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Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicid es, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, in stead only minimal weed suppression with mini mal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-sc ythes)[† 8]

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  • Jason Stewart
    On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides; Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei, —Mu weeding, or
    Message 1 of 11 , Mar 20, 2011
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      On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
      Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
      —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his (Japanese)
      writing: 無除草;
      Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
      disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning: Japanese
      sickles-scythes)[3]
      .
      .
      To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
      i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter 1
      "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
      .
      1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?), 362
      pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition, 458
      pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
      978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
      Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
      Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
      .
      "
      The Road Back to Nature
      __________________________
      Regaining the Paradise Lost
      __________________________

      Masanobu Fukuoka
      .
      Japan Publications, Inc.
      .
      1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
      .
      Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
      .
      First edition: August 1987
      .
      ISBN 0–87040–673–6
      .
      Printed in Japan.
      .
      Contents
      _____________________________________
      .
      .
      Preface to English Edition
      _____________________________________
      .
      .
      Preface to Japanese Edition
      _____________________________________
      .
      .
      Introduction:
      Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
      _____________________________________
      .
      All One Has to Do is to Live
      .
      .
      [Chapter]
      1
      =====================================
      America–
      Land of Plenty?
      =====================================
      .
      .
      Why has California Turned to Desert?
      _____________________________________
      .
      .
      Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
      ...
      .
      .
      The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
      .
      We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast. This
      was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing close
      together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in circumference.
      During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the glaciers
      which wiped out the surrounding area.
      These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two thousand
      years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
      There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old. "Are you
      the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
      "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered with a
      happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned many
      things that day.
      (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the top of
      a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
      I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he replied that
      it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and made
      into a national park.
      A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either side.
      There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
      Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched desert.
      But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About one-third of
      the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan. Just
      think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred forest
      where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
      A little hard to believe, isn't it?
      Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
      curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone wrong
      sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
      Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
      After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I came to
      the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had brought over
      with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the vegetation
      throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is that the
      seeds set and mature around June.
      Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow up and
      in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great density
      that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why the
      fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
      The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they cannot be
      removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon to
      remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by birds and
      beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If the
      temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat reflected
      from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise in
      temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
      From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change when
      the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that these
      later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had altered the
      temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
      I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I was
      invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk before
      thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I was
      ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young woman who
      was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full thirty
      minutes before the meeting began.
      As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her desk.
      "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
      "Is that a California rock?"
      "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
      "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued, "Since
      arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean is,
      although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to the
      grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
      California?"
      "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
      Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the parent rock
      for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco. Moreover,
      Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern Canada.
      The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and Mexico. The
      distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the Pacific.
      She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
      continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and west,
      creating two separate land masses.
      Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos and
      similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock for each
      are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were part
      of one land mass.
      The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California, on the
      other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and very
      little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then one
      would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar rainfall.
      But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a temperate
      climate with four seasons.
      This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
      deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature at all,
      but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by men and
      machines.
      .
      .

      The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
      .
      I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
      "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
      Francisco," I told the officials before me.
      "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns straw-yellow.
      The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
      Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The entire city
      is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why, it's
      just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful city,
      but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation here."
      When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question elicited
      quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been can be
      seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken later to
      visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for direct
      access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house remained
      as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento, which
      today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
      We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate. Perhaps
      rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from below.
      If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here, condenses
      into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.

      .
      Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
      .
      This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail grasses.
      Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such an
      environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until farming
      methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
      Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to the
      conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even now,
      the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously depleted.
      This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with twenty- or
      thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard as clay.
      The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface of the
      field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and drying
      would cause cracks to form.
      But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar tractors
      don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I explained to
      one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the soil had
      probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
      farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides as well
      as machines increasingly depletes it.
      Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However, the
      truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it. After
      talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come to the
      conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
      question is *why*?
      The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which one
      would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown poorer
      instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned directly
      to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner, but the
      fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
      The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
      creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers and
      forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical fertilizers,
      then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout the
      world as cattle feed.
      The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle and hog
      farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed, America is
      draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
      pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But that is
      not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
      petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing poorer
      and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment of the
      soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
      When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit growers
      come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical fetilizers,
      and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production under
      natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the water,
      although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from hundreds of
      miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but when it
      evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous deposition of
      salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt field.
      .
      .
      .
      Agriculture Run Amok
      _____________________________________

      America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
      ...
      .
      America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
      ...
      .
      The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
      ...
      .
      The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
      ...
      .
      Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
      ...
      .
      .
      The Machine Culture is doomed
      _____________________________________

      Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
      ...
      .
      The Natural Foods Boom
      _____________________________________

      Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
      ...
      .
      A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
      ...
      .
      The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
      ...
      .
      .
      .
      [Chapter]
      2
      =====================================
      Europe
      As I Saw It
      =====================================
      ...
      ...
      ...
      "
      .
      .
      .
      Ref's in my lead–in words:
      =======================
      1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
      edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" page 33.
      Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and Larry
      Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
      Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009 (edition).
      2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation -updated
      1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
      Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications.
      Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
      3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US edition)
      "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
      Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
      long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a standing-walking
      position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or other
      cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158 and
      169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
      Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
      Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009 (edition).
      .
      Wikipedia links
      ============
      *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
      *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
      *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
      .
      .
      .
      Not against nature!
      With nature, entirely!!!
      .
      .
      .
      Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
      .
      Jason Stewart
      busy in south eastern Oz.
    • Sumant Joshi
      Beautiful!! here is a man who was constantly thinking of his craft.Reminds me of something I heard Mr Anna Hazare said in one of his talks. if you want to do
      Message 2 of 11 , Mar 20, 2011
      • 0 Attachment
        Beautiful!! here is a man who was constantly thinking of his craft.Reminds me of something I heard Mr Anna Hazare said in one of his talks. "if you want to do something for society, you have to bury (immerse) yourself into the ground (situation) like the millet seed. Only then will you be able to bring forth more than what was sown. Otherwise you will be ground into flour, to be eaten by others". 


        Sent from my BSNL landline B-fone

        Warm regards,

        Sumant Joshi
        Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161

        --- On Sun, 20/3/11, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:

        From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
        Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
        To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
        Date: Sunday, 20 March, 2011, 1:08 PM
















         









        On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;

        Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,

        —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his (Japanese)

        writing: 無除草;

        Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal

        disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning: Japanese

        sickles-scythes)[3]

        .

        .

        To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,

        i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter 1

        "America – Land of Plenty?" of:

        .

        1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?), 362

        pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition, 458

        pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN

        978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to

        Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan

        Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.

        .

        "

        The Road Back to Nature

        __________________________

        Regaining the Paradise Lost

        __________________________



        Masanobu Fukuoka

        .

        Japan Publications, Inc.

        .

        1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka

        .

        Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud

        .

        First edition: August 1987

        .

        ISBN 0–87040–673–6

        .

        Printed in Japan.

        .

        Contents

        _____________________________________

        .

        .

        Preface to English Edition

        _____________________________________

        .

        .

        Preface to Japanese Edition

        _____________________________________

        .

        .

        Introduction:

        Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone

        _____________________________________

        .

        All One Has to Do is to Live

        .

        .

        [Chapter]

        1

        =====================================

        America–

        Land of Plenty?

        =====================================

        .

        .

        Why has California Turned to Desert?

        _____________________________________

        .

        .

        Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]

        ...

        .

        .

        The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]

        .

        We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast. This

        was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing close

        together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in circumference.

        During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the glaciers

        which wiped out the surrounding area.

        These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two thousand

        years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.

        There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old. "Are you

        the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.

        "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered with a

        happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned many

        things that day.

        (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the top of

        a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)

        I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he replied that

        it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and made

        into a national park.

        A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either side.

        There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.

        Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched desert.

        But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About one-third of

        the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan. Just

        think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred forest

        where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.

        A little hard to believe, isn't it?

        Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was

        curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone wrong

        sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the

        Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.

        After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I came to

        the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had brought over

        with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the vegetation

        throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is that the

        seeds set and mature around June.

        Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow up and

        in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great density

        that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why the

        fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.

        The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they cannot be

        removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon to

        remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by birds and

        beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If the

        temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat reflected

        from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise in

        temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.

        From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change when

        the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that these

        later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had altered the

        temperature of the region and triggered desertification.

        I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I was

        invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk before

        thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I was

        ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young woman who

        was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full thirty

        minutes before the meeting began.

        As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her desk.

        "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.

        "Is that a California rock?"

        "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."

        "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued, "Since

        arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean is,

        although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to the

        grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in

        California?"

        "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."

        Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the parent rock

        for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco. Moreover,

        Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern Canada.

        The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and Mexico. The

        distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the Pacific.

        She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a

        continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and west,

        creating two separate land masses.

        Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos and

        similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock for each

        are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were part

        of one land mass.

        The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California, on the

        other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and very

        little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then one

        would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar rainfall.

        But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a temperate

        climate with four seasons.

        This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction

        deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature at all,

        but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by men and

        machines.

        .

        .



        The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]

        .

        I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.

        "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San

        Francisco," I told the officials before me.

        "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns straw-yellow.

        The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into

        Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The entire city

        is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why, it's

        just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful city,

        but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation here."

        When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question elicited

        quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been can be

        seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken later to

        visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for direct

        access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house remained

        as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento, which

        today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.

        We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate. Perhaps

        rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from below.

        If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here, condenses

        into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.



        .

        Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]

        .

        This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail grasses.

        Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such an

        environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until farming

        methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

        Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to the

        conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even now,

        the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously depleted.

        This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with twenty- or

        thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard as clay.

        The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface of the

        field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and drying

        would cause cracks to form.

        But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar tractors

        don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I explained to

        one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the soil had

        probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized

        farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides as well

        as machines increasingly depletes it.

        Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However, the

        truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it. After

        talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come to the

        conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The

        question is *why*?

        The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which one

        would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown poorer

        instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned directly

        to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner, but the

        fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.

        The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,

        creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers and

        forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical fertilizers,

        then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout the

        world as cattle feed.

        The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle and hog

        farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed, America is

        draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be

        pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But that is

        not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying

        petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing poorer

        and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment of the

        soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.

        When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit growers

        come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical fetilizers,

        and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production under

        natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the water,

        although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from hundreds of

        miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but when it

        evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous deposition of

        salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt field.

