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Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

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  • Nandan Palaparambil
    Dear Raju sir, Yes, this is a tricky situation. -  May be when there are not sufficient food, more people will come to farming and farming will get more
    Message 1 of 20 , Dec 8, 2010
      Dear Raju sir,

      Yes, this is a tricky situation.

      -  May be when there are not sufficient food, more people will come to farming and farming will get more importance
      - It may also happen that big companies will enter into farming and they will take the control of the food production and people may have to follow their terms
      - Lot of these things are beyond our control, so just produce as much as we can do using natural farming methods which is the lowest effort method and sell the produce at normal rate in the market. There will be lot of struggle we have to do as a farmer, but just keep enjoying it.




      Regards,
      Nandan

      --- On Wed, 12/8/10, Raju Titus <rajuktitus@...> wrote:

      From: Raju Titus <rajuktitus@...>
      Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
      To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
      Date: Wednesday, December 8, 2010, 10:55 AM







       









      Dear Nandan,

      When i was new in N.F wanted more and more money from farm but failed. Than

      i started growing in small land not more than one eked with fruit

      trees,grain,vegetables etc.for our self and given rest to to rest of the

      land. This land is occupied with trees and giving me lots of money. Now

      people saying that if all started doing this than who will feed people those

      not having land.

      thanks

      Raju



      On Tue, Dec 7, 2010 at 10:37 AM, Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...

      > wrote:



      >

      >

      > Farming gets the least attention and farm produce gets the least of the

      > prices. IT Jobs gets heavily paid even thought it is not critical for human

      > existance. Only difference is more intelligent (or at least so called)

      > control the cities and all high paid jobs and farmers really struggle. One

      > solution for farmers is to reject all the consumer goods and live/enjoy on

      > the land, probably a new community has to come up like that.

      >

      > Regards,

      > Nandan

      >

      >

      > --- On Mon, 12/6/10, Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...<sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>

      > wrote:

      >

      > From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@... <sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>

      > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>

      > Date: Monday, December 6, 2010, 8:18 PM

      >

      >

      >

      >

      > Dear Jason,

      >

      > I guess the least I can do is, encourage others who are doing something

      > other than just talking (like me).

      >

      > And like you said, realness is very important. It is uplifting in the sense

      > that unless one knows what the problem is you have no clear idea of what is

      > required to be done and whether one is fit or inclined to do what needs to

      > be done. I am in a situation where I am still groping around in the dark to

      > understand what it is I want to do and whether I have any kind of capacity

      > to do it. First step was off course is to understand the situation, which is

      > why the study and the next is to dump my job. I am zeroing in on education

      > of our youth. Oldies like me are too dumb to change now.One of the things

      > which put me off during my corporate stint was the lies these people instill

      > in their people. Material goals are supposed to be the Nirvana everyone

      > needs to aim for. So everyone consumes more and that creates jobs and that

      > in turn increases consumption and the cycle of 'development' goes on. They

      > don't give a damn about the poor who get the short end of the

      >

      > stick. Come to think of it, if these so called high paying jobs ceased to

      > exist, it wouldn't matter, but if you don't look after your farmers and they

      > vanish, you are in real trouble.

      >

      > Warm regards,

      >

      > Sumant Joshi

      >

      > Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161

      >

      > --- On Sat, 4/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...<macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>>

      > wrote:

      >

      > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@... <macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>

      > >

      >

      > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

      >

      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>

      >

      > Cc: "Sumant Joshi" <sumant_jo@... <sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>

      >

      > Date: Saturday, 4 December, 2010, 8:03 PM

      >

      >

      >

      > Dear friend Sumant,

      >

      > Well, all too briefly, i feel uplifted by your message below, because of

      > its

      >

      > evidently well informed realness, rather than the falsehoods of

      >

      > pollyana–optimism or doom–&–gloom–pessimism.

      >

      > Realnees uplifts when the evident future really does threaten us all or

      > when the

      >

      > evident future is all rosy.

      >

      > Realness about the future (& the past) really does uplift, because of the

      >

      > realness –shared mutually respectfully & responsively–, not necessarily

      > because

      >

      > of the content of the realness.

      >

      > I don't know if that makes sense.

      >

      > A simpler way to say it is: honesty uplifts (ultimately—no matter what the

      >

      > content) whereas deception, even for the best possible intentions,

      > ultimately

      >

      > distances us and let people down.

      >

      > IMHO your content within your realness is evidently correct as far as i

      > know.

      >

      > Thank you so much, Sumant!!!

      >

      > Uplifted!

      >

      > Biggest best wishes to you, and to all life–people,

      >

      > Jason

      >

      > ________________________________

      >

      > From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@... <sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>

      >

      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>

      >

      > Sent: Sunday, December 5, 2010 1:04:11

      >

      > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

      >

      > Well, I am an armchair environmentalist at best, having spent most of my

      > life in

      >

      > the Navy. Last few years I have been reading up on a lot of material on

      >

      > conservation and found that on almost all fronts, our mother Earth's

      > environment

      >

      > is in retreat and deteriorating fast. It seems hopeless, except for the

      > little

      >

      > lights I see in people like you all who are doing their bit. The industrial

      >

      >

      > revolution has been a failure. Ultimately when the collapse comes, it is

      > these

      >

      > talents and learnings which will be useful for humans to survive (read

      >

      > 'collapse' by Jared Diamond). Like Fukuoka San said "The ultimate goal of

      >

      > farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of

      > human

      >

      > beings." Unless the human race mends it's ways .....

