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
          > > forest
          > > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
          > > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
          > > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
          > > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
          > > wrong
          > > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
          > > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
          > > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I
          > came
          > > to
          > > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had
          > brought
          > > over
          > > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
          > > vegetation
          > > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
          > > that the
          > > seeds set and mature around June.
          > > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
          > > up and
          > > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
          > > density
          > > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
          > > the
          > > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
          > > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
          > > cannot be
          > > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
          > > to
          > > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
          > > birds and
          > > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If
          > the
          > > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
          > > reflected
          > > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise
          > in
          > > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
          > > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
          > > when
          > > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
          > > these
          > > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
          > > altered the
          > > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
          > > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
          > > was
          > > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
          > > before
          > > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I
          > was
          > > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young
          > woman
          > > who
          > > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
          > > thirty
          > > minutes before the meeting began.
          > > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her
          > desk.
          > > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
          > > "Is that a California rock?"
          > > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
          > > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
          > > "Since
          > > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
          > > is,
          > > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
          > > the
          > > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
          > > California?"
          > > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
          > > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
          > > parent rock
          > > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
          > > Moreover,
          > > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
          > > Canada.
          > > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
          > > Mexico. The
          > > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
          > > Pacific.
          > > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
          > > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
          > > west,
          > > creating two separate land masses.
          > > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
          > > and
          > > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
          > > for each
          > > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
          > > part
          > > of one land mass.
          > > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
          > > on the
          > > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
          > > very
          > > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
          > > one
          > > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
          > > rainfall.
          > > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a
          > temperate
          > > climate with four seasons.
          > > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
          > > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
          > > at all,
          > > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
          > > men and
          > > machines.
          > > .
          > > .
          > >
          > > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
          > > .
          > > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
          > > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
          > > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
          > > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
          > > straw-yellow.
          > > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
          > > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
          > > entire city
          > > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
          > > it's
          > > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
          > > city,
          > > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation
          > here."
          > > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
          > > elicited
          > > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
          > > can be
          > > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken
          > later
          > > to
          > > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
          > > direct
          > > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
          > > remained
          > > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
          > > which
          > > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
          > > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
          > > Perhaps
          > > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
          > > below.
          > > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
          > > condenses
          > > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
          > >
          > > .
          > > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
          > > .
          > > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
          > > grasses.
          > > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such
          > an
          > > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
          > > farming
          > > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
          > > pesticides.
          > > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
          > > the
          > > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
          > > now,
          > > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
          > > depleted.
          > > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
          > > twenty- or
          > > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard
          > as
          > > clay.
          > > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface
          > of
          > > the
          > > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
          > > drying
          > > would cause cracks to form.
          > > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
          > > tractors
          > > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
          > > explained to
          > > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
          > > soil had
          > > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
          > > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides
          > as
          > > well
          > > as machines increasingly depletes it.
          > > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
          > > the
          > > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
          > > After
          > > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
          > > to the
          > > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
          > > question is *why*?
          > > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
          > > one
          > > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
          > > poorer
          > > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
          > > directly
          > > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner,
          > but
          > > the
          > > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
          > > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
          > > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
          > > and
          > > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
          > > fertilizers,
          > > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
          > > the
          > > world as cattle feed.
          > > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle
          > and
          > > hog
          > > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed,
          > America
          > > is
          > > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
          > > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
          > > that is
          > > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
          > > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
          > > poorer
          > > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
          > > of the
          > > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
          > > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
          > > growers
          > > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
          > > fetilizers,
          > > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
          > > under
          > > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
          > > water,
          > > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
          > > hundreds of
          > > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
          > > when it
          > > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
          > > deposition of
          > > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt
          > field.
          > > .
          > > .
          > > .
          > > Agriculture Run Amok
          > > _____________________________________
          > >
          > > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > .
          > > The Machine Culture is doomed
          > > _____________________________________
          > >
          > > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > The Natural Foods Boom
          > > _____________________________________
          > >
          > > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
          > > ...
          > > .
          > > .
          > > .
          > > [Chapter]
          > > 2
          > > =====================================
          > > Europe
          > > As I Saw It
          > > =====================================
          > > ...
          > > ...
          > > ...
          > > "
          > > .
          > > .
          > > .
          > > Ref's in my lead–in words:
          > > =======================
          > > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
          > > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
          > > page 33.
          > > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
          > > Larry
          > > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
          > Rodale
          > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
          > > (edition).
          > > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
          > > -updated
          > > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
          > > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
          > > Publications.
          > > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
          > > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
          > > edition)
          > > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
          > > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
          > > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
          > > standing-walking
          > > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
          > > other
          > > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
          > > and
          > > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa
          > Tsunemichi)
          > > and
          > > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
          > > Rodale
          > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
          > > (edition).
          > > .
          > > Wikipedia links
          > > ============
          > > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
          > > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
          > > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
          > > .
          > > .
          > > .
          > > Not against nature!
          > > With nature, entirely!!!
          > > .
          > > .
          > > .
          > > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
          > > .
          > > Jason Stewart
          > > busy in south eastern Oz.
          > >
          > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          > >
          > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          > >
          > >
          > >
          >
          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >
          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >
          >
          >