        .

        .

        .

        Agriculture Run Amok

        _____________________________________



        America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––

        ...

        .

        America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––

        ...

        .

        The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––

        ...

        .

        The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––

        ...

        .

        Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––

        ...

        .

        .

        The Machine Culture is doomed

        _____________________________________



        Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––

        ...

        .

        The Natural Foods Boom

        _____________________________________



        Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––

        ...

        .

        A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––

        ...

        .

        The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––

        ...

        .

        .

        .

        [Chapter]

        2

        =====================================

        Europe

        As I Saw It

        =====================================

        ...

        ...

        ...

        "

        .

        .

        .

        Ref's in my lead–in words:

        =======================

        1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US

        edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" page 33.

        Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and Larry

        Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale

        Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009 (edition).

        2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation -updated

        1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green

        Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications.

        Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.

        3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US edition)

        "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,

        Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often

        long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a standing-walking

        position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or other

        cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158 and

        169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and

        Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale

        Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009 (edition).

        .

        Wikipedia links

        ============

        *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication

        *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)

        *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c

        .

        .

        .

        Not against nature!

        With nature, entirely!!!

        .

        .

        .

        Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,

        .

        Jason Stewart

        busy in south eastern Oz.





























        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Jason Stewart
        This book may be found in online electronic form in Google Books for searching purposes (only); Google Books only provides it in snippet view, not in preview;
        Message 3 of 11 , Mar 20, 2011
        • 0 Attachment
          This book may be found in online electronic form in Google Books for searching
          purposes (only);
          Google Books only provides it in snippet view, not in preview;
          So it cannot be read there;
          Searching it however works well, except for some searches i've tried for items
          after about page 300 which did not work.
          Originally Google Books scanned a copy from Cornell University.
          .
          .
          Also, correcting my previous message's formatting of the bibliographic
          information,
          including it's Japanese–character–help superscript–question–marks, which i
          derived from my wiki–editing.
          .
          * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
          ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
          ..362 pages,
          ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
          ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
          978-4-393-74114-6;
          ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
          .
          ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the Paradise
          Lost";
          .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
          .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
          .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
          .
          .
          .
          Not against nature at all!
          With nature, entirely!!!
          .
          .
          .
          Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
          .
          Jason Stewart
          busy in south eastern Oz.
          .


          ________________________________
          From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
          To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
          Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides,
          evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed suppression with
          minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌?,
          Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]


          On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
          Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
          —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his (Japanese)
          writing: 無除草;
          Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
          disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning: Japanese
          sickles-scythes)[3]
          .
          .
          To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
          i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter 1
          "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
          .
          1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?), 362
          pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition, 458
          pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
          978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
          Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
          Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
          .
          Quoting:
          "
          [snipped]"
          .
          [snipped]
          .
          Not against nature!
          With nature, entirely!!!
          .
          .
          .
          Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
          .
          Jason Stewart
          busy in south eastern Oz.



          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Vargan
          The book The Road Back to Nature can be downloaded from:
          Message 4 of 11 , Mar 21, 2011
          • 0 Attachment
            The book "The Road Back to Nature" can be downloaded from:

            http://home.novruz4017.operaunite.com/file_sharing/content/The%20Road%20Back%20To%20Nature%20-%20Masanobu%20Fukuoka.pdf

            If the link doesn't work, please, go to the parent page - http://home.novruz4017.operaunite.com/file_sharing/content/ - and find the file "The Road Back To Nature - Masanobu Fukuoka.pdf" in the file list.

            Regards,
            Vargan

            --- In fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:
            >
            > This book may be found in online electronic form in Google Books for searching
            > purposes (only);
            > Google Books only provides it in snippet view, not in preview;
            > So it cannot be read there;
            > Searching it however works well, except for some searches i've tried for items
            > after about page 300 which did not work.
            > Originally Google Books scanned a copy from Cornell University.
          • Jason Stewart
            [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post s formatting needs, never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced mastery of
            Message 5 of 11 , Sep 30, 2012
            • 0 Attachment
              [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs, never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what late Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds. Please do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the context of the whole... .]


              Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question marks.
              .
              * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
              ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
              ..362 pages,
              ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
              ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6;
              ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
              .
              ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the Paradise Lost";
              .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
              .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
              .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
              .
              From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
              To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
              Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]

              On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
              Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
              —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his (Japanese)
              writing: 無除草;
              Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
              disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning: Japanese
              sickles-scythes)[3]
              .
              .
              To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
              i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter 1
              "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
              .
              1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?), 362
              pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition, 458
              pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
              978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
              Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
              Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
              .
              "
              The Road Back to Nature
              __________________________
              Regaining the Paradise Lost
              __________________________

              Masanobu Fukuoka
              .
              Japan Publications, Inc.
              .
              1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
              .
              Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
              .
              First edition: August 1987
              .
              ISBN 0–87040–673–6
              .
              Printed in Japan.
              .
              Contents
              _____________________________________
              .
              .
              Preface to English Edition
              _____________________________________
              .
              .
              Preface to Japanese Edition
              _____________________________________
              .
              .
              Introduction:
              Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
              _____________________________________
              .
              All One Has to Do is to Live
              .
              .
              [Chapter]
              1
              =====================================
              America–
              Land of Plenty?
              =====================================
              .
              .
              Why has California Turned to Desert?
              _____________________________________
              .
              .
              Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
              ...
              .
              .
              The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
              .
              We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast. This
              was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing close
              together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in circumference.
              During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the glaciers
              which wiped out the surrounding area.
              These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two thousand
              years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
              There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old. "Are you
              the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
              "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered with a
              happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned many
              things that day.
              (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the top of
              a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
              I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he replied that
              it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and made
              into a national park.
              A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either side.
              There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
              Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched desert.
              But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About one-third of
              the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan. Just
              think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred forest
              where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
              A little hard to believe, isn't it?
              Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
              curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone wrong
              sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
              Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
              After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I came to
              the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had brought over
              with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the vegetation
              throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is that the
              seeds set and mature around June.
              Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow up and
              in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great density
              that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why the
              fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
              The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they cannot be
              removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon to
              remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by birds and
              beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If the
              temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat reflected
              from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise in
              temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
              From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change when
              the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that these
              later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had altered the
              temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
              I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I was
              invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk before
              thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I was
              ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young woman who
              was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full thirty
              minutes before the meeting began.
              As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her desk.
              "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
              "Is that a California rock?"
              "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
              "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued, "Since
              arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean is,
              although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to the
              grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
              California?"
              "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
              Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the parent rock
              for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco. Moreover,
              Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern Canada.
              The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and Mexico. The
              distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the Pacific.
              She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
              continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and west,
              creating two separate land masses.
              Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos and
              similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock for each
              are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were part
              of one land mass.
              The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California, on the
              other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and very
              little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then one
              would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar rainfall.
              But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a temperate
              climate with four seasons.
              This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
              deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature at all,
              but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by men and
              machines.
              .
              .

              The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
              .
              I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
              "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
              Francisco," I told the officials before me.
              "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns straw-yellow.
              The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
              Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The entire city
              is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why, it's
              just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful city,
              but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation here."
              When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question elicited
              quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been can be
              seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken later to
              visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for direct
              access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house remained
              as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento, which
              today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
              We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate. Perhaps
              rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from below.
              If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here, condenses
              into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.

              .
              Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
              .
              This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail grasses.
              Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such an
              environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until farming
              methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
              Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to the
              conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even now,
              the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously depleted.
              This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with twenty- or
              thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard as clay.
              The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface of the
              field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and drying
              would cause cracks to form.
              But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar tractors
              don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I explained to
              one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the soil had
              probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
              farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides as well
              as machines increasingly depletes it.
              Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However, the
              truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it. After
              talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come to the
              conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
              question is *why*?
              The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which one
              would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown poorer
              instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned directly
              to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner, but the
              fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
              The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
              creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers and
              forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical fertilizers,
              then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout the
              world as cattle feed.
              The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle and hog
              farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed, America is
              draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
              pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But that is
              not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
              petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing poorer
              and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment of the
              soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
              When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit growers
              come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical fetilizers,
              and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production under
              natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the water,
              although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from hundreds of
              miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but when it
              evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous deposition of
              salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt field.
              .
              .
              .
              Agriculture Run Amok
              _____________________________________

              America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
              ...
              .
              America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
              ...
              .
              The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
              ...
              .
              The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
              ...
              .
              Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
              ...
              .
              .
              The Machine Culture is doomed
              _____________________________________

              Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
              ...
              .
              The Natural Foods Boom
              _____________________________________

              Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
              ...
              .
              A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
              ...
              .
              The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
              ...
              .
              .
              .
              [Chapter]
              2
              =====================================
              Europe
              As I Saw It
              =====================================
              ...
              ...
              ...
              "
              .
              .
              .
              Ref's in my lead–in words:
              =======================
              1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
              edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" page 33.
              Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and Larry
              Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
              Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009 (edition).
              2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation -updated
              1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
              Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications.
              Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
              3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US edition)
              "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
              Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
              long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a standing-walking
              position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or other
              cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158 and
              169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
              Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
              Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009 (edition).
              .
              Wikipedia links
              ============
              *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
              *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
              *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
              .
              .
              .
              Not against nature!
              With nature, entirely!!!
              .
              .
              .
              Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
              .
              Jason Stewart
              busy in south eastern Oz.




              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Nandan Palaparambil
              I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool - long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since cutting is
              Message 6 of 11 , Sep 30, 2012
              • 0 Attachment
                I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool - long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and cutting.

                Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool, preferably in India, if not anywhere in the world?

                My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only relevant information for me.

                Regards,
                Nandan




                ________________________________
                From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
                Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)


                 
                [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs, never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what late Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds. Please do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the context of the whole... .]

                Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question marks.
                .
                * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
                ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
                ..362 pages,
                ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
                ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6;
                ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
                .
                ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the Paradise Lost";
                .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
                .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
                .
                From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
                Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]

                On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
                Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
                —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his (Japanese)
                writing: 無除草;
                Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
                disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning: Japanese
                sickles-scythes)[3]
                .
                .
                To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
                i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter 1
                "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
                .
                1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?), 362
                pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition, 458
                pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
                978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
                Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
                Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
                .
                "
                The Road Back to Nature
                __________________________
                Regaining the Paradise Lost
                __________________________

                Masanobu Fukuoka
                .
                Japan Publications, Inc.
                .
                1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
                .
                Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
                .
                First edition: August 1987
                .
                ISBN 0–87040–673–6
                .
                Printed in Japan.
                .
                Contents
                _____________________________________
                .
                .
                Preface to English Edition
                _____________________________________
                .
                .
                Preface to Japanese Edition
                _____________________________________
                .
                .
                Introduction:
                Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
                _____________________________________
                .
                All One Has to Do is to Live
                .
                .
                [Chapter]
                1
                =====================================
                America–
                Land of Plenty?
                =====================================
                .
                .
                Why has California Turned to Desert?
                _____________________________________
                .
                .
                Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
                ...
                .
                .
                The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
                .
                We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast. This
                was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing close
                together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in circumference.
                During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the glaciers
                which wiped out the surrounding area.
                These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two thousand
                years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
                There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old. "Are you
                the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
                "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered with a
                happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned many
                things that day.
                (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the top of
                a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
                I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he replied that
                it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and made
                into a national park.
                A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either side.
                There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
                Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched desert.
                But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About one-third of
                the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan. Just
                think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred forest
                where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
                A little hard to believe, isn't it?
                Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
                curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone wrong
                sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
                Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
                After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I came to
                the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had brought over
                with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the vegetation
                throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is that the
                seeds set and mature around June.
                Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow up and
                in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great density
                that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why the
                fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
                The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they cannot be
                removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon to
                remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by birds and
                beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If the
                temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat reflected
                from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise in
                temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
                From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change when
                the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that these
                later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had altered the
                temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
                I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I was
                invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk before
                thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I was
                ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young woman who
                was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full thirty
                minutes before the meeting began.
                As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her desk.
                "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
                "Is that a California rock?"
                "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
                "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued, "Since
                arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean is,
                although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to the
                grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
                California?"
                "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
                Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the parent rock
                for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco. Moreover,
                Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern Canada.
                The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and Mexico. The
                distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the Pacific.
                She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
                continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and west,
                creating two separate land masses.
                Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos and
                similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock for each
                are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were part
                of one land mass.
                The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California, on the
                other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and very
                little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then one
                would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar rainfall.
                But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a temperate
                climate with four seasons.
                This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
                deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature at all,
                but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by men and
                machines.
                .
                .

                The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
                .
                I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
                "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
                Francisco," I told the officials before me.
                "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns straw-yellow.
                The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
                Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The entire city
                is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why, it's
                just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful city,
                but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation here."
                When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question elicited
                quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been can be
                seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken later to
                visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for direct
                access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house remained
                as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento, which
                today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
                We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate. Perhaps
                rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from below.
                If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here, condenses
                into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.

                .
                Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
                .
                This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail grasses.
                Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such an
                environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until farming
                methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
                Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to the
                conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even now,
                the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously depleted.
                This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with twenty- or
                thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard as clay.
                The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface of the
                field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and drying
                would cause cracks to form.
                But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar tractors
                don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I explained to
                one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the soil had
                probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
                farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides as well
                as machines increasingly depletes it.
                Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However, the
                truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it. After
                talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come to the
                conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
                question is *why*?
                The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which one
                would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown poorer
                instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned directly
                to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner, but the
                fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
                The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
                creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers and
                forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical fertilizers,
                then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout the
                world as cattle feed.
                The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle and hog
                farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed, America is
                draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
                pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But that is
                not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
                petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing poorer
                and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment of the
                soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
                When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit growers
                come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical fetilizers,
                and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production under
                natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the water,
                although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from hundreds of
                miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but when it
                evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous deposition of
                salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt field.
                .
                .
                .
                Agriculture Run Amok
                _____________________________________

                America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
                ...
                .
                America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
                ...
                .
                The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
                ...
                .
                The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
                ...
                .
                Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
                ...
                .
                .
                The Machine Culture is doomed
                _____________________________________

                Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
                ...
                .
                The Natural Foods Boom
                _____________________________________

                Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
                ...
                .
                A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
                ...
                .
                The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
                ...
                .
                .
                .
                [Chapter]
                2
                =====================================
                Europe
                As I Saw It
                =====================================
                ...
                ...
                ...
                "
                .
                .
                .
                Ref's in my lead–in words:
                =======================
                1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" page 33.
                Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and Larry
                Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
                Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009 (edition).
                2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation -updated
                1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
                Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications.
                Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
                3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US edition)
                "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
                Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
                long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a standing-walking
                position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or other
                cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158 and
                169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
                Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
                Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009 (edition).
                .
                Wikipedia links
                ============
                *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
                *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
                *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
                .
                .
                .
                Not against nature!
                With nature, entirely!!!
                .
                .
                .
                Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
                .
                Jason Stewart
                busy in south eastern Oz.

                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Ruthie Aquino
                Hello Nandan, I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER SCHMID, over a year and a half ago. Here is where : www.fine-tools.com
                Message 7 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
                • 0 Attachment
                  Hello Nandan,
                  I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
                  SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
                  Here is where :
                  www.fine-tools.com

                  One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
                  your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
                  fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
                  I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
                  of stuff.
                  The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
                  Professional.

                  Hope this helps.

                  best
                  RUTHIE

                  2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

                  > **
                  >
                  >
                  > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
                  > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
                  > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and cutting.
                  >
                  > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool, preferably
                  > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
                  >
                  > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
                  > relevant information for me.
                  >
                  > Regards,
                  > Nandan
                  >
                  > ________________________________
                  >
                  > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                  > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                  > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
                  > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                  > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed
                  > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
                  > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
                  > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
                  > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what late
                  > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds. Please
                  > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
                  > context of the whole... .]
                  >
                  > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
                  > marks.
                  > .
                  > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
                  > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
                  > ..362 pages,
                  > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
                  > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
                  > 978-4-393-74114-6;
                  > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
                  > .
                  > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
                  > Paradise Lost";
                  > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                  > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
                  > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
                  > .
                  > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                  > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                  > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
                  > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                  > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed
                  > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
                  > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
                  >
                  > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
                  > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
                  > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
                  > (Japanese)
                  > writing: 無除草;
                  > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
                  > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
                  > Japanese
                  > sickles-scythes)[3]
                  > .
                  > .
                  > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
                  > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
                  > 1
                  > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
                  > .
                  > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
                  > 362
                  > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
                  > 458
                  > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
                  > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
                  > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                  > Japan
                  > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
                  > .
                  > "
                  > The Road Back to Nature
                  > __________________________
                  > Regaining the Paradise Lost
                  > __________________________
                  >
                  > Masanobu Fukuoka
                  > .
                  > Japan Publications, Inc.
                  > .
                  > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
                  > .
                  > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
                  > .
                  > First edition: August 1987
                  > .
                  > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
                  > .
                  > Printed in Japan.
                  > .
                  > Contents
                  > _____________________________________
                  > .
                  > .
                  > Preface to English Edition
                  > _____________________________________
                  > .
                  > .
                  > Preface to Japanese Edition
                  > _____________________________________
                  > .
                  > .
                  > Introduction:
                  > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
                  > _____________________________________
                  > .
                  > All One Has to Do is to Live
                  > .
                  > .
                  > [Chapter]
                  > 1
                  > =====================================
                  > America–
                  > Land of Plenty?
                  > =====================================
                  > .
                  > .
                  > Why has California Turned to Desert?
                  > _____________________________________
                  > .
                  > .
                  > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > .
                  > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
                  > .
                  > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
                  > This
                  > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
                  > close
                  > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
                  > circumference.
                  > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
                  > glaciers
                  > which wiped out the surrounding area.
                  > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
                  > thousand
                  > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
                  > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
                  > "Are you
                  > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
                  > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
                  > with a
                  > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
                  > many
                  > things that day.
                  > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
                  > top of
                  > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
                  > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
                  > replied that
                  > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
                  > made
                  > into a national park.
                  > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
                  > side.
                  > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
                  > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
                  > desert.
                  > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
                  > one-third of
                  > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
                  > Just
                  > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
                  > forest
                  > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
                  > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
                  > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
                  > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
                  > wrong
                  > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
                  > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
                  > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I came
                  > to
                  > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had brought
                  > over
                  > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
                  > vegetation
                  > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
                  > that the
                  > seeds set and mature around June.
                  > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
                  > up and
                  > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
                  > density
                  > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
                  > the
                  > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
                  > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
                  > cannot be
                  > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
                  > to
                  > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
                  > birds and
                  > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If the
                  > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
                  > reflected
                  > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise in
                  > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
                  > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
                  > when
                  > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
                  > these
                  > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
                  > altered the
                  > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
                  > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
                  > was
                  > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
                  > before
                  > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I was
                  > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young woman
                  > who
                  > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
                  > thirty
                  > minutes before the meeting began.
                  > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her desk.
                  > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
                  > "Is that a California rock?"
                  > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
                  > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
                  > "Since
                  > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
                  > is,
                  > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
                  > the
                  > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
                  > California?"
                  > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
                  > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
                  > parent rock
                  > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
                  > Moreover,
                  > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
                  > Canada.
                  > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
                  > Mexico. The
                  > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
                  > Pacific.
                  > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
                  > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
                  > west,
                  > creating two separate land masses.
                  > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
                  > and
                  > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
                  > for each
                  > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
                  > part
                  > of one land mass.
                  > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
                  > on the
                  > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
                  > very
                  > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
                  > one
                  > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
                  > rainfall.
                  > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a temperate
                  > climate with four seasons.
                  > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
                  > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
                  > at all,
                  > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
                  > men and
                  > machines.
                  > .
                  > .
                  >
                  > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
                  > .
                  > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
                  > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
                  > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
                  > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
                  > straw-yellow.
                  > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
                  > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
                  > entire city
                  > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
                  > it's
                  > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
                  > city,
                  > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation here."
                  > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
                  > elicited
                  > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
                  > can be
                  > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken later
                  > to
                  > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
                  > direct
                  > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
                  > remained
                  > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
                  > which
                  > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
                  > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
                  > Perhaps
                  > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
                  > below.
                  > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
                  > condenses
                  > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
                  >
                  > .
                  > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
                  > .
                  > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
                  > grasses.
                  > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such an
                  > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
                  > farming
                  > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
                  > pesticides.
                  > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
                  > the
                  > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
                  > now,
                  > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
                  > depleted.
                  > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
                  > twenty- or
                  > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard as
                  > clay.
                  > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface of
                  > the
                  > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
                  > drying
                  > would cause cracks to form.
                  > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
                  > tractors
                  > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
                  > explained to
                  > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
                  > soil had
                  > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
                  > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides as
                  > well
                  > as machines increasingly depletes it.
                  > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
                  > the
                  > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
                  > After
                  > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
                  > to the
                  > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
                  > question is *why*?
                  > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
                  > one
                  > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
                  > poorer
                  > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
                  > directly
                  > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner, but
                  > the
                  > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
                  > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
                  > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
                  > and
                  > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
                  > fertilizers,
                  > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
                  > the
                  > world as cattle feed.
                  > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle and
                  > hog
                  > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed, America
                  > is
                  > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
                  > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
                  > that is
                  > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
                  > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
                  > poorer
                  > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
                  > of the
                  > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
                  > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
                  > growers
                  > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
                  > fetilizers,
                  > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
                  > under
                  > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
                  > water,
                  > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
                  > hundreds of
                  > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
                  > when it
                  > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
                  > deposition of
                  > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt field.
                  > .
                  > .
                  > .
                  > Agriculture Run Amok
                  > _____________________________________
                  >
                  > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > .
                  > The Machine Culture is doomed
                  > _____________________________________
                  >
                  > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > The Natural Foods Boom
                  > _____________________________________
                  >
                  > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
                  > ...
                  > .
                  > .
                  > .
                  > [Chapter]
                  > 2
                  > =====================================
                  > Europe
                  > As I Saw It
                  > =====================================
                  > ...
                  > ...
                  > ...
                  > "
                  > .
                  > .
                  > .
                  > Ref's in my lead–in words:
                  > =======================
                  > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                  > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
                  > page 33.
                  > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
                  > Larry
                  > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
                  > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                  > (edition).
                  > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
                  > -updated
                  > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
                  > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
                  > Publications.
                  > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
                  > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                  > edition)
                  > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
                  > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
                  > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
                  > standing-walking
                  > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
                  > other
                  > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
                  > and
                  > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi)
                  > and
                  > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
                  > Rodale
                  > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                  > (edition).
                  > .
                  > Wikipedia links
                  > ============
                  > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
                  > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
                  > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
                  > .
                  > .
                  > .
                  > Not against nature!
                  > With nature, entirely!!!
                  > .
                  > .
                  > .
                  > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
                  > .
                  > Jason Stewart
                  > busy in south eastern Oz.
                  >
                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  >
                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  >
                  >
                  >