      >

      > I have been observing and video-graphing the changing seasons and scenes of

      >

      >

      > rural areas and forest areas around my town and seeing the daily

      > destruction

      >

      > wrought by wrong farming practices. The hills around my town are completely

      >

      >

      > denuded and are an environmental disaster. If nothing else I am planning to

      > make

      >

      > a documentary on the situation. From what I read (another Mr Agarwal, who

      >

      > founded the centre for science and environment) the problem is systemic.

      > Unless

      >

      > local people are given control of their environment, all efforts at

      > conservation

      >

      > are probably doomed to failure. All forest lands in India are government

      >

      > property.Greening the desert is a noble idea but ultimately, unless

      > systemic

      >

      > changes are made, these efforts will not bear fruit. So what can I do? I

      > have a

      >

      > small 4.5 acre piece of land which I am planning to use as a forest nursery

      > for

      >

      > local endangered trees and plants. I think maybe we should all put aside

      > about

      >

      > 10% of our farmlands for forest

      >

      > trees for more reasons than one including the ones Jason has mentioned.

      > These

      >

      > little nuclei will in future form the means for regenerating lost forests.

      >

      > Not surprisingly, my efforts at finding the list of endangered trees for

      > this

      >

      > part of the world has borne no fruit as yet.

      >

      > I hope I don't sound too depressing.

      >

      > Warm regards,

      >

      > Sumant Joshi

      >

      > --- On Fri, 3/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...<macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>>

      > wrote:

      >

      > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@... <macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>

      > >

      >

      > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

      >

      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>

      >

      > Date: Friday, 3 December, 2010, 2:57 PM

      >

      > ________________________________

      >

      > Dear Boovarahan Srinivasan, and BTW everyone,

      >

      > Please plant trees and tall crop species that can grow tall enough to

      > survive

      >

      > and stand above floods and then in the dry season remain to continue to

      > provide

      >

      > shade and protection to the soil surface.

      >

      > Friend here of many years experience Mr. Raju Titus plants Subabul

      > (Leucaena

      >

      > leucocephala), which apparently grows very widespread around India, and

      > which

      >

      > late Mr. Fukuoka sensei lauded when he visited Mr. Raju's farm in 1988.

      >

      > See -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala

      >

      > If you would be in Australia i would have many suitable plant species to

      >

      > recommend to you, but i don't really know India.

      >

      > Please read all the homework materials in books and blogs and so on and

      > then;

      >

      > Please respectfully ask Mr. Raju Titus on his specific suggestions for your

      >

      >

      > Indian farmland.

      >

      > Please see Mr. Raju's photos uploaded here in Yahoo Fukuoka_Farming photos

      > (see

      >

      > below second link) and:

      >

      > -> http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus

      >

      > ->

      > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/photos/album/332255617/pic/list

      >

      > i commented on of the photos asking what the plant is, then i saw the older

      >

      >

      > previous photos where Mr. Raju writes hemp on the captions, so i deleted my

      >

      >

      > question-comment, then i searched for all the different plant species named

      > Hemp

      >

      > from India, but didn't succeed in finding this one species in the photos by

      >

      >

      > visual-photo recognition. i was interested to find many different prefixes

      >

      > before the name Hemp in India meaning for different species of plant all

      >

      > commonly named XXXX Hemp.

      >

      > From Raju later email (translated by Sumant) we got told that it is Sun

      > Hemp,

      >

      > (which translates in botanical terms to Crotalaria juncea L.)

      >

      > *Sunn Hemp* (or Sun Hemp) - i wondered but don't know it visually as a

      > plant

      >

      > species, and i know it is not Cannabis-Hemp of course :) !

      >

      > -> http://www.google.com/search?q=Sunn+hemp

      >

      > Boovarahan Srinivasan, all i've learned about this plant species really

      > useful

      >

      > to you is that it is grows very tall like more than 2 metres (see the

      > photos),

      >

      > and it is ideal as it is a nitrogen fixing legume species, (then that it is

      > a

      >

      > tropical species which for my temperate farm is not here suitable rather

      > suited

      >

      > to your farm).

      >

      > The techniques and approaches (goals) of the practitioner in that video

      >

      > completely contradict —at odds with—

      >

      > * nature and

      >

      > * with late Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature/natural farming ways (techniques

      > which

      >

      > vary in any place in the world),

      >

      > * principles applicable globally, and

      >

      > * with the non-violent philosophy.

      >

      > Furthermore, and

      >

      > * with no-soil damage, and

      >

      > * not necessary doing any earth-moving,

      >

      > * not necessary doing any heavy machinery work and

      >

      > * not necessary using any powered machinery.

      >

      > I think you both will like to learn about this truth (read below), and that

      > this

      >

      > cited videos techniques only make a temporary flush of fertility by tearing

      > up

      >

      > any fertility that remains in the already damaged or depleted soil -organic

      >

      >

      > matter & moisture- thus releasing it from latency to the first few seasons

      > crops

      >

      > and to oxidise to the atmosphere, wash away in any floods, and blow away in

      > any

      >

      > wind erosion.