          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Nandan Palaparambil
          Yes, probably will look in that direction.. Regards, Nandan ________________________________ From: Ruthie Aquino To:
          Message 4 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
            Yes, probably will look in that direction..


            Regards,
            Nandan




            ________________________________
            From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
            To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 3:35 PM
            Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)


             
            You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be
            made by a handyman?

            Cheers
            RUTHIE

            2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

            > **
            >
            >
            > Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length
            > mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
            >
            > http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm
            >
            > Regards,
            > Nandan
            >
            > ________________________________
            > From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
            > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
            > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
            > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
            > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed
            > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
            > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > Hello Nandan,
            > I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
            > SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
            > Here is where :
            > www.fine-tools.com
            >
            > One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
            > your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
            > fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
            > I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
            > of stuff.
            > The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
            > Professional.
            >
            > Hope this helps.
            >
            > best
            > RUTHIE
            >
            > 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
            >
            > > **
            >
            > >
            > >
            > > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
            > > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
            > > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and
            > cutting.
            > >
            > > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool,
            > preferably
            > > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
            > >
            > > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
            > > relevant information for me.
            > >
            > > Regards,
            > > Nandan
            > >
            > > ________________________________
            > >
            > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
            > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
            > > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
            > > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
            > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
            > weed
            > > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled
            > kama
            > > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
            > > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
            > > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what
            > late
            > > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds.
            > Please
            > > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
            > > context of the whole... .]
            > >
            > > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
            > > marks.
            > > .
            > > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
            > > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
            > > ..362 pages,
            > > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
            > > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
            > > 978-4-393-74114-6;
            > > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
            > > .
            > > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
            > > Paradise Lost";
            > > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
            > > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
            > > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
            > > .
            > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
            > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
            > > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
            > > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
            > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
            > weed
            > > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
            > > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
            > >
            > > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
            > > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu
            > sensei,
            > > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
            > > (Japanese)
            > > writing: 無除草;
            > > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
            > > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
            > > Japanese
            > > sickles-scythes)[3]
            > > .
            > > .
            > > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
            > > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
            > > 1
            > > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
            > > .
            > > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
            > > 362
            > > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
            > > 458
            > > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
            > > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
            > > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
            > > Japan
            > > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN
            > 978-0-87040-673-7.
            > > .
            > > "
            > > The Road Back to Nature
            > > __________________________
            > > Regaining the Paradise Lost
            > > __________________________
            > >
            > > Masanobu Fukuoka
            > > .
            > > Japan Publications, Inc.
            > > .
            > > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
            > > .
            > > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
            > > .
            > > First edition: August 1987
            > > .
            > > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
            > > .
            > > Printed in Japan.
            > > .
            > > Contents
            > > _____________________________________
            > > .
            > > .
            > > Preface to English Edition
            > > _____________________________________
            > > .
            > > .
            > > Preface to Japanese Edition
            > > _____________________________________
            > > .
            > > .
            > > Introduction:
            > > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
            > > _____________________________________
            > > .
            > > All One Has to Do is to Live
            > > .
            > > .
            > > [Chapter]
            > > 1
            > > =====================================
            > > America–
            > > Land of Plenty?
            > > =====================================
            > > .
            > > .
            > > Why has California Turned to Desert?
            > > _____________________________________
            > > .
            > > .
            > > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > .
            > > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
            > > .
            > > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
            > > This
            > > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
            > > close
            > > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
            > > circumference.
            > > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
            > > glaciers
            > > which wiped out the surrounding area.
            > > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
            > > thousand
            > > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
            > > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
            > > "Are you
            > > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
            > > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
            > > with a
            > > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
            > > many
            > > things that day.
            > > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
            > > top of
            > > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
            > > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
            > > replied that
            > > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
            > > made
            > > into a national park.
            > > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
            > > side.
            > > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
            > > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
            > > desert.
            > > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
            > > one-third of
            > > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
            > > Just
            > > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
            > > forest
            > > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
            > > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
            > > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
            > > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
            > > wrong
            > > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
            > > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
            > > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I
            > came
            > > to
            > > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had
            > brought
            > > over
            > > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
            > > vegetation
            > > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
            > > that the
            > > seeds set and mature around June.
            > > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
            > > up and
            > > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
            > > density
            > > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
            > > the
            > > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
            > > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
            > > cannot be
            > > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
            > > to
            > > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
            > > birds and
            > > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If
            > the
            > > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
            > > reflected
            > > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise
            > in
            > > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
            > > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
            > > when
            > > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
            > > these
            > > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
            > > altered the
            > > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
            > > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
            > > was
            > > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
            > > before
            > > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I
            > was
            > > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young
            > woman
            > > who
            > > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
            > > thirty
            > > minutes before the meeting began.
            > > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her
            > desk.
            > > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
            > > "Is that a California rock?"
            > > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
            > > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
            > > "Since
            > > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
            > > is,
            > > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
            > > the
            > > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
            > > California?"
            > > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
            > > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
            > > parent rock
            > > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
            > > Moreover,
            > > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
            > > Canada.
            > > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
            > > Mexico. The
            > > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
            > > Pacific.
            > > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
            > > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
            > > west,
            > > creating two separate land masses.
            > > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
            > > and
            > > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
            > > for each
            > > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
            > > part
            > > of one land mass.
            > > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
            > > on the
            > > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
            > > very
            > > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
            > > one
            > > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
            > > rainfall.
            > > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a
            > temperate
            > > climate with four seasons.
            > > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
            > > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
            > > at all,
            > > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
            > > men and
            > > machines.
            > > .
            > > .
            > >
            > > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
            > > .
            > > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
            > > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
            > > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
            > > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
            > > straw-yellow.
            > > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
            > > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
            > > entire city
            > > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
            > > it's
            > > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
            > > city,
            > > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation
            > here."
            > > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
            > > elicited
            > > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
            > > can be
            > > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken
            > later
            > > to
            > > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
            > > direct
            > > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
            > > remained
            > > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
            > > which
            > > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
            > > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
            > > Perhaps
            > > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
            > > below.
            > > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
            > > condenses
            > > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
            > >
            > > .
            > > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
            > > .
            > > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
            > > grasses.
            > > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such
            > an
            > > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
            > > farming
            > > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
            > > pesticides.
            > > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
            > > the
            > > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
            > > now,
            > > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
            > > depleted.
            > > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
            > > twenty- or
            > > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard
            > as
            > > clay.
            > > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface
            > of
            > > the
            > > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
            > > drying
            > > would cause cracks to form.
            > > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
            > > tractors
            > > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
            > > explained to
            > > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
            > > soil had
            > > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
            > > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides
            > as
            > > well
            > > as machines increasingly depletes it.
            > > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
            > > the
            > > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
            > > After
            > > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
            > > to the
            > > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
            > > question is *why*?
            > > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
            > > one
            > > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
            > > poorer
            > > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
            > > directly
            > > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner,
            > but
            > > the
            > > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
            > > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
            > > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
            > > and
            > > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
            > > fertilizers,
            > > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
            > > the
            > > world as cattle feed.
            > > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle
            > and
            > > hog
            > > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed,
            > America
            > > is
            > > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
            > > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
            > > that is
            > > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
            > > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
            > > poorer
            > > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
            > > of the
            > > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
            > > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
            > > growers
            > > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
            > > fetilizers,
            > > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
            > > under
            > > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
            > > water,
            > > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
            > > hundreds of
            > > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
            > > when it
            > > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
            > > deposition of
            > > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt
            > field.
            > > .
            > > .
            > > .
            > > Agriculture Run Amok
            > > _____________________________________
            > >
            > > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > .
            > > The Machine Culture is doomed
            > > _____________________________________
            > >
            > > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > The Natural Foods Boom
            > > _____________________________________
            > >
            > > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
            > > ...
            > > .
            > > .
            > > .
            > > [Chapter]
            > > 2
            > > =====================================
            > > Europe
            > > As I Saw It
            > > =====================================
            > > ...
            > > ...
            > > ...
            > > "
            > > .
            > > .
            > > .
            > > Ref's in my lead–in words:
            > > =======================
            > > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
            > > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
            > > page 33.
            > > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
            > > Larry
            > > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
            > Rodale
            > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
            > > (edition).
            > > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
            > > -updated
            > > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
            > > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
            > > Publications.
            > > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
            > > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
            > > edition)
            > > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
            > > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
            > > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
            > > standing-walking
            > > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
            > > other
            > > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
            > > and
            > > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa
            > Tsunemichi)
            > > and
            > > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
            > > Rodale
            > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
            > > (edition).
            > > .
            > > Wikipedia links
            > > ============
            > > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
            > > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
            > > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
            > > .
            > > .
            > > .
            > > Not against nature!
            > > With nature, entirely!!!
            > > .
            > > .
            > > .
            > > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
            > > .
            > > Jason Stewart
            > > busy in south eastern Oz.
            > >
            > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            > >
            > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            > >
            > >
            > >
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >
            >