                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Nandan Palaparambil
                  Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
                  Message 8 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama

                    http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm



                    Regards,
                    Nandan




                    ________________________________
                    From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
                    To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
                    Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)


                     
                    Hello Nandan,
                    I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
                    SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
                    Here is where :
                    www.fine-tools.com

                    One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
                    your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
                    fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
                    I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
                    of stuff.
                    The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
                    Professional.

                    Hope this helps.

                    best
                    RUTHIE

                    2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

                    > **
                    >
                    >
                    > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
                    > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
                    > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and cutting.
                    >
                    > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool, preferably
                    > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
                    >
                    > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
                    > relevant information for me.
                    >
                    > Regards,
                    > Nandan
                    >
                    > ________________________________
                    >
                    > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                    > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                    > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
                    > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                    > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed
                    > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
                    > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
                    > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
                    > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what late
                    > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds. Please
                    > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
                    > context of the whole... .]
                    >
                    > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
                    > marks.
                    > .
                    > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
                    > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
                    > ..362 pages,
                    > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
                    > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
                    > 978-4-393-74114-6;
                    > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
                    > .
                    > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
                    > Paradise Lost";
                    > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                    > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
                    > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
                    > .
                    > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                    > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                    > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
                    > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                    > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal weed
                    > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
                    > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
                    >
                    > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
                    > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
                    > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
                    > (Japanese)
                    > writing: 無除草;
                    > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
                    > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
                    > Japanese
                    > sickles-scythes)[3]
                    > .
                    > .
                    > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
                    > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
                    > 1
                    > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
                    > .
                    > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
                    > 362
                    > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
                    > 458
                    > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
                    > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
                    > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                    > Japan
                    > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
                    > .
                    > "
                    > The Road Back to Nature
                    > __________________________
                    > Regaining the Paradise Lost
                    > __________________________
                    >
                    > Masanobu Fukuoka
                    > .
                    > Japan Publications, Inc.
                    > .
                    > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
                    > .
                    > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
                    > .
                    > First edition: August 1987
                    > .
                    > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
                    > .
                    > Printed in Japan.
                    > .
                    > Contents
                    > _____________________________________
                    > .
                    > .
                    > Preface to English Edition
                    > _____________________________________
                    > .
                    > .
                    > Preface to Japanese Edition
                    > _____________________________________
                    > .
                    > .
                    > Introduction:
                    > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
                    > _____________________________________
                    > .
                    > All One Has to Do is to Live
                    > .
                    > .
                    > [Chapter]
                    > 1
                    > =====================================
                    > America–
                    > Land of Plenty?
                    > =====================================
                    > .
                    > .
                    > Why has California Turned to Desert?
                    > _____________________________________
                    > .
                    > .
                    > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > .
                    > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
                    > .
                    > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
                    > This
                    > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
                    > close
                    > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
                    > circumference.
                    > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
                    > glaciers
                    > which wiped out the surrounding area.
                    > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
                    > thousand
                    > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
                    > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
                    > "Are you
                    > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
                    > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
                    > with a
                    > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
                    > many
                    > things that day.
                    > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
                    > top of
                    > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
                    > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
                    > replied that
                    > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
                    > made
                    > into a national park.
                    > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
                    > side.
                    > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
                    > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
                    > desert.
                    > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
                    > one-third of
                    > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
                    > Just
                    > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
                    > forest
                    > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
                    > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
                    > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
                    > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
                    > wrong
                    > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
                    > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
                    > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I came
                    > to
                    > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had brought
                    > over
                    > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
                    > vegetation
                    > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
                    > that the
                    > seeds set and mature around June.
                    > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
                    > up and
                    > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
                    > density
                    > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
                    > the
                    > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
                    > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
                    > cannot be
                    > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
                    > to
                    > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
                    > birds and
                    > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If the
                    > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
                    > reflected
                    > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise in
                    > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
                    > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
                    > when
                    > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
                    > these
                    > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
                    > altered the
                    > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
                    > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
                    > was
                    > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
                    > before
                    > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I was
                    > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young woman
                    > who
                    > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
                    > thirty
                    > minutes before the meeting began.
                    > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her desk.
                    > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
                    > "Is that a California rock?"
                    > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
                    > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
                    > "Since
                    > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
                    > is,
                    > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
                    > the
                    > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
                    > California?"
                    > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
                    > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
                    > parent rock
                    > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
                    > Moreover,
                    > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
                    > Canada.
                    > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
                    > Mexico. The
                    > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
                    > Pacific.
                    > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
                    > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
                    > west,
                    > creating two separate land masses.
                    > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
                    > and
                    > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
                    > for each
                    > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
                    > part
                    > of one land mass.
                    > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
                    > on the
                    > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
                    > very
                    > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
                    > one
                    > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
                    > rainfall.
                    > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a temperate
                    > climate with four seasons.
                    > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
                    > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
                    > at all,
                    > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
                    > men and
                    > machines.
                    > .
                    > .
                    >
                    > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
                    > .
                    > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
                    > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
                    > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
                    > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
                    > straw-yellow.
                    > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
                    > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
                    > entire city
                    > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
                    > it's
                    > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
                    > city,
                    > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation here."
                    > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
                    > elicited
                    > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
                    > can be
                    > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken later
                    > to
                    > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
                    > direct
                    > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
                    > remained
                    > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
                    > which
                    > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
                    > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
                    > Perhaps
                    > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
                    > below.
                    > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
                    > condenses
                    > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
                    >
                    > .
                    > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
                    > .
                    > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
                    > grasses.
                    > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such an
                    > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
                    > farming
                    > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
                    > pesticides.
                    > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
                    > the
                    > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
                    > now,
                    > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
                    > depleted.
                    > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
                    > twenty- or
                    > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard as
                    > clay.
                    > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface of
                    > the
                    > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
                    > drying
                    > would cause cracks to form.
                    > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
                    > tractors
                    > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
                    > explained to
                    > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
                    > soil had
                    > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
                    > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides as
                    > well
                    > as machines increasingly depletes it.
                    > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
                    > the
                    > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
                    > After
                    > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
                    > to the
                    > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
                    > question is *why*?
                    > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
                    > one
                    > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
                    > poorer
                    > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
                    > directly
                    > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner, but
                    > the
                    > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
                    > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
                    > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
                    > and
                    > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
                    > fertilizers,
                    > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
                    > the
                    > world as cattle feed.
                    > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle and
                    > hog
                    > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed, America
                    > is
                    > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
                    > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
                    > that is
                    > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
                    > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
                    > poorer
                    > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
                    > of the
                    > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
                    > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
                    > growers
                    > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
                    > fetilizers,
                    > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
                    > under
                    > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
                    > water,
                    > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
                    > hundreds of
                    > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
                    > when it
                    > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
                    > deposition of
                    > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt field.
                    > .
                    > .
                    > .
                    > Agriculture Run Amok
                    > _____________________________________
                    >
                    > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > .
                    > The Machine Culture is doomed
                    > _____________________________________
                    >
                    > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > The Natural Foods Boom
                    > _____________________________________
                    >
                    > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
                    > ...
                    > .
                    > .
                    > .
                    > [Chapter]
                    > 2
                    > =====================================
                    > Europe
                    > As I Saw It
                    > =====================================
                    > ...
                    > ...
                    > ...
                    > "
                    > .
                    > .
                    > .
                    > Ref's in my lead–in words:
                    > =======================
                    > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                    > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
                    > page 33.
                    > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
                    > Larry
                    > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn. Rodale
                    > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                    > (edition).
                    > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
                    > -updated
                    > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
                    > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
                    > Publications.
                    > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
                    > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                    > edition)
                    > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
                    > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
                    > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
                    > standing-walking
                    > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
                    > other
                    > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
                    > and
                    > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi)
                    > and
                    > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
                    > Rodale
                    > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                    > (edition).
                    > .
                    > Wikipedia links
                    > ============
                    > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
                    > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
                    > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
                    > .
                    > .
                    > .
                    > Not against nature!
                    > With nature, entirely!!!
                    > .
                    > .
                    > .
                    > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
                    > .
                    > Jason Stewart
                    > busy in south eastern Oz.
                    >
                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    >
                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    >
                    >
                    >

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Ruthie Aquino
                    You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be made by a handyman? Cheers RUTHIE 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil
                    Message 9 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
                    • 0 Attachment
                      You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be
                      made by a handyman?