      >

      > And, incidentally not doing any of these entirely unnecessary destructions

      > saves

      >

      > a lot of capital and machine-rental-money, and time.

      >

      > ----------------------------------------------------------

      >

      > Unicode UTF-8 text character encoding for this message! -- please check

      > your

      >

      > browser/email client encoding setting, and fix it to this!

      >

      > * 1975 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen

      > (自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践?);

      >

      > Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec.,

      >

      >

      > 310pp. ISBN 978-4788776265.

      >

      > * 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green

      > Philosophy"

      >

      > translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. ISBN

      > 978-0870406133.

      >

      > This book is out of print and is still available freely in electronic

      > format

      >

      > from the soil and health library, see:

      >

      > -> http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html

      >

      > Scroll down to find Fukuoka Masanobu.

      >

      > Quote: "

      >

      > Appendix

      >

      > Greening the Deserts: Having distanced himself from nature, man finds it

      >

      > almost

      >

      > impossible to return to the world he formerly knew. However, the

      > recuperative

      >

      > powers of nature are more potent and rapid than most of us suspect. The

      >

      > restoration

      >

      > of an arid desert to a rich land of fluorishing vegetation might seem

      >

      > inconceivable to

      >

      > the human mind, but at the core of the "green philosophy" is the principle

      > that

      >

      > nature always returns to its former state.

      >

      > What I have in mind is not the creation of green oases in the deserts

      > through

      >

      > the construction of artificial irrigation systems, but the return of entire

      >

      >

      > deserts to

      >

      > their former state as earthly paradises. If deserts first arose when man

      > parted

      >

      > from

      >

      > the hand of God and began to till the Garden of Eden, then nature can be

      > made

      >

      > to

      >

      > recover naturally by applying natural farming to the deserts. I propose

      > that

      >

      > natural

      >

      > farms be established in the deserts to green them over.

      >

      > To grasp the basic concept for designing a natural farm, one must begin by

      >

      > looking for the true image of nature. The hills, streams, grasses, and

      > trees

      >

      > must be

      >

      > allowed to create for themselves a place on the farm. The natural farm is a

      >

      >

      > harmonious whole arising from a combination of woods and fruit trees and

      >

      > vegetables and grains (see photographs on page 148).

      >

      > The idea should not be to build irrigation systems that carry river water

      > to

      >

      > the

      >

      > fields and there produce only specific crops, but to allow vegetation to

      > thrive

      >

      > by the

      >

      > riverside, to create forests there and wait for water to gradually

      > penetrate

      >

      > deep into

      >

      > the ground through the roots of the forest trees. This principle, which I

      > have

      >

      > tentatively called the "plant irrigation" method, is applied in Figs. API,

      > AP2.

      >

      > For

      >

      > example, when acacias are planted every 60 feet along the side of a stream

      > or

      >

      > river,

      >

      > the trees reach a height of 30 feet five years later, by which time the

      > root

      >

      > system has

      >

      > spread over an area of 120 square yards. In addition to increasing the

      > amount

      >

      > of

      >

      > humus, this absorbs and retains moisture. The net effect is to transport

      > water

      >

      > a

      >

      > distance of 60 feet. In other words, a single tree creates the equivalent

      > of a

      >

      > small,

      >

      > 60-foot channel.

      >

      > By utilizing the principle of plant irrigation and using a river or stream

      > as

      >

      > the

      >

      > source of water, a natural forest can be created as a "plant-irrigated"

      > green

      >

      > belt.

      >

      > Fields and gardens can then be set up on either side of this forest to

      > increase

      >

      > the

      >

      > vegetative cover. Later, by extending the forest, the adjoining fields can

      > be

      >

      > expanded and the green belt widened.

      >

      > As I mentioned in the preface to this book, man today is concerned over the

      >

      >

      > desertification of the earth. There is no question that this global loss of

      >

      >

      > vegetation

      >

      > has its roots in the errors of farming methods that arose from the

      > arrogance of

      >

      > the

      >

      > human intellect. I strongly believe that, rather than attempting to

      > cultivate

      >

      > the

      >

      > deserts by building elaborate irrigation systems, it would make more sense

      > to

      >

      > establish natural forests and farms using "plant irrigation." This would

      >

      > encourage

      >

      > the return of vegetation to the deserts with minimal human intervention.

      >

      > Many people are skeptical that seeds will grow in the deserts, but quite a

      > few

      >

      > methods for successful seeding exist. One such method consists of enclosing

      > the

      >

      > seeds of suitable plants in clay pellets and scattering the pellets in the

      >

      > deserts— a

      >

      > natural farming technique. This could be done, for example, by taking a

      > mixture

      >

      > of

      >

      > the seeds of green manure trees such as acacias that grow in areas of scant

      >

      >

      > rainfall,

      >

      > of clover, alfalfa, bur clover and other green manure plants, and of grain

      > and

      >

      > vegetable seeds, enclosing this seed mixture in a double coating of earth

      > and

      >

      > clay as

      >

      > pellets, and scattering the pellets by hand over the desert and savanna.

      > The

      >

      > seeds

      >

      > within the hard pellets are protected from predation by mice and birds, and

      > do

      >

      > not

      >

      > germinate until rain has fallen and conditions are just right. A year

      > later,

      >

      > several of

      >

      > the plants sown will have survived, giving a clue as to how best to

      > proceed.

