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Re: Reclaiming land

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  • injunjo
    It takes about 8 weeks for cowpeas to make.......
    Message 1 of 20 , Dec 1, 2010
      It takes about 8 weeks for cowpeas to make.......




      --- In fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com, Boovarahan Srinivasan <offtown@...> wrote:
      >
      > Thanks for the info.
      > Two weeks before harvesting rice , I plan to broadcast cowpea seeds and hope
      > it will survive the harvest action for rice. How long will it take to
      > harvest cowpea ?
      >
      > Boovarahan S
      >
    • Boovarahan Srinivasan
      Hi Jason ! Thanks for ur mail. In fact I was fascinated by Sri RajuTitus s web album and I am already in contact with him. At present my rice plants are
      Message 2 of 20 , Dec 3, 2010
        Hi Jason !

        Thanks for ur mail. In fact I was fascinated by Sri RajuTitus's web album
        and I am already in contact with him.
        At present my rice plants are submerged in floods and still it is raining in
        our area . I can't predict the end result. I hope to get some straw at least
        if not rice, so that I can use it to mulch my field.
        I intend to sow Pigeon Pea about 15 days before harvesting rice ( if mother
        nature permits ) and spread all the straw available as mulch. And I intend
        to allow the piegeon peas to mature and shed their leaves so that much humus
        can form . Thereafter I may go in for some millet crop .
        This is my plan so far and I hope I'd get through it.

        I can grow a thespesia Populnea tree ( Poovarasu in Tamil language) which
        will grow tall and shed a lot of leaves. But I don't know how to grow rice
        along with it as it will shade a huge area and the available area for rice
        farming may be shortened. Hope I'd get more light on this by experienced
        members .

        Thanks.

        Boovarahan S


        On Fri, Dec 3, 2010 at 5:27 PM, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>wrote:

        >
        >
        >
        > ________________________________
        >
        > Dear Boovarahan Srinivasan, and BTW everyone,
        >
        >
        > Please plant trees and tall crop species that can grow tall enough to
        > survive
        > and stand above floods and then in the dry season remain to continue to
        > provide
        > shade and protection to the soil surface.
        > Friend here of many years experience Mr. Raju Titus plants Subabul
        > (Leucaena
        > leucocephala), which apparently grows very widespread around India, and
        > which
        > late Mr. Fukuoka sensei lauded when he visited Mr. Raju's farm in 1988.
        > See -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala
        >
        > If you would be in Australia i would have many suitable plant species to
        > recommend to you, but i don't really know India.
        > Please read all the homework materials in books and blogs and so on and
        > then;
        > Please respectfully ask Mr. Raju Titus on his specific suggestions for your
        >
        > Indian farmland.
        >
        > Please see Mr. Raju's photos uploaded here in Yahoo Fukuoka_Farming photos
        > (see
        > below second link) and:
        >
        > -> http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus
        >
        > ->
        > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/photos/album/332255617/pic/list
        >
        > i commented on of the photos asking what the plant is, then i saw the older
        >
        > previous photos where Mr. Raju writes hemp on the captions, so i deleted my
        >
        > question-comment, then i searched for all the different plant species named
        > Hemp
        > from India, but didn't succeed in finding this one species in the photos by
        >
        > visual-photo recognition. i was interested to find many different prefixes
        > before the name Hemp in India meaning for different species of plant all
        > commonly named XXXX Hemp.
        >
        > From Raju later email (translated by Sumant) we got told that it is Sun
        > Hemp,
        > (which translates in botanical terms to Crotalaria juncea L.)
        > *Sunn Hemp* (or Sun Hemp) - i wondered but don't know it visually as a
        > plant
        > species, and i know it is not Cannabis-Hemp of course :) !
        >
        > -> http://www.google.com/search?q=Sunn+hemp
        >
        > Boovarahan Srinivasan, all i've learned about this plant species really
        > useful
        > to you is that it is grows very tall like more than 2 metres (see the
        > photos),
        > and it is ideal as it is a nitrogen fixing legume species, (then that it is
        > a
        > tropical species which for my temperate farm is not here suitable rather
        > suited
        > to your farm).
        >
        > The techniques and approaches (goals) of the practitioner in that video
        > completely contradict —at odds with—
        > * nature and
        > * with late Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature/natural farming ways (techniques
        > which
        > vary in any place in the world),
        > * principles applicable globally, and
        > * with the non-violent philosophy.
        > Furthermore, and
        > * with no-soil damage, and
        > * not necessary doing any earth-moving,
        > * not necessary doing any heavy machinery work and
        > * not necessary using any powered machinery.
        >
        > I think you both will like to learn about this truth (read below), and that
        > this
        > cited videos techniques only make a temporary flush of fertility by tearing
        > up
        > any fertility that remains in the already damaged or depleted soil -organic
        >
        > matter & moisture- thus releasing it from latency to the first few seasons
        > crops
        > and to oxidise to the atmosphere, wash away in any floods, and blow away in
        > any
        > wind erosion.
        > And, incidentally not doing any of these entirely unnecessary destructions
        > saves
        > a lot of capital and machine-rental-money, and time.
        >
        > ----------------------------------------------------------
        > Unicode UTF-8 text character encoding for this message! -- please check
        > your
        > browser/email client encoding setting, and fix it to this!
        >
        > * 1975 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen
        > (自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践?);
        > Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec.,
        >
        > 310pp. ISBN 978-4788776265.
        > * 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
        > Philosophy"
        > translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. ISBN
        > 978-0870406133.
        > This book is out of print and is still available freely in electronic
        > format
        > from the soil and health library, see:
        > -> http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html
        > Scroll down to find Fukuoka Masanobu.
        >
        > Quote: "
        >
        > Appendix
        >
        > Greening the Deserts: Having distanced himself from nature, man finds it
        > almost
        > impossible to return to the world he formerly knew. However, the
        > recuperative
        > powers of nature are more potent and rapid than most of us suspect. The
        > restoration
        > of an arid desert to a rich land of fluorishing vegetation might seem
        > inconceivable to
        > the human mind, but at the core of the "green philosophy" is the principle
        > that
        > nature always returns to its former state.
        > What I have in mind is not the creation of green oases in the deserts
        > through
        > the construction of artificial irrigation systems, but the return of entire
        >
        > deserts to
        > their former state as earthly paradises. If deserts first arose when man
        > parted
        > from
        > the hand of God and began to till the Garden of Eden, then nature can be
        > made
        > to
        > recover naturally by applying natural farming to the deserts. I propose
        > that
        > natural
        > farms be established in the deserts to green them over.
        > To grasp the basic concept for designing a natural farm, one must begin by
        > looking for the true image of nature. The hills, streams, grasses, and
        > trees
        > must be
        > allowed to create for themselves a place on the farm. The natural farm is a
        >
        > harmonious whole arising from a combination of woods and fruit trees and
        > vegetables and grains (see photographs on page 148).
        > The idea should not be to build irrigation systems that carry river water
        > to
        > the
        > fields and there produce only specific crops, but to allow vegetation to
        > thrive
        > by the
        > riverside, to create forests there and wait for water to gradually
        > penetrate
        > deep into
        > the ground through the roots of the forest trees. This principle, which I
        > have
        > tentatively called the "plant irrigation" method, is applied in Figs. API,
        > AP2.
        > For
        > example, when acacias are planted every 60 feet along the side of a stream
        > or
        > river,
        > the trees reach a height of 30 feet five years later, by which time the
        > root
        > system has
        > spread over an area of 120 square yards. In addition to increasing the
        > amount
        > of
        > humus, this absorbs and retains moisture. The net effect is to transport
        > water
        > a
        > distance of 60 feet. In other words, a single tree creates the equivalent
        > of a
        > small,
        > 60-foot channel.
        > By utilizing the principle of plant irrigation and using a river or stream
        > as
        > the
        > source of water, a natural forest can be created as a "plant-irrigated"
        > green
        > belt.
        > Fields and gardens can then be set up on either side of this forest to
        > increase
        > the
        > vegetative cover. Later, by extending the forest, the adjoining fields can
        > be
        > expanded and the green belt widened.
        > As I mentioned in the preface to this book, man today is concerned over the
        >
        > desertification of the earth. There is no question that this global loss of
        >
        > vegetation
        > has its roots in the errors of farming methods that arose from the
        > arrogance of
        > the
        > human intellect. I strongly believe that, rather than attempting to
        > cultivate
        > the
        > deserts by building elaborate irrigation systems, it would make more sense
        > to
        > establish natural forests and farms using "plant irrigation." This would
        > encourage
        > the return of vegetation to the deserts with minimal human intervention.
        > Many people are skeptical that seeds will grow in the deserts, but quite a
        > few
        > methods for successful seeding exist. One such method consists of enclosing
        > the
        > seeds of suitable plants in clay pellets and scattering the pellets in the
        > deserts— a
        > natural farming technique. This could be done, for example, by taking a
        > mixture
        > of
        > the seeds of green manure trees such as acacias that grow in areas of scant
        >
        > rainfall,
        > of clover, alfalfa, bur clover and other green manure plants, and of grain
        > and
        > vegetable seeds, enclosing this seed mixture in a double coating of earth
        > and
        > clay as
        > pellets, and scattering the pellets by hand over the desert and savanna.
        > The
        > seeds
        > within the hard pellets are protected from predation by mice and birds, and
        > do
        > not
        > germinate until rain has fallen and conditions are just right. A year
        > later,
        > several of
        > the plants sown will have survived, giving a clue as to how best to
        > proceed.
        > Any
        > types of plant will do as long as the deserts are soon covered once again
        > with
        > vegetation. Such a method will surely bring the rains back to the desert.
        >
        > Fig. AP.2 Natural farm and green belt.
        >
        > River
        > [diagram]
        >
        > "
        >
        > ----------------------------------------------------------
        >
        > * 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no
        > kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編 「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou
        > Shin
        > Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's own
        > self-publishing-publisher-names) in
        > 1992 Dec., 230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.
        > * 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A
        > RECAPITULATION" -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned English-retranslation and
        >
        > printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN,
        > printed
        > by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a
        > (小心舎)".
        >
        > --pages 88 to 100
        > -----quote: "
        > ...
        > A Natural Farming Project in the Desert
        >
        > The measures for revegetating the desert are also the measures for natural
        > farming, and the plans for the establishment of a natural farm can be used
        > just
        > as they are in the desert.
        > The fundamental concept of a natural farm begins with intuitively grasping
        > nature's original form. It's good if the original plants and features of
        > the
        > landscape of the place choose the place spontaneously.
        > The ideal natural farm is a place where all varieties of plants grow in
        > profusion as a harmonious whole, and among them all kinds of animals live
        > together joyfully, in mutual benefit. This also can be applied to the
        > desert.
        > In the desert, there are many places with rivers and underground water. One
        >
        > method is to first revegetate the banks of the rivers and then gradually
        > work to
        > make the interior areas green. If we establish natural forests along the
        > rivers,
        > they will naturally expand. If possible, however, we should scatter every
        > kind
        > of seed over the entire area at once and bring about the revegetating of
        > the
        > desert all at once.
        > The theoretical basis of revegetation from the riverbanks is the following
        > "plant irrigation" method. It does not rely on running the river water
        > through
        > concrete waterways, as is the usual practice today, but encourages the
        > water to
        > follow greenbelts of plants and tries to achieve non-irrigation agriculture
        >
        > through increasing water retention.
        > Water naturally moves to lover areas, is carried by the roots of plants,
        > and
        > filters toward dry areas. In the river water, reeds and cattails flourish,
        > while
        > species of Arundo will grow in clumps, protecting the banks. Pussy willows,
        >
        > purple willows, and alders will provide protection from the wind and draw
        > water.
        > Therefore, if we plant every kind of plant, starting from the area around