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Sumant Joshi
            I think if you get a good picture with dimensions, a blacksmith will be able to make one out of a truck leaf spring Sent from my BSNL landline B-fone Warm
            Message 5 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
              I think if you get a good picture with dimensions, a blacksmith will be able to make one out of a truck leaf spring



              Sent from my BSNL landline B-fone


              Warm regards,

              Sumant Joshi
              Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161



              >________________________________
              > From: Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
              >To: "fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com" <fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com>
              >Sent: Monday, 1 October 2012 4:05 PM
              >Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
              >
              >

              >Yes, probably will look in that direction..
              >
              >Regards,
              >Nandan
              >
              >________________________________
              >From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
              >To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
              >Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 3:35 PM
              >Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
              >
              >

              >You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be
              >made by a handyman?
              >
              >Cheers
              >RUTHIE
              >
              >2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
              >
              >> **
              >>
              >>
              >> Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length
              >> mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
              >>
              >> http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm
              >>
              >> Regards,
              >> Nandan
              >>
              >> ________________________________
              >> From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
              >> To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
              >> Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
              >> Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
              >> herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed
              >> suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
              >> (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
              >>
              >>
              >>
              >>
              >> Hello Nandan,
              >> I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
              >> SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
              >> Here is where :
              >> www.fine-tools.com
              >>
              >> One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
              >> your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
              >> fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
              >> I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
              >> of stuff.
              >> The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
              >> Professional.
              >>
              >> Hope this helps.
              >>
              >> best
              >> RUTHIE
              >>
              >> 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
              >>
              >> > **
              >>
              >> >
              >> >
              >> > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
              >> > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
              >> > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and
              >> cutting.
              >> >
              >> > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool,
              >> preferably
              >> > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
              >> >
              >> > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
              >> > relevant information for me.
              >> >
              >> > Regards,
              >> > Nandan
              >> >
              >> > ________________________________
              >> >
              >> > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
              >> > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
              >> > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
              >> > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
              >> > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
              >> weed
              >> > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled
              >> kama
              >> > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
              >> >
              >> >
              >> >
              >> >
              >> > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
              >> > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
              >> > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what
              >> late
              >> > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds.
              >> Please
              >> > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
              >> > context of the whole... .]
              >> >
              >> > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
              >> > marks.
              >> > .
              >> > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
              >> > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
              >> > ..362 pages,
              >> > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
              >> > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
              >> > 978-4-393-74114-6;
              >> > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
              >> > .
              >> > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
              >> > Paradise Lost";
              >> > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
              >> > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
              >> > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
              >> > .
              >> > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
              >> > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
              >> > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
              >> > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
              >> > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
              >> weed
              >> > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
              >> > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
              >> >
              >> > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
              >> > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu
              >> sensei,
              >> > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
              >> > (Japanese)
              >> > writing: 無除草;
              >> > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
              >> > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
              >> > Japanese
              >> > sickles-scythes)[3]
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
              >> > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
              >> > 1
              >> > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
              >> > .
              >> > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
              >> > 362
              >> > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
              >> > 458
              >> > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
              >> > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
              >> > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
              >> > Japan
              >> > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN
              >> 978-0-87040-673-7.
              >> > .
              >> > "
              >> > The Road Back to Nature
              >> > __________________________
              >> > Regaining the Paradise Lost
              >> > __________________________
              >> >
              >> > Masanobu Fukuoka
              >> > .
              >> > Japan Publications, Inc.
              >> > .
              >> > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
              >> > .
              >> > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
              >> > .
              >> > First edition: August 1987
              >> > .
              >> > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
              >> > .
              >> > Printed in Japan.
              >> > .
              >> > Contents
              >> > _____________________________________
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > Preface to English Edition
              >> > _____________________________________
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > Preface to Japanese Edition