      >

      > Any

      >

      > types of plant will do as long as the deserts are soon covered once again

      > with

      >

      > vegetation. Such a method will surely bring the rains back to the desert.

      >

      > Fig. AP.2 Natural farm and green belt.

      >

      > River

      >

      > [diagram]

      >

      > "

      >

      > ----------------------------------------------------------

      >

      > * 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no

      >

      > kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編 「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou

      > Shin

      >

      > Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's own

      > self-publishing-publisher-names) in

      >

      > 1992 Dec., 230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.

      >

      > * 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A

      >

      > RECAPITULATION" -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned English-retranslation and

      >

      >

      > printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN,

      > printed

      >

      > by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a

      > (小心舎)".

      >

      > --pages 88 to 100

      >

      > -----quote: "

      >

      > ...

      >

      > A Natural Farming Project in the Desert

      >

      > The measures for revegetating the desert are also the measures for natural

      >

      > farming, and the plans for the establishment of a natural farm can be used

      > just

      >

      > as they are in the desert.

      >

      > The fundamental concept of a natural farm begins with intuitively grasping

      >

      > nature's original form. It's good if the original plants and features of

      > the

      >

      > landscape of the place choose the place spontaneously.

      >

      > The ideal natural farm is a place where all varieties of plants grow in

      >

      > profusion as a harmonious whole, and among them all kinds of animals live

      >

      > together joyfully, in mutual benefit. This also can be applied to the

      > desert.

      >

      > In the desert, there are many places with rivers and underground water. One

      >

      >

      > method is to first revegetate the banks of the rivers and then gradually

      > work to

      >

      > make the interior areas green. If we establish natural forests along the

      > rivers,

      >

      > they will naturally expand. If possible, however, we should scatter every

      > kind

      >

      > of seed over the entire area at once and bring about the revegetating of

      > the

      >

      > desert all at once.

      >

      > The theoretical basis of revegetation from the riverbanks is the following

      >

      > "plant irrigation" method. It does not rely on running the river water

      > through

      >

      > concrete waterways, as is the usual practice today, but encourages the

      > water to

      >

      > follow greenbelts of plants and tries to achieve non-irrigation agriculture

      >

      >

      > through increasing water retention.

      >

      > Water naturally moves to lover areas, is carried by the roots of plants,

      > and

      >

      > filters toward dry areas. In the river water, reeds and cattails flourish,

      > while

      >

      > species of Arundo will grow in clumps, protecting the banks. Pussy willows,

      >

      >

      > purple willows, and alders will provide protection from the wind and draw

      > water.

      >

      > Therefore, if we plant every kind of plant, starting from the area around

      > the

      >

      > river, the underground water will filter up the roots of the plants, and

      >

      > gradually a protective forest should take shape. This is what I call "plant

      >

      >

      > irrigation."

      >

      > For example, if you plant acacia trees twenty meters apart, in five years

      > the

      >

      > trees will reach a height of ten meters, but the roots will have spread ten

      >

      >

      > meters in every direction, water will infiltrate, and along with the

      > increased

      >

      > fertility of the soil and the accumulation of humus, water retention will

      >

      > increase. Although the movement of underground water is extremely slow.

      >

      > gradually it will move from one tree to the next. and they will fill the

      > role of

      >

      > water bearers.

      >

      > If we apply this principle as a measure for revegetating the desert, we

      > begin by

      >

      > planting woods along the rivers in the desert. Then, at angles to the

      > river, we

      >

      > create belts of natural forest instead of irrigation canals, and have them

      > fill

      >

      > the role of waterways.

      >

      > In addition, in the center of these greenbelts. we will plant fruit trees

      > and

      >

      > vegetables, create natural farms, and by creating natural farms that are

      > the

      >

      > same as the natural ecosystem, we will at the same time be attempting to

      >

      > revegetate the desert.

      >

      > C. Creating a Natural farm (Temperate and Sub-Tropical Zones)

      >

      > When one wishes to start a farm following natural methods, the first

      > question

      >

      > that must be dealt with is where it will be and how you will choose the

      > place

      >

      > and live on it.

      >

      > It's fine if, like a mountain man, you go into a mountain forest and live

      > in

      >

      > splendid isolation, but usually it is safest to make a farm at the foot of

      >

      > a mountain. If the area is slightly elevated, then in terms of climate

      >

      > as well, there are many excellent places. There you can easily obtain

      > firewood,

      >

      > vegetables, and the other materials for satisfying the necessities of food.

      >

      >

      > clothing, and shelter. If there is a river nearby, crops will be easier to

      > grow,

      >

      > and you can easily establish your life there.

      >

      > No matter what the land is like, you can grow crops if you make the effort,

      > but

      >

      > it is best if the place is rich in the bounties of nature. A place where

      > large

      >

      > trees grow densely on the hills, the soil is deep and black or dark brown

      > in

      >

      > color, and clean water can be obtained, and, in addition, one can enjoy

      > natural

      >

      > beauty, is ideal. A good environment and fine scenery are essential

      > elements for

      >

      > living an enjoyable life. both materially and spiritually.

      >

      > A natural farm must be in a place that can supply all the material

      > necessary to

      >

      > provide food, clothing, and shelter. Therefore, you must start a

      > comprehensive

      >

      > natural farm that includes not only fields but also the surrounding hills

      > and

      >

      > forests. (Please compare with natural farms in the desert.)