        > the
        > river, the underground water will filter up the roots of the plants, and
        > gradually a protective forest should take shape. This is what I call "plant
        >
        > irrigation."
        > For example, if you plant acacia trees twenty meters apart, in five years
        > the
        > trees will reach a height of ten meters, but the roots will have spread ten
        >
        > meters in every direction, water will infiltrate, and along with the
        > increased
        > fertility of the soil and the accumulation of humus, water retention will
        > increase. Although the movement of underground water is extremely slow.
        > gradually it will move from one tree to the next. and they will fill the
        > role of
        > water bearers.
        > If we apply this principle as a measure for revegetating the desert, we
        > begin by
        > planting woods along the rivers in the desert. Then, at angles to the
        > river, we
        > create belts of natural forest instead of irrigation canals, and have them
        > fill
        > the role of waterways.
        > In addition, in the center of these greenbelts. we will plant fruit trees
        > and
        > vegetables, create natural farms, and by creating natural farms that are
        > the
        > same as the natural ecosystem, we will at the same time be attempting to
        > revegetate the desert.
        >
        > C. Creating a Natural farm (Temperate and Sub-Tropical Zones)
        >
        > When one wishes to start a farm following natural methods, the first
        > question
        > that must be dealt with is where it will be and how you will choose the
        > place
        > and live on it.
        > It's fine if, like a mountain man, you go into a mountain forest and live
        > in
        > splendid isolation, but usually it is safest to make a farm at the foot of
        > a mountain. If the area is slightly elevated, then in terms of climate
        > as well, there are many excellent places. There you can easily obtain
        > firewood,
        > vegetables, and the other materials for satisfying the necessities of food.
        >
        > clothing, and shelter. If there is a river nearby, crops will be easier to
        > grow,
        > and you can easily establish your life there.
        > No matter what the land is like, you can grow crops if you make the effort,
        > but
        > it is best if the place is rich in the bounties of nature. A place where
        > large
        > trees grow densely on the hills, the soil is deep and black or dark brown
        > in
        > color, and clean water can be obtained, and, in addition, one can enjoy
        > natural
        > beauty, is ideal. A good environment and fine scenery are essential
        > elements for
        > living an enjoyable life. both materially and spiritually.
        > A natural farm must be in a place that can supply all the material
        > necessary to
        > provide food, clothing, and shelter. Therefore, you must start a
        > comprehensive
        > natural farm that includes not only fields but also the surrounding hills
        > and
        > forests. (Please compare with natural farms in the desert.)
        >
        > Natural Protective Forests
        >
        > We use the forested hills surrounding the natural farm both directly and
        > indirectly, as natural protective forests for the farm and as natural
        > sources of
        > organic material.
        > On a natural farm, the basic measure for carrying out complete, long-term
        > no-fertilizer farming is to build deep, fertile soil. There are various
        > methods
        > for achieving this, including the following.
        > (1) It is good to bury coarse organic matter deep in the ground, but this
        > requires a great deal of labor, so it is better to plant a forest around
        > the
        > farm.
        > (2) In the farm, plant trees and grasses with roots that will grow deep
        > into the
        > ;oil, gradually improving it.
        > (3) Cause rainwater carrying nutrients from the humus in the forests on the
        >
        > slopes above the farm to flow down and enrich the farm.
        > The essential thing is to maintain, close at hand, a source of humus, which
        > is
        > the basis of fertility.
        > You can improve the forests on the slopes above the farm as protective
        > forests.
        > but if there are no forested hills, it is good to make new woods or bamboo
        > thickets as protective forests.
        > Where the protective forest is concerned, our attention is focused on
        > creating a
        > deep green, natural forest, but we will plant kinds of trees that enrich
        > the
        > soil and will plant a mixture of trees that are highly useful, trees that
        > provide food for birds and animals, and those that protect natural
        > predators.
        >
        > Raising a Protective Forest
        >
        > Generally, the soil at the summit of a hill or mountain is thin, and it
        > easily
        > dries out, leaving the hill bare at the top. In places like this, we should
        >
        > first grow trailing plants like Ixeris debilis and kudzu to halt the
        > erosion of
        > soil and then sow the seeds of pines and sawara cypress, turning it into a
        > pine
        > forest. At first, fast growing grasses such as eulalia and cogon grasses,
        > ferns
        > such as bracken and scrambling fern, and bushes such as bush clover, Eurya
        > japonica and cypress will grow densely, but gradually these plants will be
        > replaced, and when Gleichenia glauca, kudzu. and miscellaneous trees begin
        > to
        > grow there, the soil will become enriched.
        > On the side of the hill, it's good to plant evergreens such as hinoki
        > cypress
        > and camphor, along with a mixture of other trees such as Chinese nettle
        > tree,
        > zelkova, paulownia, cherry, maple, and eucalyptus. The foot of the hill and
        > the
        > valleys are fertile, so you should plant trees such as walnuts and ginkgo
        > among
        > evergreens such as cryptomeria and oak.
        > It is also good to use bamboo groves as protective forests. Bamboo grows
        > from
        > shoots in a single year, and its volume of growth is greater than that of
        > the
        > typical tree, so it is quite valuable as a source of coarse organic
        > material
        > when buried in the ground.
        > Not only are the shoots of moso and other bamboos edible, but when dried,
        > the
        > plants are light and easy to carry. Moreover, because bamboo poles are
        > hollow,
        > they decompose slowly when buried and are very effective for holding water
        > and
        > air underground. In other words, bamboo is an extremely effective material
        > for
        > improving the structure of the soil.
        >
        > Windbreaks
        >
        > Trees planted as windbreaks not only are useful in preventing wind damage
        > but
        > also are important in maintaining soil fertility and improving the
        > environment.
        > Varieties that mature rapidly are cryptomeria, hinoki cypress, acacia, and
        > camphor, and camellia, parasol fir, arbutus, and star anise, while
        > slow-growing.
        > are among the most commonly planted.
        > Depending on the place, you may also be able to use trees such as evergreen
        >
        > oak, Ternstroemia japonica and Ilex integra.
        >
        > Making an Orchard
        >
        > It is fine if you take basically the same approach to creating the farm and
        >
        > planting trees as you would in planting trees in the forest. In other
        > words, you
        > cut trees in stages, and nothing — neither the large trunks, branches, nor
        > the
        > leaves — are taken out of the field. We line them up along the contour
        > lines,
        > leaving them covering the ground, and wait for them to decay naturally.
        > The basic principle on a natural farm is to create the farm without
        > clearing the
        > land. Generally, land is cleared with a bulldozer. When this is done, the
        > uneven
        > surface of the slopes are flattened, broad roads are made. and mechanized
        > agriculture is made possible. In modern orchards, bulldozer clearing has
        > become
        > the norm.
        > With mechanization, it becomes easy to apply fertilizer or agricultural
        > chemicals, but other than picking the fruit, this sort of heavy labor is
        > not
        > necessary with the natural farming method. Nor is there any need to clear
        > steep
        > slopes. Moreover, success is actually more likely when, from the time we
        > begin
        > making the farm, we have no money and introduce neither machines nor
        > capital.
        > The leaves and branches of trees, along with the roots, will decay in
        > several
        > years, becoming a source of organic fertilizer, and will be of use for a
        > long
        > time. as they provide nutrients for the fruit trees until they reach the
        > same
        > size. Furthermore, the organic matter will provide a covering useful in
        > preventing the growth of weeds, will prevent soil loss, will stimulate an
        > increase in microorganisms, and will be useful in improving and enriching
        > the
        > soil.
        > Just like trees planted in a forest, the fruit trees are best planted in
        > contour
        > lines with the same space between them. If possible, you should dig holes
        > for
        > planting in the shape of octopus traps, add coarse organic matter, and then
        >
        > plant the trees on top of that.
        > The reason we do not use a bulldozer when creating a natural farm is, of
        > course,
        > because of the nature of the soil and parent rock, but also, if you flatten
        > the
        > land with a bulldozer, you will scrape off the surface soil, which contains
        > a
        > large amount of organic matter that has accumulated for many years. A farm
        > cleared by bulldozer and left untouched for ten years loses surface soil
        > and its
        > economic life is shortened remarkably.
        > The leaves and branches of the trees that are clear-cut when the land is
        > cleared. Because they will interfere with farming, are usually burned, but
        > this
        > is the same as a burnt-over field, and at a stroke, the fertility is
        > diminished.
        > Also, the roots of trees that penetrate to a great depth and in a physical
        > sense
        > make the soil difficult to work, become a source of nutrients within the
        > soil
        > and serve to carry out chelation, or making undissolved nutrients in the
        > soil
        > soluble. Consequently, if you clear land with a bulldozer, dig up the
        > organic
        > matter in the soil such as roots, and dispose of it, the natural conditions
        > will
        > undergo a violent change. Even if, after the farm is made, you dig up the
        > surface of the soil and bury the same amount of coarse organic matter, you
        > will
        > have dealt the soil a blow from which it can hardly recover.
        > We can safely say that with 30 cm of topsoil there are enough nutrients
        > within
        > the soil to sustain an orchard for ten years without fertilizer, and if you
        > have
        > one meter of rich earth, for approximately thirty years. If we can retain
        > the
        > rich soil of the natural forest, as it is, then no-fertilizer cultivation
        > is
        > possible.
        > Also, it is easy to think that, if we plant trees without clearing the
        > land,
        > their growth will be poor, but in fact. they are not only not inferior, but
        > it
        > appears that there is a tendency for the trees to live longer.
        >
        > Making Fields
        >
        > Usually a "field" means a place devoted to growing field crops, but using
        > the
        > space between the fruit trees in an orchard and growing vegetables and
        > other
        > special crops like grass beneath the trees is also a natural form. There is
        > no
        > reason why an orchard cannot also be a field for vegetables and grain.
        > Of course, if we are pressed to say, the system and methods of cultivation
        > differ greatly depending on whether the orchard or field cultivation is
        > predominant.
        > Making a field where fruit trees are the primary crop and grains and
        > vegetables
        > are grown between the trees is almost the same as making an orchard, and it
        > is
        > not necessary to clear the land. There is no need to carefully prepare the
        > ground or bury coarse organic matter.
        > In the first stage of making the field, we must pay attention to preventing
        > weed
        > growth and bringing the soil to maturity, so it is good to sow the crops
        > among
        > green manure plants, buckwheat during the first summer and rape and mustard
        >
        > during the first winter. In the next year it is good to plant strong
        > twining
        > plants that reproduce well without fertilizer, such as adzuki and cowpea in
        >
        > summer and hairy vetch in winter. However, they have the disadvantage of