                      Cheers
                      RUTHIE

                      2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

                      > **
                      >
                      >
                      > Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length
                      > mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
                      >
                      > http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm
                      >
                      > Regards,
                      > Nandan
                      >
                      > ________________________________
                      > From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
                      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                      > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
                      > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                      > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed
                      > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
                      > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Hello Nandan,
                      > I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
                      > SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
                      > Here is where :
                      > www.fine-tools.com
                      >
                      > One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
                      > your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
                      > fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
                      > I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
                      > of stuff.
                      > The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
                      > Professional.
                      >
                      > Hope this helps.
                      >
                      > best
                      > RUTHIE
                      >
                      > 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
                      >
                      > > **
                      >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
                      > > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
                      > > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and
                      > cutting.
                      > >
                      > > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool,
                      > preferably
                      > > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
                      > >
                      > > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
                      > > relevant information for me.
                      > >
                      > > Regards,
                      > > Nandan
                      > >
                      > > ________________________________
                      > >
                      > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                      > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                      > > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
                      > > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                      > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
                      > weed
                      > > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled
                      > kama
                      > > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
                      > > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
                      > > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what
                      > late
                      > > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds.
                      > Please
                      > > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
                      > > context of the whole... .]
                      > >
                      > > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
                      > > marks.
                      > > .
                      > > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
                      > > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
                      > > ..362 pages,
                      > > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
                      > > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
                      > > 978-4-393-74114-6;
                      > > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
                      > > .
                      > > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
                      > > Paradise Lost";
                      > > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                      > > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
                      > > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
                      > > .
                      > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                      > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                      > > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
                      > > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                      > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
                      > weed
                      > > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
                      > > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
                      > >
                      > > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
                      > > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu
                      > sensei,
                      > > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
                      > > (Japanese)
                      > > writing: 無除草;
                      > > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
                      > > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
                      > > Japanese
                      > > sickles-scythes)[3]
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
                      > > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
                      > > 1
                      > > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
                      > > .
                      > > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
                      > > 362
                      > > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
                      > > 458
                      > > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
                      > > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
                      > > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                      > > Japan
                      > > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN
                      > 978-0-87040-673-7.
                      > > .
                      > > "
                      > > The Road Back to Nature
                      > > __________________________
                      > > Regaining the Paradise Lost
                      > > __________________________
                      > >
                      > > Masanobu Fukuoka
                      > > .
                      > > Japan Publications, Inc.
                      > > .
                      > > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
                      > > .
                      > > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
                      > > .
                      > > First edition: August 1987
                      > > .
                      > > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
                      > > .
                      > > Printed in Japan.
                      > > .
                      > > Contents
                      > > _____________________________________
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > Preface to English Edition
                      > > _____________________________________
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > Preface to Japanese Edition
                      > > _____________________________________
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > Introduction:
                      > > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
                      > > _____________________________________
                      > > .
                      > > All One Has to Do is to Live
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > [Chapter]
                      > > 1
                      > > =====================================
                      > > America–
                      > > Land of Plenty?
                      > > =====================================
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > Why has California Turned to Desert?
                      > > _____________________________________
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
                      > > .
                      > > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
                      > > This
                      > > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
                      > > close
                      > > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
                      > > circumference.
                      > > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
                      > > glaciers
                      > > which wiped out the surrounding area.
                      > > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
                      > > thousand
                      > > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
                      > > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
                      > > "Are you
                      > > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
                      > > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
                      > > with a
                      > > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
                      > > many
                      > > things that day.
                      > > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
                      > > top of
                      > > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
                      > > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
                      > > replied that
                      > > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
                      > > made
                      > > into a national park.
                      > > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
                      > > side.
                      > > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
                      > > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
                      > > desert.
                      > > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
                      > > one-third of
                      > > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
                      > > Just
                      > > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
                      > > forest
                      > > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
                      > > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
                      > > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
                      > > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
                      > > wrong
                      > > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
                      > > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
                      > > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I
                      > came
                      > > to
                      > > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had
                      > brought
                      > > over
                      > > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
                      > > vegetation
                      > > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
                      > > that the
                      > > seeds set and mature around June.
                      > > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
                      > > up and
                      > > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
                      > > density
                      > > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
                      > > the
                      > > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
                      > > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
                      > > cannot be
                      > > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
                      > > to
                      > > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
                      > > birds and
                      > > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If
                      > the
                      > > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
                      > > reflected
                      > > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise
                      > in
                      > > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
                      > > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
                      > > when
                      > > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
                      > > these
                      > > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
                      > > altered the
                      > > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
                      > > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
                      > > was
                      > > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
                      > > before
                      > > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I
                      > was
                      > > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young
                      > woman
                      > > who
                      > > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
                      > > thirty
                      > > minutes before the meeting began.
                      > > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her
                      > desk.
                      > > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
                      > > "Is that a California rock?"
                      > > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
                      > > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
                      > > "Since
                      > > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
                      > > is,
                      > > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
                      > > the
                      > > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
                      > > California?"
                      > > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
                      > > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
                      > > parent rock
                      > > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
                      > > Moreover,
                      > > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
                      > > Canada.
                      > > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
                      > > Mexico. The
                      > > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
                      > > Pacific.
                      > > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
                      > > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
                      > > west,
                      > > creating two separate land masses.
                      > > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
                      > > and
                      > > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
                      > > for each
                      > > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
                      > > part
                      > > of one land mass.
                      > > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
                      > > on the
                      > > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
                      > > very
                      > > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
                      > > one
                      > > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
                      > > rainfall.
                      > > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a
                      > temperate
                      > > climate with four seasons.
                      > > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
                      > > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
                      > > at all,
                      > > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
                      > > men and
                      > > machines.
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > >
                      > > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
                      > > .
                      > > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
                      > > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
                      > > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
                      > > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
                      > > straw-yellow.
                      > > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
                      > > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
                      > > entire city
                      > > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
                      > > it's
                      > > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
                      > > city,
                      > > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation
                      > here."
                      > > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
                      > > elicited
                      > > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
                      > > can be
                      > > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken
                      > later
                      > > to
                      > > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
                      > > direct
                      > > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
                      > > remained
                      > > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
                      > > which
                      > > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
                      > > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
                      > > Perhaps
                      > > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
                      > > below.
                      > > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
                      > > condenses
                      > > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
                      > >
                      > > .
                      > > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
                      > > .
                      > > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
                      > > grasses.
                      > > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such
                      > an
                      > > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
                      > > farming
                      > > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
                      > > pesticides.
                      > > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
                      > > the
                      > > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
                      > > now,
                      > > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
                      > > depleted.
                      > > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
                      > > twenty- or
                      > > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard
                      > as
                      > > clay.
                      > > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface
                      > of
                      > > the
                      > > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
                      > > drying
                      > > would cause cracks to form.
                      > > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
                      > > tractors
                      > > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
                      > > explained to
                      > > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
                      > > soil had
                      > > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
                      > > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides
                      > as
                      > > well
                      > > as machines increasingly depletes it.
                      > > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
                      > > the
                      > > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
                      > > After
                      > > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
                      > > to the
                      > > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
                      > > question is *why*?
                      > > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
                      > > one
                      > > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
                      > > poorer
                      > > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
                      > > directly
                      > > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner,
                      > but
                      > > the
                      > > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
                      > > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
                      > > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
                      > > and
                      > > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
                      > > fertilizers,
                      > > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
                      > > the
                      > > world as cattle feed.
                      > > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle
                      > and
                      > > hog
                      > > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed,
                      > America
                      > > is
                      > > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
                      > > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
                      > > that is
                      > > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
                      > > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
                      > > poorer
                      > > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
                      > > of the
                      > > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
                      > > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
                      > > growers
                      > > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
                      > > fetilizers,
                      > > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
                      > > under
                      > > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
                      > > water,
                      > > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
                      > > hundreds of
                      > > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
                      > > when it
                      > > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
                      > > deposition of
                      > > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt
                      > field.
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > Agriculture Run Amok
                      > > _____________________________________
                      > >
                      > > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > The Machine Culture is doomed
                      > > _____________________________________
                      > >
                      > > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > The Natural Foods Boom
                      > > _____________________________________
                      > >
                      > > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
                      > > ...
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > [Chapter]
                      > > 2
                      > > =====================================
                      > > Europe
                      > > As I Saw It
                      > > =====================================
                      > > ...
                      > > ...
                      > > ...
                      > > "
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > Ref's in my lead–in words:
                      > > =======================
                      > > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                      > > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
                      > > page 33.
                      > > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
                      > > Larry
                      > > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
                      > Rodale
                      > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                      > > (edition).
                      > > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
                      > > -updated
                      > > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
                      > > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
                      > > Publications.
                      > > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
                      > > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                      > > edition)
                      > > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
                      > > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
                      > > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
                      > > standing-walking
                      > > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
                      > > other
                      > > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
                      > > and
                      > > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa
                      > Tsunemichi)
                      > > and
                      > > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
                      > > Rodale
                      > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                      > > (edition).
                      > > .
                      > > Wikipedia links
                      > > ============
                      > > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
                      > > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
                      > > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > Not against nature!
                      > > With nature, entirely!!!
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > .
                      > > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
                      > > .
                      > > Jason Stewart
                      > > busy in south eastern Oz.
                      > >
                      > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      > >
                      > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      >
                      >


                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Nandan Palaparambil
                      Yes, probably will look in that direction.. Regards, Nandan ________________________________ From: Ruthie Aquino To:
                      Message 10 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Yes, probably will look in that direction..


                        Regards,
                        Nandan




                        ________________________________
                        From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
                        To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                        Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 3:35 PM
                        Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)


                         
                        You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be
                        made by a handyman?