      >

      > Natural Protective Forests

      >

      > We use the forested hills surrounding the natural farm both directly and

      >

      > indirectly, as natural protective forests for the farm and as natural

      > sources of

      >

      > organic material.

      >

      > On a natural farm, the basic measure for carrying out complete, long-term

      >

      > no-fertilizer farming is to build deep, fertile soil. There are various

      > methods

      >

      > for achieving this, including the following.

      >

      > (1) It is good to bury coarse organic matter deep in the ground, but this

      >

      > requires a great deal of labor, so it is better to plant a forest around

      > the

      >

      > farm.

      >

      > (2) In the farm, plant trees and grasses with roots that will grow deep

      > into the

      >

      > ;oil, gradually improving it.

      >

      > (3) Cause rainwater carrying nutrients from the humus in the forests on the

      >

      >

      > slopes above the farm to flow down and enrich the farm.

      >

      > The essential thing is to maintain, close at hand, a source of humus, which

      > is

      >

      > the basis of fertility.

      >

      > You can improve the forests on the slopes above the farm as protective

      > forests.

      >

      > but if there are no forested hills, it is good to make new woods or bamboo

      >

      > thickets as protective forests.

      >

      > Where the protective forest is concerned, our attention is focused on

      > creating a

      >

      > deep green, natural forest, but we will plant kinds of trees that enrich

      > the

      >

      > soil and will plant a mixture of trees that are highly useful, trees that

      >

      > provide food for birds and animals, and those that protect natural

      > predators.

      >

      > Raising a Protective Forest

      >

      > Generally, the soil at the summit of a hill or mountain is thin, and it

      > easily

      >

      > dries out, leaving the hill bare at the top. In places like this, we should

      >

      >

      > first grow trailing plants like Ixeris debilis and kudzu to halt the

      > erosion of

      >

      > soil and then sow the seeds of pines and sawara cypress, turning it into a

      > pine

      >

      > forest. At first, fast growing grasses such as eulalia and cogon grasses,

      > ferns

      >

      > such as bracken and scrambling fern, and bushes such as bush clover, Eurya

      >

      > japonica and cypress will grow densely, but gradually these plants will be

      >

      > replaced, and when Gleichenia glauca, kudzu. and miscellaneous trees begin

      > to

      >

      > grow there, the soil will become enriched.

      >

      > On the side of the hill, it's good to plant evergreens such as hinoki

      > cypress

      >

      > and camphor, along with a mixture of other trees such as Chinese nettle

      > tree,

      >

      > zelkova, paulownia, cherry, maple, and eucalyptus. The foot of the hill and

      > the

      >

      > valleys are fertile, so you should plant trees such as walnuts and ginkgo

      > among

      >

      > evergreens such as cryptomeria and oak.

      >

      > It is also good to use bamboo groves as protective forests. Bamboo grows

      > from

      >

      > shoots in a single year, and its volume of growth is greater than that of

      > the

      >

      > typical tree, so it is quite valuable as a source of coarse organic

      > material

      >

      > when buried in the ground.

      >

      > Not only are the shoots of moso and other bamboos edible, but when dried,

      > the

      >

      > plants are light and easy to carry. Moreover, because bamboo poles are

      > hollow,

      >

      > they decompose slowly when buried and are very effective for holding water

      > and

      >

      > air underground. In other words, bamboo is an extremely effective material

      > for

      >

      > improving the structure of the soil.

      >

      > Windbreaks

      >

      > Trees planted as windbreaks not only are useful in preventing wind damage

      > but

      >

      > also are important in maintaining soil fertility and improving the

      > environment.

      >

      > Varieties that mature rapidly are cryptomeria, hinoki cypress, acacia, and

      >

      > camphor, and camellia, parasol fir, arbutus, and star anise, while

      > slow-growing.

      >

      > are among the most commonly planted.

      >

      > Depending on the place, you may also be able to use trees such as evergreen

      >

      >

      > oak, Ternstroemia japonica and Ilex integra.

      >

      > Making an Orchard

      >

      > It is fine if you take basically the same approach to creating the farm and

      >

      >

      > planting trees as you would in planting trees in the forest. In other

      > words, you

      >

      > cut trees in stages, and nothing — neither the large trunks, branches, nor

      > the

      >

      > leaves — are taken out of the field. We line them up along the contour

      > lines,

      >

      > leaving them covering the ground, and wait for them to decay naturally.

      >

      > The basic principle on a natural farm is to create the farm without

      > clearing the

      >

      > land. Generally, land is cleared with a bulldozer. When this is done, the

      > uneven

      >

      > surface of the slopes are flattened, broad roads are made. and mechanized

      >

      > agriculture is made possible. In modern orchards, bulldozer clearing has

      > become

      >

      > the norm.

      >

      > With mechanization, it becomes easy to apply fertilizer or agricultural

      >

      > chemicals, but other than picking the fruit, this sort of heavy labor is

      > not

      >

      > necessary with the natural farming method. Nor is there any need to clear

      > steep

      >

      > slopes. Moreover, success is actually more likely when, from the time we

      > begin

      >

      > making the farm, we have no money and introduce neither machines nor

      > capital.