        > covering up young fruit tree seedlings. As the field matures, you can grow
        > a
        > variety of other crops.
        >
        > Making an Exclusive Field
        >
        > It is common to make fields on hilly areas at the foot of mountains or on
        > plains, but most field crops are annuals, and many are produced in a few
        > months
        > to half a year. The many vegetables that reach about one meter in height
        > also
        > have shallow roots. Because the time between sowing and harvest is short
        > and
        > several crops can be grown in one year, the surface of the ground is
        > exposed to
        > sunlight for much of the year. Therefore, we must accept the premise that
        > there
        > is much soil loss from exclusive fields on account of rain and that the
        > soil
        > easily loses its fertility and is weak during droughts and cold weather.
        > When making the field, the most important concern is the prevention of soil
        >
        > erosion, and it is necessary to terrace the field to make the surface
        > level.
        > Therefore, the first step in making a field is building up earthen banks or
        >
        > making stone walls, and then making terraced fields. The success or failure
        > of
        > the field depends on the skill involved in knowing the nature of the soil
        > and
        > making banks that will not crumble or in using the stones dug up from the
        > field
        > to make stone walls.
        > Whether the surface of the terraced field is level or gently sloping also
        > has a
        > great effect on growing conditions and agricultural efficiency.
        > It goes without saying that the fundamental method for improving the soil
        > of the
        > field is to dig deep trenches and bury coarse organic matter in them, but
        > another good method is to pile up the soil in tall ridges. In general it is
        >
        > sufficient simply to plant shade trees and trees that provide fertilizer.
        >
        > Making Paddy Fields
        >
        > At present it is easy to make paddy fields by clearing the plains with
        > large
        > machines, carrying away the rubbish, and leveling the ground. This also
        > makes
        > possible increasing the size of the fields, which will make mechanized
        > agricultural even more convenient in the future.
        > However, there are some disadvantages to this method, because it is a very
        > coarse method of construction;
        > (1) The topsoil of the paddy is of uneven depth, because of differences in
        > the
        > height of the field surface, and this results in uneven growth of crops.
        > (2) Because the large, heavy machines have put pressure on the soil. it is
        > compressed more than necessary. Underground water will collect and
        > stagnate..
        > it will reach an unnatural state of deoxidation, causing the roots to
        > decay, and
        > in many cases the desired result will not be achieved.
        > (3) A more serious problem is that, because the ridges all become
        > concretized.
        > the microorganisms in the soil change or die, and gradually the soil dies
        > and
        > turns to stone. There is a danger of making a field of dead earth.
        > Trees are the guardians of the soil in paddies, growing densely, large and
        > small, on mounds in the fields. The landscape of paddies near Sukhothai,
        > Thailand, is one of the finest examples in the world of the ideals of the
        > natural farming method.
        > Here I would like to leave the discussion of making modern paddies and
        > conclude
        > with a few words about paddy-making in ancient times.
        > It would seem to be common sense to make paddy fields on level ground, but
        > in
        > ancient times it was often the case that people lived and made paddies not
        > on
        > the flat, fertile land beside large rivers, but rather in mountainous
        > areas,
        > where there was less danger of floods and strong winds. They would make
        > paddies
        > in river valleys and in terraces on the mountainsides, and devote
        > themselves to
        > farming there.
        > However, it is unnecessary to go to great lengths to grow rice in paddy
        > fields.
        > It is quite possible to grow rice in dry fields watered only by the rain.
        >
        > PART 6: SOWING A VARIETY OF SEEDS IN THE DESERT TO CREATE A FOREST FOR
        > ELEPHANTS
        >
        > You may think it reckless for me to say that we can revegetate the desert.
        > Although I have confirmed my theory, unfortunately 1 have had few
        > opportunities
        > to prove it on a large scale. Recently, however, the government of India
        > has
        > asked for technical assistance in carrying out aerial seeding as a measure
        > against desertification, so I have tried, in this hasty manner, to
        > summarize my
        > ideas and concrete steps for putting the theory into practice.
        > To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have
        > destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature,
        > nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean
        > nonintervention.
        > In the case of places like the desert, which have lost their regenerative
        > power,
        > we must mix seeds and microorganisms of every variety in clay pellets and
        > scatter them from the air. In India there are more than 500 varieties of
        > trees
        > that bear edible nuts and 500 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, we
        > should
        > sow among them a mixture of 500 varieties of grains, vegetables, and green
        > manure, ideally on the Deccan Plateau and in the desert. My supposition is
        > that,
        > no matter how bad the conditions, there will be some seed varieties suited
        > to
        > that place that will germinate. Even though some will wither and die from
        > extreme dryness and heat, if we sow various green manures, vegetables, and
        > grasses along with drought and salt-resistant plants, a number of them will
        >
        > survive. If for even a short time the surface of the earth is covered with
        > vegetation, its temperature will be lowered. The role of the "pilot" plants
        > is
        > to aid in creating conditions that will allow other plants to germinate.
        > A second purpose in so wide a variety of plants and microorganisms is to
        > awaken
        > the sleeping earth. Among deserts, there are deserts of sand that have lost
        > the
        > ability to support life and have died, but most savannas are young clay
        > deserts
        > in which the nutrients needed by plants are only sleeping. In order to
        > cause
        > chelation, in other words, to rouse the earth and bring about the rebirth
        > of
        > life, a variety of seeds of lover plant forms and microorganisms are
        > necessary.
        > The earth will not come back to life if we only plant a number of useful
        > trees
        > in the desert. A plant cannot grow up in isolation. To grow, a
        > hundred-meter
        > tree needs enough soil for one hundred meters of roots. Also, trees of
        > seventy,
        > forth, and twenty meters are necessary. Furthermore, trees are needed to
        > protect
        > the base of the tall trees, and beneath them, undergrowth vegetation and
        > microorganisms are necessary. Only with the aid of all these can a tree
        > grow to
        > a height of one hundred meters. Life does not exist in isolation, and a
        > large
        > tree is the crystallization of the cooperation of numerous living things.
        > When a
        > large forest is created, and the degree of nature, or density of
        > vegetation, is
        > high, then rain will begin to fall.
        > Clouds will form over the mountains and rise up from the valleys. The
        > principal
        > actors in the forest are not just the tall trees. Ferns, moss, and fallen
        > leaves
        > all have roles to play.
        > Rather than trying to secure water and cause rain to fall using human
        > knowledge,
        > we should stop ignoring the mind of nature. Then the earth will naturally
        > be
        > covered with lush green vegetation. The mind of nature is the core or heart
        > of
        > nature. If we do not know the heart of nature, the fundamental source of
        > the
        > creation of the cosmos, then no matter how much we observe the outer aspect
        > of
        > nature, the recovery of nature will be impossible.
        > If we grasp the mind of nature, which is God, and live in accordance with
        > it,
        > nature will be reborn naturally, and pitiful measures, based on human
        > knowledge,
        > to prevent desertification will vanish like the dew. The workings of nature
        > are
        > governed by nature. When we consider that the interference of human
        > knowledge
        > and action is the fundamental cause of global desertification, then the
        > only
        > measure against desertification must be the abolishment of human knowledge
        > and
        > action.
        > From the decision to abandon human knowledge comes the extremely simple,
        > minimal
        > human action of sowing a variety of seeds. Sowing a variety of seeds, which
        > is
        > in direct opposition to the current, scientific method of selecting and
        > planting
        > the most valuable, useful tree varieties, appears to be quite easy, but in
        > fact
        > it is exceedingly difficult because it requires a fundamental reversal in
        > human
        > values.
        > In other words. it is much easier for people to choose something special
        > from
        > nature and use it for the benefit of human beings. But, humans make a grave
        >
        > error at that time. Extracting one thing from nature, in the name of
        > development
        > or of creating something new, and attributing value to it means making
        > other
        > things valueless. Making one thing useful results in abandoning other
        > things as
        > useless.
        > All human economic activity is opposed to nature, and it is the way of
        > human
        > beings to plant useful trees in the desert, cut down the undergrowth, and
        > grow
        > single crops, thereby sacrificing, as "weeds," many times the achieved
        > amount of
        > vegetation. For the same reason, from the viewpoint of nature, most human
        > production and efforts to protect nature are linked to the destruction of
        > nature.
        > People choose what to plant in the desert. Whenever they consider whether a
        >
        > plant will grow or not, whether it is useful or harmful, whether it will
        > grow
        > rapidly or slowly, they are selecting only special varieties and are
        > discarding
        > others. In other words, whenever they make a selection, half the plant
        > varieties
        > are lost. From the viewpoint of nature, the number of trees saved by humans
        > is
        > much fever than number of plants overlooked. Plant varieties decrease and
        > become
        > simplified. so that they are losing both quantity and quality. And this
        > triggers
        > desertification. For this reason, when modern farms in the desert are
        > abandoned
        > after five years, they become deserts worse than the original.
        > There is no good or bad among the life forms on earth. Each has its role.
        > is
        > necessary, and has the same value. This is also the basis for sowing seeds
        > of
        > many varieties.
        > My measures for countering desertification may appear childish and
        > unscientific,
        > but they are based on a philosophical view of nature that transcends
        > science. In
        > order to understand and put into practice this one simple thing, we are
        > force to
        > embrace the extremely difficult position (the revolutionary conclusion)
        > that all
        > of man's ideas and actions must be transformed. But if we can do this one
        > thing,
        > we can transform the world.
        > ...
        > " -- everyone please proof read this text as Jamie obtained it from his
        > copy
        > from Michiyo by scanning. I have one printed copy also and am proof reading
        >
        > Jamie's scan. Please DO NOT distribute this text privately printed by late
        > Mr.
        > Fukuoka sensei (and usually the small no. of copies where given to heads of
        >
        > state like the Indian Prime Minister or Ministers (i read somewhere)).
        >
        > -- Jamie 'souscayrous' Nicol in this group previous quoted this above quote
        > in
        > part in this group, here:
        > -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5353
        >
        > Best wishes to all people,
        >
        > Jase.
        > south-eastern Oz (vernacular for Australia)
        >
        > PS. This message was sent on 28 Nov. 2010 to this Yahoo group
        > Fukuoka_farming
        > but for some unexplained reason didn't get through - Dear Moderator please
        > explain! So, i'm sending all these two missed backlog messages now that
        > messages
        > are getting through... .
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >


        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Sumant Joshi
        Well, I am an armchair environmentalist at best, having spent most of my life in the Navy. Last few years I have been reading up on a lot of material on
        Message 3 of 20 , Dec 4, 2010
          Well, I am an armchair environmentalist at best, having spent most of my life in the Navy. Last few years I have been reading up on a lot of material on conservation and found that on almost all fronts, our mother Earth's environment is in retreat and deteriorating fast. It seems hopeless, except for the little lights I see in people like you all who are doing their bit. The industrial revolution has been a failure. Ultimately when the collapse comes, it is these talents and learnings which will be useful for humans to survive (read 'collapse' by Jared Diamond). Like Fukuoka San said "The ultimate goal of farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human beings." Unless the human race mends it's ways ..... 
          I have been observing and video-graphing the changing seasons and scenes of rural areas and forest areas around my town and seeing the daily destruction wrought by wrong farming practices. The hills around my town are completely denuded and are an environmental disaster. If nothing else I am planning to make a documentary on the situation. From what I read (another Mr Agarwal, who founded the centre for science and environment) the problem is systemic. Unless local people are given control of their environment, all efforts at conservation are probably doomed to failure. All forest lands in India are government property.Greening the desert is a noble idea but ultimately, unless systemic changes are made, these efforts will not bear fruit. So what can I do? I have a small 4.5 acre piece of land which I am planning to use as a forest nursery for local endangered trees and plants. I think maybe we should all put aside about 10% of our farmlands for forest
          trees for more reasons than one including the ones Jason has mentioned. These little nuclei will in future form the means for regenerating lost forests.