              >> > _____________________________________
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > Introduction:
              >> > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
              >> > _____________________________________
              >> > .
              >> > All One Has to Do is to Live
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > [Chapter]
              >> > 1
              >> > =====================================
              >> > America–
              >> > Land of Plenty?
              >> > =====================================
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > Why has California Turned to Desert?
              >> > _____________________________________
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
              >> > .
              >> > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
              >> > This
              >> > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
              >> > close
              >> > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
              >> > circumference.
              >> > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
              >> > glaciers
              >> > which wiped out the surrounding area.
              >> > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
              >> > thousand
              >> > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
              >> > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
              >> > "Are you
              >> > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
              >> > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
              >> > with a
              >> > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
              >> > many
              >> > things that day.
              >> > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
              >> > top of
              >> > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
              >> > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
              >> > replied that
              >> > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
              >> > made
              >> > into a national park.
              >> > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
              >> > side.
              >> > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
              >> > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
              >> > desert.
              >> > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
              >> > one-third of
              >> > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
              >> > Just
              >> > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
              >> > forest
              >> > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
              >> > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
              >> > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
              >> > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
              >> > wrong
              >> > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
              >> > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
              >> > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I
              >> came
              >> > to
              >> > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had
              >> brought
              >> > over
              >> > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
              >> > vegetation
              >> > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
              >> > that the
              >> > seeds set and mature around June.
              >> > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
              >> > up and
              >> > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
              >> > density
              >> > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
              >> > the
              >> > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
              >> > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
              >> > cannot be
              >> > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
              >> > to
              >> > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
              >> > birds and
              >> > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If
              >> the
              >> > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
              >> > reflected
              >> > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise
              >> in
              >> > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
              >> > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
              >> > when
              >> > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
              >> > these
              >> > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
              >> > altered the
              >> > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
              >> > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
              >> > was
              >> > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
              >> > before
              >> > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I
              >> was
              >> > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young
              >> woman
              >> > who
              >> > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
              >> > thirty
              >> > minutes before the meeting began.
              >> > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her
              >> desk.
              >> > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
              >> > "Is that a California rock?"
              >> > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
              >> > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
              >> > "Since
              >> > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
              >> > is,
              >> > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
              >> > the
              >> > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
              >> > California?"
              >> > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
              >> > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
              >> > parent rock
              >> > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
              >> > Moreover,
              >> > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
              >> > Canada.
              >> > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
              >> > Mexico. The
              >> > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
              >> > Pacific.
              >> > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
              >> > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
              >> > west,
              >> > creating two separate land masses.
              >> > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
              >> > and
              >> > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
              >> > for each
              >> > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
              >> > part
              >> > of one land mass.
              >> > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
              >> > on the
              >> > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
              >> > very
              >> > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
              >> > one
              >> > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
              >> > rainfall.
              >> > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a
              >> temperate
              >> > climate with four seasons.
              >> > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
              >> > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
              >> > at all,
              >> > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
              >> > men and
              >> > machines.
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> >
              >> > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
              >> > .
              >> > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
              >> > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
              >> > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
              >> > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
              >> > straw-yellow.
              >> > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
              >> > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
              >> > entire city
              >> > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
              >> > it's
              >> > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
              >> > city,
              >> > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation
              >> here."
              >> > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
              >> > elicited