      >

      > The leaves and branches of trees, along with the roots, will decay in

      > several

      >

      > years, becoming a source of organic fertilizer, and will be of use for a

      > long

      >

      > time. as they provide nutrients for the fruit trees until they reach the

      > same

      >

      > size. Furthermore, the organic matter will provide a covering useful in

      >

      > preventing the growth of weeds, will prevent soil loss, will stimulate an

      >

      > increase in microorganisms, and will be useful in improving and enriching

      > the

      >

      > soil.

      >

      > Just like trees planted in a forest, the fruit trees are best planted in

      > contour

      >

      > lines with the same space between them. If possible, you should dig holes

      > for

      >

      > planting in the shape of octopus traps, add coarse organic matter, and then

      >

      >

      > plant the trees on top of that.

      >

      > The reason we do not use a bulldozer when creating a natural farm is, of

      > course,

      >

      > because of the nature of the soil and parent rock, but also, if you flatten

      > the

      >

      > land with a bulldozer, you will scrape off the surface soil, which contains

      > a

      >

      > large amount of organic matter that has accumulated for many years. A farm

      >

      > cleared by bulldozer and left untouched for ten years loses surface soil

      > and its

      >

      > economic life is shortened remarkably.

      >

      > The leaves and branches of the trees that are clear-cut when the land is

      >

      > cleared. Because they will interfere with farming, are usually burned, but

      > this

      >

      > is the same as a burnt-over field, and at a stroke, the fertility is

      > diminished.

      >

      > Also, the roots of trees that penetrate to a great depth and in a physical

      > sense

      >

      > make the soil difficult to work, become a source of nutrients within the

      > soil

      >

      > and serve to carry out chelation, or making undissolved nutrients in the

      > soil

      >

      > soluble. Consequently, if you clear land with a bulldozer, dig up the

      > organic

      >

      > matter in the soil such as roots, and dispose of it, the natural conditions

      > will

      >

      > undergo a violent change. Even if, after the farm is made, you dig up the

      >

      > surface of the soil and bury the same amount of coarse organic matter, you

      > will

      >

      > have dealt the soil a blow from which it can hardly recover.

      >

      > We can safely say that with 30 cm of topsoil there are enough nutrients

      > within

      >

      > the soil to sustain an orchard for ten years without fertilizer, and if you

      > have

      >

      > one meter of rich earth, for approximately thirty years. If we can retain

      > the

      >

      > rich soil of the natural forest, as it is, then no-fertilizer cultivation

      > is

      >

      > possible.

      >

      > Also, it is easy to think that, if we plant trees without clearing the

      > land,

      >

      > their growth will be poor, but in fact. they are not only not inferior, but

      > it

      >

      > appears that there is a tendency for the trees to live longer.

      >

      > Making Fields

      >

      > Usually a "field" means a place devoted to growing field crops, but using

      > the

      >

      > space between the fruit trees in an orchard and growing vegetables and

      > other

      >

      > special crops like grass beneath the trees is also a natural form. There is

      > no

      >

      > reason why an orchard cannot also be a field for vegetables and grain.

      >

      > Of course, if we are pressed to say, the system and methods of cultivation

      >

      > differ greatly depending on whether the orchard or field cultivation is

      >

      > predominant.

      >

      > Making a field where fruit trees are the primary crop and grains and

      > vegetables

      >

      > are grown between the trees is almost the same as making an orchard, and it

      > is

      >

      > not necessary to clear the land. There is no need to carefully prepare the

      >

      > ground or bury coarse organic matter.

      >

      > In the first stage of making the field, we must pay attention to preventing

      > weed

      >

      > growth and bringing the soil to maturity, so it is good to sow the crops

      > among

      >

      > green manure plants, buckwheat during the first summer and rape and mustard

      >

      >

      > during the first winter. In the next year it is good to plant strong

      > twining

      >

      > plants that reproduce well without fertilizer, such as adzuki and cowpea in

      >

      >

      > summer and hairy vetch in winter. However, they have the disadvantage of

      >

      > covering up young fruit tree seedlings. As the field matures, you can grow

      > a

      >

      > variety of other crops.

      >

      > Making an Exclusive Field

      >

      > It is common to make fields on hilly areas at the foot of mountains or on

      >

      > plains, but most field crops are annuals, and many are produced in a few

      > months

      >

      > to half a year. The many vegetables that reach about one meter in height

      > also

      >

      > have shallow roots. Because the time between sowing and harvest is short

      > and

      >

      > several crops can be grown in one year, the surface of the ground is

      > exposed to

      >

      > sunlight for much of the year. Therefore, we must accept the premise that

      > there

      >

      > is much soil loss from exclusive fields on account of rain and that the

      > soil

      >

      > easily loses its fertility and is weak during droughts and cold weather.

      >

      > When making the field, the most important concern is the prevention of soil

      >

      >

      > erosion, and it is necessary to terrace the field to make the surface

      > level.

      >

      > Therefore, the first step in making a field is building up earthen banks or

      >

      >

      > making stone walls, and then making terraced fields. The success or failure

      > of

      >

      > the field depends on the skill involved in knowing the nature of the soil

      > and

      >

      > making banks that will not crumble or in using the stones dug up from the

      > field

      >

      > to make stone walls.