          Not surprisingly, my efforts at finding the list of endangered trees for this part of the world has borne no fruit as yet.
          I hope I don't sound too depressing.

          Warm regards, 
          Sumant Joshi

          --- On Fri, 3/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:

          From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
          Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
          To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
          Date: Friday, 3 December, 2010, 2:57 PM
















           











          ________________________________



          Dear Boovarahan Srinivasan, and BTW everyone,



          Please plant trees and tall crop species that can grow tall enough to survive

          and stand above floods and then in the dry season remain to continue to provide

          shade and protection to the soil surface.

          Friend here of many years experience Mr. Raju Titus plants Subabul (Leucaena

          leucocephala), which apparently grows very widespread around India, and which

          late Mr. Fukuoka sensei lauded when he visited Mr. Raju's farm in 1988.

          See -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala



          If you would be in Australia i would have many suitable plant species to

          recommend to you, but i don't really know India.

          Please read all the homework materials in books and blogs and so on and then;

          Please respectfully ask Mr. Raju Titus on his specific suggestions for your

          Indian farmland.



          Please see Mr. Raju's photos uploaded here in Yahoo Fukuoka_Farming photos (see

          below second link) and:



          -> http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus



          -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/photos/album/332255617/pic/list



          i commented on of the photos asking what the plant is, then i saw the older

          previous photos where Mr. Raju writes hemp on the captions, so i deleted my

          question-comment, then i searched for all the different plant species named Hemp

          from India, but didn't succeed in finding this one species in the photos by

          visual-photo recognition. i was interested to find many different prefixes

          before the name Hemp in India meaning for different species of plant all

          commonly named XXXX Hemp.



          From Raju later email (translated by Sumant) we got told that it is Sun Hemp,

          (which translates in botanical terms to Crotalaria juncea L.)

          *Sunn Hemp* (or Sun Hemp) - i wondered but don't know it visually as a plant

          species, and i know it is not Cannabis-Hemp of course :) !



          -> http://www.google.com/search?q=Sunn+hemp



          Boovarahan Srinivasan, all i've learned about this plant species really useful

          to you is that it is grows very tall like more than 2 metres (see the photos),

          and it is ideal as it is a nitrogen fixing legume species, (then that it is a

          tropical species which for my temperate farm is not here suitable rather suited

          to your farm).



          The techniques and approaches (goals) of the practitioner in that video

          completely contradict —at odds with—

          * nature and

          * with late Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature/natural farming ways (techniques which

          vary in any place in the world),

          * principles applicable globally, and

          * with the non-violent philosophy.

          Furthermore, and

          * with no-soil damage, and

          * not necessary doing any earth-moving,

          * not necessary doing any heavy machinery work and

          * not necessary using any powered machinery.



          I think you both will like to learn about this truth (read below), and that this

          cited videos techniques only make a temporary flush of fertility by tearing up

          any fertility that remains in the already damaged or depleted soil -organic

          matter & moisture- thus releasing it from latency to the first few seasons crops

          and to oxidise to the atmosphere, wash away in any floods, and blow away in any

          wind erosion.

          And, incidentally not doing any of these entirely unnecessary destructions saves

          a lot of capital and machine-rental-money, and time.



          ----------------------------------------------------------

          Unicode UTF-8 text character encoding for this message! -- please check your

          browser/email client encoding setting, and fix it to this!



          * 1975 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen (自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践?);

          Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec.,

          310pp. ISBN 978-4788776265.

          * 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy"

          translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. ISBN 978-0870406133.

          This book is out of print and is still available freely in electronic format

          from the soil and health library, see:

          -> http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html

          Scroll down to find Fukuoka Masanobu.



          Quote: "



          Appendix



          Greening the Deserts: Having distanced himself from nature, man finds it

          almost

          impossible to return to the world he formerly knew. However, the recuperative

          powers of nature are more potent and rapid than most of us suspect. The

          restoration

          of an arid desert to a rich land of fluorishing vegetation might seem

          inconceivable to

          the human mind, but at the core of the "green philosophy" is the principle that

          nature always returns to its former state.

          What I have in mind is not the creation of green oases in the deserts through

          the construction of artificial irrigation systems, but the return of entire

          deserts to

          their former state as earthly paradises. If deserts first arose when man parted

          from

          the hand of God and began to till the Garden of Eden, then nature can be made

          to

          recover naturally by applying natural farming to the deserts. I propose that

          natural

          farms be established in the deserts to green them over.

          To grasp the basic concept for designing a natural farm, one must begin by

          looking for the true image of nature. The hills, streams, grasses, and trees

          must be

          allowed to create for themselves a place on the farm. The natural farm is a

          harmonious whole arising from a combination of woods and fruit trees and

          vegetables and grains (see photographs on page 148).

          The idea should not be to build irrigation systems that carry river water to

          the

          fields and there produce only specific crops, but to allow vegetation to thrive

          by the

          riverside, to create forests there and wait for water to gradually penetrate

          deep into

          the ground through the roots of the forest trees. This principle, which I have

          tentatively called the "plant irrigation" method, is applied in Figs. API, AP2.