                        Cheers
                        RUTHIE

                        2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>

                        > **
                        >
                        >
                        > Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length
                        > mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
                        >
                        > http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm
                        >
                        > Regards,
                        > Nandan
                        >
                        > ________________________________
                        > From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
                        > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                        > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
                        > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                        > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed
                        > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
                        > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > Hello Nandan,
                        > I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
                        > SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
                        > Here is where :
                        > www.fine-tools.com
                        >
                        > One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
                        > your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
                        > fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
                        > I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
                        > of stuff.
                        > The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
                        > Professional.
                        >
                        > Hope this helps.
                        >
                        > best
                        > RUTHIE
                        >
                        > 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
                        >
                        > > **
                        >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
                        > > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
                        > > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and
                        > cutting.
                        > >
                        > > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool,
                        > preferably
                        > > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
                        > >
                        > > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
                        > > relevant information for me.
                        > >
                        > > Regards,
                        > > Nandan
                        > >
                        > > ________________________________
                        > >
                        > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                        > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                        > > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
                        > > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                        > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
                        > weed
                        > > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled
                        > kama
                        > > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
                        > > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
                        > > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what
                        > late
                        > > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds.
                        > Please
                        > > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
                        > > context of the whole... .]
                        > >
                        > > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
                        > > marks.
                        > > .
                        > > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
                        > > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
                        > > ..362 pages,
                        > > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
                        > > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
                        > > 978-4-393-74114-6;
                        > > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
                        > > .
                        > > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
                        > > Paradise Lost";
                        > > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                        > > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
                        > > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
                        > > .
                        > > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                        > > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                        > > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
                        > > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                        > > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
                        > weed
                        > > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
                        > > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
                        > >
                        > > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
                        > > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu
                        > sensei,
                        > > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
                        > > (Japanese)
                        > > writing: 無除草;
                        > > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
                        > > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
                        > > Japanese
                        > > sickles-scythes)[3]
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
                        > > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
                        > > 1
                        > > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
                        > > .
                        > > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
                        > > 362
                        > > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
                        > > 458
                        > > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
                        > > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
                        > > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                        > > Japan
                        > > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN
                        > 978-0-87040-673-7.
                        > > .
                        > > "
                        > > The Road Back to Nature
                        > > __________________________
                        > > Regaining the Paradise Lost
                        > > __________________________
                        > >
                        > > Masanobu Fukuoka
                        > > .
                        > > Japan Publications, Inc.
                        > > .
                        > > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
                        > > .
                        > > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
                        > > .
                        > > First edition: August 1987
                        > > .
                        > > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
                        > > .
                        > > Printed in Japan.
                        > > .
                        > > Contents
                        > > _____________________________________
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > Preface to English Edition
                        > > _____________________________________
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > Preface to Japanese Edition
                        > > _____________________________________
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > Introduction:
                        > > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
                        > > _____________________________________
                        > > .
                        > > All One Has to Do is to Live
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > [Chapter]
                        > > 1
                        > > =====================================
                        > > America–
                        > > Land of Plenty?
                        > > =====================================
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > Why has California Turned to Desert?
                        > > _____________________________________
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
                        > > .
                        > > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
                        > > This
                        > > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
                        > > close
                        > > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
                        > > circumference.
                        > > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
                        > > glaciers
                        > > which wiped out the surrounding area.
                        > > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
                        > > thousand
                        > > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
                        > > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
                        > > "Are you
                        > > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
                        > > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
                        > > with a
                        > > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
                        > > many
                        > > things that day.
                        > > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
                        > > top of
                        > > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
                        > > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
                        > > replied that
                        > > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
                        > > made
                        > > into a national park.
                        > > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
                        > > side.
                        > > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
                        > > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
                        > > desert.
                        > > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
                        > > one-third of
                        > > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
                        > > Just
                        > > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
                        > > forest
                        > > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
                        > > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
                        > > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
                        > > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
                        > > wrong
                        > > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
                        > > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
                        > > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I
                        > came
                        > > to
                        > > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had
                        > brought
                        > > over
                        > > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
                        > > vegetation
                        > > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
                        > > that the
                        > > seeds set and mature around June.
                        > > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
                        > > up and
                        > > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
                        > > density
                        > > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
                        > > the
                        > > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
                        > > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
                        > > cannot be
                        > > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
                        > > to
                        > > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
                        > > birds and
                        > > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If
                        > the
                        > > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
                        > > reflected
                        > > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise
                        > in
                        > > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
                        > > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
                        > > when
                        > > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
                        > > these
                        > > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
                        > > altered the
                        > > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
                        > > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
                        > > was
                        > > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
                        > > before
                        > > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I
                        > was
                        > > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young
                        > woman
                        > > who
                        > > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
                        > > thirty
                        > > minutes before the meeting began.
                        > > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her
                        > desk.
                        > > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
                        > > "Is that a California rock?"
                        > > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
                        > > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
                        > > "Since
                        > > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
                        > > is,
                        > > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
                        > > the
                        > > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
                        > > California?"
                        > > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
                        > > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
                        > > parent rock
                        > > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
                        > > Moreover,
                        > > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
                        > > Canada.
                        > > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
                        > > Mexico. The
                        > > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
                        > > Pacific.
                        > > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
                        > > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
                        > > west,
                        > > creating two separate land masses.
                        > > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
                        > > and
                        > > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
                        > > for each
                        > > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
                        > > part
                        > > of one land mass.
                        > > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
                        > > on the
                        > > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
                        > > very
                        > > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
                        > > one
                        > > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
                        > > rainfall.
                        > > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a
                        > temperate
                        > > climate with four seasons.
                        > > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
                        > > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
                        > > at all,
                        > > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
                        > > men and
                        > > machines.
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > >
                        > > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
                        > > .
                        > > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
                        > > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
                        > > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
                        > > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
                        > > straw-yellow.
                        > > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
                        > > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
                        > > entire city
                        > > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
                        > > it's
                        > > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
                        > > city,
                        > > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation
                        > here."
                        > > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
                        > > elicited
                        > > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
                        > > can be
                        > > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken
                        > later
                        > > to
                        > > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
                        > > direct
                        > > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
                        > > remained
                        > > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
                        > > which
                        > > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
                        > > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
                        > > Perhaps
                        > > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
                        > > below.
                        > > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
                        > > condenses
                        > > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
                        > >
                        > > .
                        > > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
                        > > .
                        > > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
                        > > grasses.
                        > > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such
                        > an
                        > > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
                        > > farming
                        > > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
                        > > pesticides.
                        > > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
                        > > the
                        > > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
                        > > now,
                        > > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
                        > > depleted.
                        > > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
                        > > twenty- or
                        > > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard
                        > as
                        > > clay.
                        > > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface
                        > of
                        > > the
                        > > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
                        > > drying
                        > > would cause cracks to form.
                        > > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
                        > > tractors
                        > > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
                        > > explained to
                        > > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
                        > > soil had
                        > > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
                        > > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides
                        > as
                        > > well
                        > > as machines increasingly depletes it.
                        > > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
                        > > the
                        > > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
                        > > After
                        > > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
                        > > to the
                        > > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
                        > > question is *why*?
                        > > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
                        > > one
                        > > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
                        > > poorer
                        > > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
                        > > directly
                        > > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner,
                        > but
                        > > the
                        > > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
                        > > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
                        > > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
                        > > and
                        > > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
                        > > fertilizers,
                        > > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
                        > > the
                        > > world as cattle feed.
                        > > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle
                        > and
                        > > hog
                        > > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed,
                        > America
                        > > is
                        > > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
                        > > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
                        > > that is
                        > > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
                        > > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
                        > > poorer
                        > > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
                        > > of the
                        > > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
                        > > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
                        > > growers
                        > > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
                        > > fetilizers,
                        > > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
                        > > under
                        > > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
                        > > water,
                        > > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
                        > > hundreds of
                        > > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
                        > > when it
                        > > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
                        > > deposition of
                        > > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt
                        > field.
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > Agriculture Run Amok
                        > > _____________________________________
                        > >
                        > > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > The Machine Culture is doomed
                        > > _____________________________________
                        > >
                        > > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > The Natural Foods Boom
                        > > _____________________________________
                        > >
                        > > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
                        > > ...
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > [Chapter]
                        > > 2
                        > > =====================================
                        > > Europe
                        > > As I Saw It
                        > > =====================================
                        > > ...
                        > > ...
                        > > ...
                        > > "
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > Ref's in my lead–in words:
                        > > =======================
                        > > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                        > > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
                        > > page 33.
                        > > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
                        > > Larry
                        > > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
                        > Rodale
                        > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                        > > (edition).
                        > > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
                        > > -updated
                        > > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
                        > > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
                        > > Publications.
                        > > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
                        > > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                        > > edition)
                        > > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
                        > > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
                        > > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
                        > > standing-walking
                        > > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
                        > > other
                        > > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
                        > > and
                        > > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa
                        > Tsunemichi)
                        > > and
                        > > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
                        > > Rodale
                        > > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                        > > (edition).
                        > > .
                        > > Wikipedia links
                        > > ============
                        > > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
                        > > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
                        > > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > Not against nature!
                        > > With nature, entirely!!!
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > .
                        > > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
                        > > .
                        > > Jason Stewart
                        > > busy in south eastern Oz.
                        > >
                        > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        > >
                        > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        >
                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        >
                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        >
                        >
                        >

                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Sumant Joshi
                        I think if you get a good picture with dimensions, a blacksmith will be able to make one out of a truck leaf spring Sent from my BSNL landline B-fone Warm
                        Message 11 of 11 , Oct 1, 2012
                        • 0 Attachment
                          I think if you get a good picture with dimensions, a blacksmith will be able to make one out of a truck leaf spring



                          Sent from my BSNL landline B-fone


                          Warm regards,

                          Sumant Joshi
                          Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161



                          >________________________________
                          > From: Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
                          >To: "fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com" <fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com>
                          >Sent: Monday, 1 October 2012 4:05 PM
                          >Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                          >
                          >

                          >Yes, probably will look in that direction..
                          >
                          >Regards,
                          >Nandan
                          >
                          >________________________________
                          >From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
                          >To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                          >Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 3:35 PM
                          >Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                          >
                          >