      >

      > Whether the surface of the terraced field is level or gently sloping also

      > has a

      >

      > great effect on growing conditions and agricultural efficiency.

      >

      > It goes without saying that the fundamental method for improving the soil

      > of the

      >

      > field is to dig deep trenches and bury coarse organic matter in them, but

      >

      > another good method is to pile up the soil in tall ridges. In general it is

      >

      >

      > sufficient simply to plant shade trees and trees that provide fertilizer.

      >

      > Making Paddy Fields

      >

      > At present it is easy to make paddy fields by clearing the plains with

      > large

      >

      > machines, carrying away the rubbish, and leveling the ground. This also

      > makes

      >

      > possible increasing the size of the fields, which will make mechanized

      >

      > agricultural even more convenient in the future.

      >

      > However, there are some disadvantages to this method, because it is a very

      >

      > coarse method of construction;

      >

      > (1) The topsoil of the paddy is of uneven depth, because of differences in

      > the

      >

      > height of the field surface, and this results in uneven growth of crops.

      >

      > (2) Because the large, heavy machines have put pressure on the soil. it is

      >

      > compressed more than necessary. Underground water will collect and

      > stagnate..

      >

      > it will reach an unnatural state of deoxidation, causing the roots to

      > decay, and

      >

      > in many cases the desired result will not be achieved.

      >

      > (3) A more serious problem is that, because the ridges all become

      > concretized.

      >

      > the microorganisms in the soil change or die, and gradually the soil dies

      > and

      >

      > turns to stone. There is a danger of making a field of dead earth.

      >

      > Trees are the guardians of the soil in paddies, growing densely, large and

      >

      > small, on mounds in the fields. The landscape of paddies near Sukhothai,

      >

      > Thailand, is one of the finest examples in the world of the ideals of the

      >

      > natural farming method.

      >

      > Here I would like to leave the discussion of making modern paddies and

      > conclude

      >

      > with a few words about paddy-making in ancient times.

      >

      > It would seem to be common sense to make paddy fields on level ground, but

      > in

      >

      > ancient times it was often the case that people lived and made paddies not

      > on

      >

      > the flat, fertile land beside large rivers, but rather in mountainous

      > areas,

      >

      > where there was less danger of floods and strong winds. They would make

      > paddies

      >

      > in river valleys and in terraces on the mountainsides, and devote

      > themselves to

      >

      > farming there.

      >

      > However, it is unnecessary to go to great lengths to grow rice in paddy

      > fields.

      >

      > It is quite possible to grow rice in dry fields watered only by the rain.

      >

      > PART 6: SOWING A VARIETY OF SEEDS IN THE DESERT TO CREATE A FOREST FOR

      > ELEPHANTS

      >

      > You may think it reckless for me to say that we can revegetate the desert.

      >

      > Although I have confirmed my theory, unfortunately 1 have had few

      > opportunities

      >

      > to prove it on a large scale. Recently, however, the government of India

      > has

      >

      > asked for technical assistance in carrying out aerial seeding as a measure

      >

      > against desertification, so I have tried, in this hasty manner, to

      > summarize my

      >

      > ideas and concrete steps for putting the theory into practice.

      >

      > To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have

      >

      > destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature,

      >

      > nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean

      > nonintervention.

      >

      > In the case of places like the desert, which have lost their regenerative

      > power,

      >

      > we must mix seeds and microorganisms of every variety in clay pellets and

      >

      > scatter them from the air. In India there are more than 500 varieties of

      > trees

      >

      > that bear edible nuts and 500 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, we

      > should

      >

      > sow among them a mixture of 500 varieties of grains, vegetables, and green

      >

      > manure, ideally on the Deccan Plateau and in the desert. My supposition is

      > that,

      >

      > no matter how bad the conditions, there will be some seed varieties suited

      > to

      >

      > that place that will germinate. Even though some will wither and die from

      >

      > extreme dryness and heat, if we sow various green manures, vegetables, and

      >

      > grasses along with drought and salt-resistant plants, a number of them will

      >

      >

      > survive. If for even a short time the surface of the earth is covered with

      >

      > vegetation, its temperature will be lowered. The role of the "pilot" plants

      > is

      >

      > to aid in creating conditions that will allow other plants to germinate.

      >

      > A second purpose in so wide a variety of plants and microorganisms is to

      > awaken

      >

      > the sleeping earth. Among deserts, there are deserts of sand that have lost

      > the

      >

      > ability to support life and have died, but most savannas are young clay

      > deserts

      >

      > in which the nutrients needed by plants are only sleeping. In order to

      > cause

      >

      > chelation, in other words, to rouse the earth and bring about the rebirth

      > of

      >

      > life, a variety of seeds of lover plant forms and microorganisms are

      > necessary.

      >

      > The earth will not come back to life if we only plant a number of useful

      > trees

      >

      > in the desert. A plant cannot grow up in isolation. To grow, a

      > hundred-meter

      >

      > tree needs enough soil for one hundred meters of roots. Also, trees of

      > seventy,

      >

      > forth, and twenty meters are necessary. Furthermore, trees are needed to

      > protect

      >

      > the base of the tall trees, and beneath them, undergrowth vegetation and

      >

      > microorganisms are necessary. Only with the aid of all these can a tree

      > grow to

      >

      > a height of one hundred meters. Life does not exist in isolation, and a

      > large

      >

      > tree is the crystallization of the cooperation of numerous living things.