          For

          example, when acacias are planted every 60 feet along the side of a stream or

          river,

          the trees reach a height of 30 feet five years later, by which time the root

          system has

          spread over an area of 120 square yards. In addition to increasing the amount

          of

          humus, this absorbs and retains moisture. The net effect is to transport water

          a

          distance of 60 feet. In other words, a single tree creates the equivalent of a

          small,

          60-foot channel.

          By utilizing the principle of plant irrigation and using a river or stream as

          the

          source of water, a natural forest can be created as a "plant-irrigated" green

          belt.

          Fields and gardens can then be set up on either side of this forest to increase

          the

          vegetative cover. Later, by extending the forest, the adjoining fields can be

          expanded and the green belt widened.

          As I mentioned in the preface to this book, man today is concerned over the

          desertification of the earth. There is no question that this global loss of

          vegetation

          has its roots in the errors of farming methods that arose from the arrogance of

          the

          human intellect. I strongly believe that, rather than attempting to cultivate

          the

          deserts by building elaborate irrigation systems, it would make more sense to

          establish natural forests and farms using "plant irrigation." This would

          encourage

          the return of vegetation to the deserts with minimal human intervention.

          Many people are skeptical that seeds will grow in the deserts, but quite a few

          methods for successful seeding exist. One such method consists of enclosing the

          seeds of suitable plants in clay pellets and scattering the pellets in the

          deserts— a

          natural farming technique. This could be done, for example, by taking a mixture

          of

          the seeds of green manure trees such as acacias that grow in areas of scant

          rainfall,

          of clover, alfalfa, bur clover and other green manure plants, and of grain and

          vegetable seeds, enclosing this seed mixture in a double coating of earth and

          clay as

          pellets, and scattering the pellets by hand over the desert and savanna. The

          seeds

          within the hard pellets are protected from predation by mice and birds, and do

          not

          germinate until rain has fallen and conditions are just right. A year later,

          several of

          the plants sown will have survived, giving a clue as to how best to proceed.

          Any

          types of plant will do as long as the deserts are soon covered once again with

          vegetation. Such a method will surely bring the rains back to the desert.



          Fig. AP.2 Natural farm and green belt.



          River

          [diagram]



          "



          ----------------------------------------------------------



          * 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no

          kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編 「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin

          Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's own self-publishing-publisher-names) in

          1992 Dec., 230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.

          * 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A

          RECAPITULATION" -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned English-retranslation and

          printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN, printed

          by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a (小心舎)".



          --pages 88 to 100

          -----quote: "

          ...

          A Natural Farming Project in the Desert



          The measures for revegetating the desert are also the measures for natural

          farming, and the plans for the establishment of a natural farm can be used just

          as they are in the desert.

          The fundamental concept of a natural farm begins with intuitively grasping

          nature's original form. It's good if the original plants and features of the

          landscape of the place choose the place spontaneously.

          The ideal natural farm is a place where all varieties of plants grow in

          profusion as a harmonious whole, and among them all kinds of animals live

          together joyfully, in mutual benefit. This also can be applied to the desert.

          In the desert, there are many places with rivers and underground water. One

          method is to first revegetate the banks of the rivers and then gradually work to

          make the interior areas green. If we establish natural forests along the rivers,

          they will naturally expand. If possible, however, we should scatter every kind

          of seed over the entire area at once and bring about the revegetating of the

          desert all at once.

          The theoretical basis of revegetation from the riverbanks is the following

          "plant irrigation" method. It does not rely on running the river water through

          concrete waterways, as is the usual practice today, but encourages the water to

          follow greenbelts of plants and tries to achieve non-irrigation agriculture

          through increasing water retention.

          Water naturally moves to lover areas, is carried by the roots of plants, and

          filters toward dry areas. In the river water, reeds and cattails flourish, while

          species of Arundo will grow in clumps, protecting the banks. Pussy willows,

          purple willows, and alders will provide protection from the wind and draw water.

          Therefore, if we plant every kind of plant, starting from the area around the

          river, the underground water will filter up the roots of the plants, and

          gradually a protective forest should take shape. This is what I call "plant

          irrigation."

          For example, if you plant acacia trees twenty meters apart, in five years the

          trees will reach a height of ten meters, but the roots will have spread ten

          meters in every direction, water will infiltrate, and along with the increased

          fertility of the soil and the accumulation of humus, water retention will

          increase. Although the movement of underground water is extremely slow.

          gradually it will move from one tree to the next. and they will fill the role of

          water bearers.

          If we apply this principle as a measure for revegetating the desert, we begin by

          planting woods along the rivers in the desert. Then, at angles to the river, we

          create belts of natural forest instead of irrigation canals, and have them fill

          the role of waterways.

          In addition, in the center of these greenbelts. we will plant fruit trees and

          vegetables, create natural farms, and by creating natural farms that are the

          same as the natural ecosystem, we will at the same time be attempting to

          revegetate the desert.



          C. Creating a Natural farm (Temperate and Sub-Tropical Zones)



          When one wishes to start a farm following natural methods, the first question

          that must be dealt with is where it will be and how you will choose the place

          and live on it.

          It's fine if, like a mountain man, you go into a mountain forest and live in

          splendid isolation, but usually it is safest to make a farm at the foot of

          a mountain. If the area is slightly elevated, then in terms of climate

          as well, there are many excellent places. There you can easily obtain firewood,

          vegetables, and the other materials for satisfying the necessities of food.

          clothing, and shelter. If there is a river nearby, crops will be easier to grow,

          and you can easily establish your life there.

          No matter what the land is like, you can grow crops if you make the effort, but

          it is best if the place is rich in the bounties of nature. A place where large

          trees grow densely on the hills, the soil is deep and black or dark brown in

          color, and clean water can be obtained, and, in addition, one can enjoy natural

          beauty, is ideal. A good environment and fine scenery are essential elements for

          living an enjoyable life. both materially and spiritually.

          A natural farm must be in a place that can supply all the material necessary to

          provide food, clothing, and shelter. Therefore, you must start a comprehensive

          natural farm that includes not only fields but also the surrounding hills and

          forests. (Please compare with natural farms in the desert.)



          Natural Protective Forests



          We use the forested hills surrounding the natural farm both directly and

          indirectly, as natural protective forests for the farm and as natural sources of

          organic material.

          On a natural farm, the basic measure for carrying out complete, long-term

          no-fertilizer farming is to build deep, fertile soil. There are various methods

          for achieving this, including the following.

          (1) It is good to bury coarse organic matter deep in the ground, but this

          requires a great deal of labor, so it is better to plant a forest around the

          farm.