                          >You are right, there is no long-handled kama per se but maybe one can be
                          >made by a handyman?
                          >
                          >Cheers
                          >RUTHIE
                          >
                          >2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
                          >
                          >> **
                          >>
                          >>
                          >> Thanks Ruthie. I could find the kama pictures, but the total length
                          >> mentioned is 39-42cms which is smaller, could not see any long handled kama
                          >>
                          >> http://www.fine-tools.com/gartenjj.htm
                          >>
                          >> Regards,
                          >> Nandan
                          >>
                          >> ________________________________
                          >> From: Ruthie Aquino <ruthieaquino1@...>
                          >> To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                          >> Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 2:02 PM
                          >> Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                          >> herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary-, instead only minimal weed
                          >> suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled kama
                          >> (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                          >>
                          >>
                          >>
                          >>
                          >> Hello Nandan,
                          >> I bought some Japanese gardening tools from a German suppplier, DIETER
                          >> SCHMID, over a year and a half ago.
                          >> Here is where :
                          >> www.fine-tools.com
                          >>
                          >> One useful tool is a Tsurukubi Kama or sickle hoe, but you need to have
                          >> your grinding stone in your pocket. It was useful to me when I was not yet
                          >> fully into no-weed but now it is less useful.
                          >> I bought a TSUKURU or hook with teeth which is fine for harvesting bunches
                          >> of stuff.
                          >> The last tool ressembles a kama but the description is Sickle blade 180 mm
                          >> Professional.
                          >>
                          >> Hope this helps.
                          >>
                          >> best
                          >> RUTHIE
                          >>
                          >> 2012/10/1 Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
                          >>
                          >> > **
                          >>
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> > I have seen Fukuoka san cutting clover and other weeds with this tool -
                          >> > long-handled kama (Japanese sickles-scythes). This tool looks good, since
                          >> > cutting is done at standing and it is much easier than bending and
                          >> cutting.
                          >> >
                          >> > Any one in India has used this tool? Any supplier of this tool,
                          >> preferably
                          >> > in India, if not anywhere in the world?
                          >> >
                          >> > My apologies for not reading the complete post and picking up only
                          >> > relevant information for me.
                          >> >
                          >> > Regards,
                          >> > Nandan
                          >> >
                          >> > ________________________________
                          >> >
                          >> > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                          >> > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                          >> > Sent: Monday, October 1, 2012 10:14 AM
                          >> > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                          >> > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
                          >> weed
                          >> > suppression with minimal disturbance by cutting low with long-handled
                          >> kama
                          >> > (鎌, Japanese sickles-scythes)
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> > [A 21st March 2011 draft correction of my own post's formatting needs,
                          >> > never sent to the group. Now appropriate for an English language nuanced
                          >> > 'mastery' of the words to hopefully encourage more realisation of what
                          >> late
                          >> > Fukuoka Masanobu sensei realised and meant in writings about weeds.
                          >> Please
                          >> > do not take his words out of context. Quote sentences must be read in the
                          >> > context of the whole... .]
                          >> >
                          >> > Correcting wiki–formatting Japanese–character–help superscript question
                          >> > marks.
                          >> > .
                          >> > * 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る);
                          >> > ..Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社),
                          >> > ..362 pages,
                          >> > ..in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7;
                          >> > ..An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pages, in 1993 April ISBN
                          >> > 978-4-393-74114-6;
                          >> > ..Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
                          >> > .
                          >> > ...* 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the
                          >> > Paradise Lost";
                          >> > .....Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                          >> > .....Japan Publications, Tokyo;
                          >> > .....First edition 1987 Aug. Out of print; ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
                          >> > .
                          >> > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                          >> > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                          >> > Sent: Sunday, March 20, 2011 18:38:23
                          >> > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Weeding, either by cultivation or by
                          >> > herbicides, evidently disproved as unnecessary–, instead only minimal
                          >> weed
                          >> > suppression with minimal disturbance[r 6][r 8] by cutting low with
                          >> > long-handled kama (鎌?, Japanese sickles-scythes)[† 8]
                          >> >
                          >> > On the subject of weeding either by cultivation or by herbicides;
                          >> > Disproved as unnecessary, in evidence by late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu
                          >> sensei,
                          >> > —Mu weeding, or the nothingness of weeding, or no weeding, in his
                          >> > (Japanese)
                          >> > writing: 無除草;
                          >> > Instead of weed eradication*, only minimal weed suppression with minimal
                          >> > disturbance[1][2] by low cutting with long-handled kama* (鎌*, meaning:
                          >> > Japanese
                          >> > sickles-scythes)[3]
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > To add more measured perspective from late Mr. Fukuoka Masanobu sensei,
                          >> > i would like to provide a quotation from a select few sections of chapter
                          >> > 1
                          >> > "America – Land of Plenty?" of:
                          >> > .
                          >> > 1984 (Japanese) shizen ni kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?),
                          >> > 362
                          >> > pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7; An enlarged and revised edition,
                          >> > 458
                          >> > pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6; Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN
                          >> > 978-4-393-74146-7. * 1987 (English) translation "The Road Back to
                          >> > Nature-Regaining the Paradise Lost" Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud;
                          >> > Japan
                          >> > Publications, first edition 1987 Aug. Out of print. ISBN
                          >> 978-0-87040-673-7.
                          >> > .
                          >> > "
                          >> > The Road Back to Nature
                          >> > __________________________
                          >> > Regaining the Paradise Lost
                          >> > __________________________
                          >> >
                          >> > Masanobu Fukuoka
                          >> > .
                          >> > Japan Publications, Inc.
                          >> > .
                          >> > 1987 by Masanobu Fukuoka
                          >> > .
                          >> > Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud
                          >> > .
                          >> > First edition: August 1987
                          >> > .
                          >> > ISBN 0–87040–673–6
                          >> > .
                          >> > Printed in Japan.
                          >> > .
                          >> > Contents
                          >> > _____________________________________
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > Preface to English Edition
                          >> > _____________________________________
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > Preface to Japanese Edition
                          >> > _____________________________________
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > Introduction:
                          >> > Man Doesn't Live by Bread Alone
                          >> > _____________________________________
                          >> > .
                          >> > All One Has to Do is to Live
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > [Chapter]
                          >> > 1
                          >> > =====================================
                          >> > America–
                          >> > Land of Plenty?
                          >> > =====================================
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > Why has California Turned to Desert?
                          >> > _____________________________________
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > Up Above the Clouds––––––––––––––––––––[31]
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > The Spaniards Brought Bad Grasses–––––––[35]
                          >> > .
                          >> > We visited the redwood forest about twenty minutes inland from the coast.
                          >> > This
                          >> > was a virgin forest with trees two or three hundred years old standing
                          >> > close
                          >> > together, many of them measuring twenty or twenty-five feet in
                          >> > circumference.
                          >> > During the last ice age, a few spots in California were spared from the
                          >> > glaciers
                          >> > which wiped out the surrounding area.
                          >> > These became the "glacier forests," where gargantuan trees, some two
                          >> > thousand
                          >> > years old and measuring 400 feet high, stand today.
                          >> > There was a tribal indian chief here who looked about eighty years old.
                          >> > "Are you
                          >> > the guardian deity of this forest?" I asked.
                          >> > "That's right. Say, you just said something very nice there," he answered
                          >> > with a
                          >> > happy grin. He spent a great deal of time showing me around. I learned
                          >> > many
                          >> > things that day.
                          >> > (On my return to Japan, I received from him a handmade mug made from the
                          >> > top of
                          >> > a three-hundred-year-old red-wood.)
                          >> > I asked whether this area had always been forested like this and he
                          >> > replied that
                          >> > it had. The forest was preserved as it had been two hundred years ago and
                          >> > made
                          >> > into a national park.
                          >> > A narrow road passes through the park, with a rope strung along either
                          >> > side.
                          >> > There are no other facilities, not even a single bench.
                          >> > Outside the forest, just ten minutes away by car, the land is parched
                          >> > desert.
                          >> > But here, we have the complete reverse—a thick, lush forest. About
                          >> > one-third of
                          >> > the undergrowth consists of vegetation similar to that found in Japan.
                          >> > Just
                          >> > think of it. Here, in the middle of an American desert we have a sacred
                          >> > forest
                          >> > where Japanese grasses grow among the underbrush.
                          >> > A little hard to believe, isn't it?
                          >> > Since I had been told that this forest was pristine and untouched, I was
                          >> > curious. "What was California like long ago? Something must have gone
                          >> > wrong
                          >> > sometime." He said that he thought things had gotten screwed up when the
                          >> > Spaniards arrived and started raising cattle.
                          >> > After investigating for myself and later talking with some experts, I
                          >> came
                          >> > to
                          >> > the personal conclusion that the pasture grasses the Spaniards had
                          >> brought
                          >> > over
                          >> > with them contained foxtail seeds, and it was this that dominates the
                          >> > vegetation
                          >> > throughout California. The reason foxtail dominates other vegetation is
                          >> > that the
                          >> > seeds set and mature around June.
                          >> > Normally, after one plant reaches maturity and withers, other plants grow
                          >> > up and
                          >> > in an ongoing seasonal succession, but foxtail grows to such a great
                          >> > density
                          >> > that other plants are unable to take well in the same ground. That is why
                          >> > the
                          >> > fields and hills in California have all turned yellow.
                          >> > The seeds have irritating bristles. When these catch on clothing, they
                          >> > cannot be
                          >> > removed. I was told that dogs and cats sometimes have to be operated upon
                          >> > to
                          >> > remove the seeds, which dig into the flesh. These seeds were spread by
                          >> > birds and
                          >> > beasts, turning the entire region into a parched, yellow grassland. If
                          >> the
                          >> > temperature is thirty degrees Centigrade (86º Fahrenheit), the heat
                          >> > reflected
                          >> > from this ground surface raises it to forty degrees (104º). Such a rise
                          >> in
                          >> > temperature turns the place into a scorching desert.
                          >> > From this I surmised that the vegetation in California underwent a change
                          >> > when
                          >> > the Spaniards brought over new grasses with them. I had the feeling that
                          >> > these
                          >> > later had chased out the existing mix of grasses, and that this had
                          >> > altered the
                          >> > temperature of the region and triggered desertification.
                          >> > I was still turning this idea over in my mind several days later when I
                          >> > was
                          >> > invited by the head of the state environmental agency to give a talk
                          >> > before
                          >> > thirty officials at the state capitol in Sacramento. At the capitol, I
                          >> was
                          >> > ushered into the director's office, where I found a tall, slim young
                          >> woman
                          >> > who
                          >> > was the number two person at the agency. I spoke with her for a full
                          >> > thirty
                          >> > minutes before the meeting began.
                          >> > As I was sitting down, she cleared away a rock sitting on top of her