      > When a

      >

      > large forest is created, and the degree of nature, or density of

      > vegetation, is

      >

      > high, then rain will begin to fall.

      >

      > Clouds will form over the mountains and rise up from the valleys. The

      > principal

      >

      > actors in the forest are not just the tall trees. Ferns, moss, and fallen

      > leaves

      >

      > all have roles to play.

      >

      > Rather than trying to secure water and cause rain to fall using human

      > knowledge,

      >

      > we should stop ignoring the mind of nature. Then the earth will naturally

      > be

      >

      > covered with lush green vegetation. The mind of nature is the core or heart

      > of

      >

      > nature. If we do not know the heart of nature, the fundamental source of

      > the

      >

      > creation of the cosmos, then no matter how much we observe the outer aspect

      > of

      >

      > nature, the recovery of nature will be impossible.

      >

      > If we grasp the mind of nature, which is God, and live in accordance with

      > it,

      >

      > nature will be reborn naturally, and pitiful measures, based on human

      > knowledge,

      >

      > to prevent desertification will vanish like the dew. The workings of nature

      > are

      >

      > governed by nature. When we consider that the interference of human

      > knowledge

      >

      > and action is the fundamental cause of global desertification, then the

      > only

      >

      > measure against desertification must be the abolishment of human knowledge

      > and

      >

      > action.

      >

      > From the decision to abandon human knowledge comes the extremely simple,

      > minimal

      >

      > human action of sowing a variety of seeds. Sowing a variety of seeds, which

      > is

      >

      > in direct opposition to the current, scientific method of selecting and

      > planting

      >

      > the most valuable, useful tree varieties, appears to be quite easy, but in

      > fact

      >

      > it is exceedingly difficult because it requires a fundamental reversal in

      > human

      >

      > values.

      >

      > In other words. it is much easier for people to choose something special

      > from

      >

      > nature and use it for the benefit of human beings. But, humans make a grave

      >

      >

      > error at that time. Extracting one thing from nature, in the name of

      > development

      >

      > or of creating something new, and attributing value to it means making

      > other

      >

      > things valueless. Making one thing useful results in abandoning other

      > things as

      >

      > useless.

      >

      > All human economic activity is opposed to nature, and it is the way of

      > human

      >

      > beings to plant useful trees in the desert, cut down the undergrowth, and

      > grow

      >

      > single crops, thereby sacrificing, as "weeds," many times the achieved

      > amount of

      >

      > vegetation. For the same reason, from the viewpoint of nature, most human

      >

      > production and efforts to protect nature are linked to the destruction of

      >

      > nature.

      >

      > People choose what to plant in the desert. Whenever they consider whether a

      >

      >

      > plant will grow or not, whether it is useful or harmful, whether it will

      > grow

      >

      > rapidly or slowly, they are selecting only special varieties and are

      > discarding

      >

      > others. In other words, whenever they make a selection, half the plant

      > varieties

      >

      > are lost. From the viewpoint of nature, the number of trees saved by humans

      > is

      >

      > much fever than number of plants overlooked. Plant varieties decrease and

      > become

      >

      > simplified. so that they are losing both quantity and quality. And this

      > triggers

      >

      > desertification. For this reason, when modern farms in the desert are

      > abandoned

      >

      > after five years, they become deserts worse than the original.

      >

      > There is no good or bad among the life forms on earth. Each has its role.

      > is

      >

      > necessary, and has the same value. This is also the basis for sowing seeds

      > of

      >

      > many varieties.

      >

      > My measures for countering desertification may appear childish and

      > unscientific,

      >

      > but they are based on a philosophical view of nature that transcends

      > science. In

      >

      > order to understand and put into practice this one simple thing, we are

      > force to

      >

      > embrace the extremely difficult position (the revolutionary conclusion)

      > that all

      >

      > of man's ideas and actions must be transformed. But if we can do this one

      > thing,

      >

      > we can transform the world.

      >

      > ...

      >

      > " -- everyone please proof read this text as Jamie obtained it from his

      > copy

      >

      > from Michiyo by scanning. I have one printed copy also and am proof reading

      >

      >

      > Jamie's scan. Please DO NOT distribute this text privately printed by late

      > Mr.

      >

      > Fukuoka sensei (and usually the small no. of copies where given to heads of

      >

      >

      > state like the Indian Prime Minister or Ministers (i read somewhere)).

      >

      > -- Jamie 'souscayrous' Nicol in this group previous quoted this above quote

      > in

      >

      > part in this group, here:

      >

      > -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5353

      >

      > Best wishes to all people,

      >

      > Jase.

      >

      > south-eastern Oz (vernacular for Australia)

      >

      > PS. This message was sent on 28 Nov. 2010 to this Yahoo group

      > Fukuoka_farming

      >

      > but for some unexplained reason didn't get through - Dear Moderator please

      >

      > explain! So, i'm sending all these two missed backlog messages now that

      > messages

      >

      > are getting through... .

      >

      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

      >

      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

      >

      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

      >

      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

      >

      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

      >

      >

      >



      --

      Raju Titus. Hoshangabad. 461001.India.

      +919179738049.

      http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus<http://picasawebalbum.google.com/rajuktitus>

      fukuoka_farming yahoogroup



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