              >> > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
              >> > can be
              >> > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken
              >> later
              >> > to
              >> > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
              >> > direct
              >> > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
              >> > remained
              >> > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
              >> > which
              >> > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
              >> > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
              >> > Perhaps
              >> > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
              >> > below.
              >> > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
              >> > condenses
              >> > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
              >> >
              >> > .
              >> > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
              >> > .
              >> > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
              >> > grasses.
              >> > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such
              >> an
              >> > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
              >> > farming
              >> > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
              >> > pesticides.
              >> > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
              >> > the
              >> > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
              >> > now,
              >> > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
              >> > depleted.
              >> > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
              >> > twenty- or
              >> > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard
              >> as
              >> > clay.
              >> > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface
              >> of
              >> > the
              >> > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
              >> > drying
              >> > would cause cracks to form.
              >> > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
              >> > tractors
              >> > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
              >> > explained to
              >> > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
              >> > soil had
              >> > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
              >> > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides
              >> as
              >> > well
              >> > as machines increasingly depletes it.
              >> > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
              >> > the
              >> > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
              >> > After
              >> > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
              >> > to the
              >> > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
              >> > question is *why*?
              >> > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
              >> > one
              >> > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
              >> > poorer
              >> > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
              >> > directly
              >> > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner,
              >> but
              >> > the
              >> > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
              >> > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
              >> > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
              >> > and
              >> > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
              >> > fertilizers,
              >> > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
              >> > the
              >> > world as cattle feed.
              >> > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle
              >> and
              >> > hog
              >> > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed,
              >> America
              >> > is
              >> > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
              >> > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
              >> > that is
              >> > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
              >> > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
              >> > poorer
              >> > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
              >> > of the
              >> > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
              >> > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
              >> > growers
              >> > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
              >> > fetilizers,
              >> > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
              >> > under
              >> > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
              >> > water,
              >> > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
              >> > hundreds of
              >> > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
              >> > when it
              >> > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
              >> > deposition of
              >> > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt
              >> field.
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > Agriculture Run Amok
              >> > _____________________________________
              >> >
              >> > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > The Machine Culture is doomed
              >> > _____________________________________
              >> >
              >> > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > The Natural Foods Boom
              >> > _____________________________________
              >> >
              >> > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
              >> > ...
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > [Chapter]
              >> > 2
              >> > =====================================
              >> > Europe
              >> > As I Saw It
              >> > =====================================
              >> > ...
              >> > ...
              >> > ...
              >> > "
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > Ref's in my lead–in words:
              >> > =======================
              >> > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
              >> > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
              >> > page 33.
              >> > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
              >> > Larry
              >> > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
              >> Rodale
              >> > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
              >> > (edition).
              >> > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
              >> > -updated
              >> > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
              >> > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
              >> > Publications.
              >> > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
              >> > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
              >> > edition)
              >> > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
              >> > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
              >> > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
              >> > standing-walking
              >> > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
              >> > other
              >> > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
              >> > and
              >> > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa
              >> Tsunemichi)
              >> > and
              >> > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
              >> > Rodale
              >> > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
              >> > (edition).
              >> > .
              >> > Wikipedia links
              >> > ============
              >> > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
              >> > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
              >> > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > Not against nature!
              >> > With nature, entirely!!!
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > .
              >> > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
              >> > .
              >> > Jason Stewart
              >> > busy in south eastern Oz.
              >> >
              >> > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >> >
              >> > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >> >
              >> >
              >> >
              >>
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              >>
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              >>
              >>
              >>
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