                          >> desk.
                          >> > "That's a strange stone if I ever saw one," I thought.
                          >> > "Is that a California rock?"
                          >> > "No," she said, laughing loudly. "This is from Russia."
                          >> > "Well, well," I said with a chuckle. After a short pause, I continued,
                          >> > "Since
                          >> > arriving in California, I've seen a lot I don't understand. What I mean
                          >> > is,
                          >> > although the land is a virtual desert, there are plants here similar to
                          >> > the
                          >> > grasses we have growing in Japan. What type of parent rock is there in
                          >> > California?"
                          >> > "You know," she replied, "I was originally a minerologist."
                          >> > Bringing over a large, heavy book to show me, she explained that the
                          >> > parent rock
                          >> > for Japan is the same as that for the region around San Francisco.
                          >> > Moreover,
                          >> > Hokkaido and the nearby islands have the same parent rock as southern
                          >> > Canada.
                          >> > The Same is true for Siberia and Alaska, and for Southeast Asia and
                          >> > Mexico. The
                          >> > distribution of parent rock is exactly the same on both sides of the
                          >> > Pacific.
                          >> > She also said that specialists believe that the Pacific had once been a
                          >> > continent, and that when the mountians erupted, the lava flowed east and
                          >> > west,
                          >> > creating two separate land masses.
                          >> > Japan has Mt. Fuji and California has Mt. Shasta. Both are large volcanos
                          >> > and
                          >> > similarly located. This, plus the fact that the grasses and parent rock
                          >> > for each
                          >> > are the same could very well mean that long ago Japan and California were
                          >> > part
                          >> > of one land mass.
                          >> > The greatest difference is that Japan today has four seasons. California,
                          >> > on the
                          >> > other hand, has just winter and summer. There is no spring or fall, and
                          >> > very
                          >> > little or no rainfall. If the parent rock and grasses are identical, then
                          >> > one
                          >> > would expect both areas to have a similar climate, including similar
                          >> > rainfall.
                          >> > But at some point, California became a desert and Japan became a
                          >> temperate
                          >> > climate with four seasons.
                          >> > This is what we talked of before the meeting. As a result, my conviction
                          >> > deepened that nature as it exists today in California is not true nature
                          >> > at all,
                          >> > but rather a land and climate that was probably altered at some time by
                          >> > men and
                          >> > machines.
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> >
                          >> > The Rain Falls from Below––––––––––––––––[38]
                          >> > .
                          >> > I jumped right into this topic at my talk afterward.
                          >> > "I've kept my eyes glued on the passing scenery all the way here from San
                          >> > Francisco," I told the officials before me.
                          >> > "As soon as you leave San Francisco, the color of the land turns
                          >> > straw-yellow.
                          >> > The transition to a desert climate is very clear. Then, as you drive into
                          >> > Sacramento, you find the place totally covered with green trees. The
                          >> > entire city
                          >> > is a garden, with flowers, cactuses, and trees planted everywhere. Why,
                          >> > it's
                          >> > just like an oasis in the middle of the desert. Sacramento is a beautiful
                          >> > city,
                          >> > but there is something artificial and unnatural about the vegetation
                          >> here."
                          >> > When I asked whether Sacramento had always been like this, my question
                          >> > elicited
                          >> > quite a response. One person told me that proof that it may not have been
                          >> > can be
                          >> > seen in some very old houses still standing in the city. I was taken
                          >> later
                          >> > to
                          >> > visit one of these. A stairway entered directly onto the second floor for
                          >> > direct
                          >> > access to the interior when the floodwaters didn't recede. This house
                          >> > remained
                          >> > as evidence that two or three hundred years ago, the town of Sacramento,
                          >> > which
                          >> > today lies in the middle of a desert, saw some mighty big floods.
                          >> > We often hear that scarce rainfall is typical of a continental climate.
                          >> > Perhaps
                          >> > rain falls from above meteorologically, but philosophically it falls from
                          >> > below.
                          >> > If there is vegetation on the ground, then water vapour rises here,
                          >> > condenses
                          >> > into clouds, and falls back down to earth as rain.
                          >> >
                          >> > .
                          >> > Deficit Farming–––––––––––––––––––––––––[39]
                          >> > .
                          >> > This land was transformed into endless yellow stretches of foxtail
                          >> > grasses.
                          >> > Clouds no longer form here, and rain no longer wets the ground. In such
                          >> an
                          >> > environment, modern agriculture grew increasingly mechanized, until
                          >> > farming
                          >> > methods were developed that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and
                          >> > pesticides.
                          >> > Walking about on the land and digging for myself in the soil, I came to
                          >> > the
                          >> > conclusion that the soil in California had not always been so poor. Even
                          >> > now,
                          >> > the land is not lean, but the soil near the surface is very seriously
                          >> > depleted.
                          >> > This is the result of irrigating the fields and working the soil with
                          >> > twenty- or
                          >> > thirty-ton machines four, maybe five times a year until it becomes hard
                          >> as
                          >> > clay.
                          >> > The sun bakes and dries this, creating fist sized cracks in the surface
                          >> of
                          >> > the
                          >> > field. It is only natural to expect that adding water, kneading, and
                          >> > drying
                          >> > would cause cracks to form.
                          >> > But the ground at the corners of the fields, over which the caterpillar
                          >> > tractors
                          >> > don't pass, is soft, rich soil just like that in my own fields. I
                          >> > explained to
                          >> > one farmer that his soil had not always been poor. I told him that the
                          >> > soil had
                          >> > probably grown leaner each time the tiller had turned it over. Mechanized
                          >> > farming that assaults the land with chemical fertilizers and pesticides
                          >> as
                          >> > well
                          >> > as machines increasingly depletes it.
                          >> > Scientists today claim that livestock farming enriches the land. However,
                          >> > the
                          >> > truth of the matter is that wherever you look, this only depletes it.
                          >> > After
                          >> > talking with young people from Australia, India, and elsewhere, I've come
                          >> > to the
                          >> > conclusion that animal husbandry destroys the fertility of the soil. The
                          >> > question is *why*?
                          >> > The Spaniards were the first to raise cattle in America. The land, which
                          >> > one
                          >> > would normally have expected to become richer as a result, has grown
                          >> > poorer
                          >> > instead. In cattle–ranching, because all the animal wastes are returned
                          >> > directly
                          >> > to the land, it may not seem possible that the land would grow leaner,
                          >> but
                          >> > the
                          >> > fact is that it does. This is because the vegetation becomes less varied.
                          >> > The application of modern farming methods further aggravates the problem,
                          >> > creating a negative cycle. In America, land is irrigated with sprinklers
                          >> > and
                          >> > forage crops grown there. These crops are nourished with chemical
                          >> > fertilizers,
                          >> > then harvested using large combines, and packaged and exported throughout
                          >> > the
                          >> > world as cattle feed.
                          >> > The livestock raised in Japan is not fattened on Japanese feed. Cattle
                          >> and
                          >> > hog
                          >> > farms recieve their feed from America. By exporting all this feed,
                          >> America
                          >> > is
                          >> > draining her lands of fertility. Those who don't know any better might be
                          >> > pardoned for thinking that America's livestock farmers are well–off. But
                          >> > that is
                          >> > not the case. All they are doing is selling feed crops grown by applying
                          >> > petroleum–based products. The soil at their feet just keeps on growing
                          >> > poorer
                          >> > and poorer. Oh sure, they're making money. But the steady impoverishment
                          >> > of the
                          >> > soil means that they are actually practising deficit farming.
                          >> > When the soil gives out and the fields are abandoned by ranchers, fruit
                          >> > growers
                          >> > come in. They set up sprinklers on the weary land, spread chemical
                          >> > fetilizers,
                          >> > and grow plums, apricots, and oranges. This no longer is crop production
                          >> > under
                          >> > natural conditions; it is farming based on petroleum energy. Even the
                          >> > water,
                          >> > although sometimes drawn from nearby sources, often is piped in from
                          >> > hundreds of
                          >> > miles away. This water is sprayed over the fields with sprinklers, but
                          >> > when it
                          >> > evaporates it draws salt up from within the soil. This continuous
                          >> > deposition of
                          >> > salt in the topsoil eventually turns the irrigated land into a salt
                          >> field.
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > Agriculture Run Amok
                          >> > _____________________________________
                          >> >
                          >> > America's Pine Trees Are Dying Too–––––––
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > America is Drying Up–––––––––––––––––––
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > The East Coast Forests–––––––––––––––––
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > The Bogus Nature––––––––––––––––––––––
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > Can American Agriculture Be Revived?–––––
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > The Machine Culture is doomed
                          >> > _____________________________________
                          >> >
                          >> > Food as a Strategic Weapon––––––––––––––
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > The Natural Foods Boom
                          >> > _____________________________________
                          >> >
                          >> > Natural Diet Takes Hold in the U.S.––––––––
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > A Change Has Come Over Westerners–––––
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > The Specter of Food Scarcity–––––––––––––
                          >> > ...
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > [Chapter]
                          >> > 2
                          >> > =====================================
                          >> > Europe
                          >> > As I Saw It
                          >> > =====================================
                          >> > ...
                          >> > ...
                          >> > ...
                          >> > "
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > Ref's in my lead–in words:
                          >> > =======================
                          >> > 1. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                          >> > edition) "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming"
                          >> > page 33.
                          >> > Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa Tsunemichi) and
                          >> > Larry
                          >> > Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
                          >> Rodale
                          >> > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                          >> > (edition).
                          >> > 2. ......1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation
                          >> > -updated
                          >> > 1987 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
                          >> > Philosophy" page 112. Translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan
                          >> > Publications.
                          >> > Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
                          >> > 3. ......1975 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation (US
                          >> > edition)
                          >> > "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" kama (鎌?,
                          >> > Japanese sickles-scythes) having various angled blades and handles -often
                          >> > long-handled for low cutting of grasses, crops or weeds from a
                          >> > standing-walking
                          >> > position - but also short handled for harvesting some kinds of crops or
                          >> > other
                          >> > cutting work -photos on pages 46 (in use but hard to see), 93, 140, 158
                          >> > and
                          >> > 169. Translated by Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa (黒澤常道 Kurosawa
                          >> Tsunemichi)
                          >> > and
                          >> > Larry Korn. English preface by Wendell Berry. Introduction by Larry Korn.
                          >> > Rodale
                          >> > Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-87857-220-5. Out of print; New printing 2009
                          >> > (edition).
                          >> > .
                          >> > Wikipedia links
                          >> > ============
                          >> > *.(English) -> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eradication
                          >> > *.(English) -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama_(weapon)
                          >> > *.(Japanese) -> http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%8e%8c
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > Not against nature!
                          >> > With nature, entirely!!!
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > .
                          >> > Biggest best wishes to all Japanese and to all,
                          >> > .
                          >> > Jason Stewart
                          >> > busy in south eastern Oz.
                          >> >
                          >> > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          >> >
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                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >>
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