          (2) In the farm, plant trees and grasses with roots that will grow deep into the

          ;oil, gradually improving it.

          (3) Cause rainwater carrying nutrients from the humus in the forests on the

          slopes above the farm to flow down and enrich the farm.

          The essential thing is to maintain, close at hand, a source of humus, which is

          the basis of fertility.

          You can improve the forests on the slopes above the farm as protective forests.

          but if there are no forested hills, it is good to make new woods or bamboo

          thickets as protective forests.

          Where the protective forest is concerned, our attention is focused on creating a

          deep green, natural forest, but we will plant kinds of trees that enrich the

          soil and will plant a mixture of trees that are highly useful, trees that

          provide food for birds and animals, and those that protect natural predators.



          Raising a Protective Forest



          Generally, the soil at the summit of a hill or mountain is thin, and it easily

          dries out, leaving the hill bare at the top. In places like this, we should

          first grow trailing plants like Ixeris debilis and kudzu to halt the erosion of

          soil and then sow the seeds of pines and sawara cypress, turning it into a pine

          forest. At first, fast growing grasses such as eulalia and cogon grasses, ferns

          such as bracken and scrambling fern, and bushes such as bush clover, Eurya

          japonica and cypress will grow densely, but gradually these plants will be

          replaced, and when Gleichenia glauca, kudzu. and miscellaneous trees begin to

          grow there, the soil will become enriched.

          On the side of the hill, it's good to plant evergreens such as hinoki cypress

          and camphor, along with a mixture of other trees such as Chinese nettle tree,

          zelkova, paulownia, cherry, maple, and eucalyptus. The foot of the hill and the

          valleys are fertile, so you should plant trees such as walnuts and ginkgo among

          evergreens such as cryptomeria and oak.

          It is also good to use bamboo groves as protective forests. Bamboo grows from

          shoots in a single year, and its volume of growth is greater than that of the

          typical tree, so it is quite valuable as a source of coarse organic material

          when buried in the ground.

          Not only are the shoots of moso and other bamboos edible, but when dried, the

          plants are light and easy to carry. Moreover, because bamboo poles are hollow,

          they decompose slowly when buried and are very effective for holding water and

          air underground. In other words, bamboo is an extremely effective material for

          improving the structure of the soil.



          Windbreaks



          Trees planted as windbreaks not only are useful in preventing wind damage but

          also are important in maintaining soil fertility and improving the environment.

          Varieties that mature rapidly are cryptomeria, hinoki cypress, acacia, and

          camphor, and camellia, parasol fir, arbutus, and star anise, while slow-growing.

          are among the most commonly planted.

          Depending on the place, you may also be able to use trees such as evergreen

          oak, Ternstroemia japonica and Ilex integra.



          Making an Orchard



          It is fine if you take basically the same approach to creating the farm and

          planting trees as you would in planting trees in the forest. In other words, you

          cut trees in stages, and nothing — neither the large trunks, branches, nor the

          leaves — are taken out of the field. We line them up along the contour lines,

          leaving them covering the ground, and wait for them to decay naturally.

          The basic principle on a natural farm is to create the farm without clearing the

          land. Generally, land is cleared with a bulldozer. When this is done, the uneven

          surface of the slopes are flattened, broad roads are made. and mechanized

          agriculture is made possible. In modern orchards, bulldozer clearing has become

          the norm.

          With mechanization, it becomes easy to apply fertilizer or agricultural

          chemicals, but other than picking the fruit, this sort of heavy labor is not

          necessary with the natural farming method. Nor is there any need to clear steep

          slopes. Moreover, success is actually more likely when, from the time we begin

          making the farm, we have no money and introduce neither machines nor capital.

          The leaves and branches of trees, along with the roots, will decay in several

          years, becoming a source of organic fertilizer, and will be of use for a long

          time. as they provide nutrients for the fruit trees until they reach the same

          size. Furthermore, the organic matter will provide a covering useful in

          preventing the growth of weeds, will prevent soil loss, will stimulate an

          increase in microorganisms, and will be useful in improving and enriching the

          soil.

          Just like trees planted in a forest, the fruit trees are best planted in contour

          lines with the same space between them. If possible, you should dig holes for

          planting in the shape of octopus traps, add coarse organic matter, and then

          plant the trees on top of that.

          The reason we do not use a bulldozer when creating a natural farm is, of course,

          because of the nature of the soil and parent rock, but also, if you flatten the

          land with a bulldozer, you will scrape off the surface soil, which contains a

          large amount of organic matter that has accumulated for many years. A farm

          cleared by bulldozer and left untouched for ten years loses surface soil and its

          economic life is shortened remarkably.

          The leaves and branches of the trees that are clear-cut when the land is

          cleared. Because they will interfere with farming, are usually burned, but this

          is the same as a burnt-over field, and at a stroke, the fertility is diminished.

          Also, the roots of trees that penetrate to a great depth and in a physical sense

          make the soil difficult to work, become a source of nutrients within the soil

          and serve to carry out chelation, or making undissolved nutrients in the soil

          soluble. Consequently, if you clear land with a bulldozer, dig up the organic

          matter in the soil such as roots, and dispose of it, the natural conditions will

          undergo a violent change. Even if, after the farm is made, you dig up the

          surface of the soil and bury the same amount of coarse organic matter, you will

          have dealt the soil a blow from which it can hardly recover.

          We can safely say that with 30 cm of topsoil there are enough nutrients within

          the soil to sustain an orchard for ten years without fertilizer, and if you have

          one meter of rich earth, for approximately thirty years. If we can retain the

          rich soil of the natural forest, as it is, then no-fertilizer cultivation is

          possible.

          Also, it is easy to think that, if we plant trees without clearing the land,

          their growth will be poor, but in fact. they are not only not inferior, but it

          appears that there is a tendency for the trees to live longer.



          Making Fields



          Usually a "field" means a place devoted to growing field crops, but using the

          space between the fruit trees in an orchard and growing vegetables and other

          special crops like grass beneath the trees is also a natural form. There is no

          reason why an orchard cannot also be a field for vegetables and grain.

          Of course, if we are pressed to say, the system and methods of cultivation

          differ greatly depending on whether the orchard or field cultivation is

          predominant.

          Making a field where fruit trees are the primary crop and grains and vegetables

          are grown between the trees is almost the same as making an orchard, and it is

          not necessary to clear the land. There is no need to carefully prepare the

          ground or bury coarse organic matter.

          In the first stage of making the field, we must pay attention to preventing weed

          growth and bringing the soil to maturity, so it is good to sow the crops among

          green manure plants, buckwheat during the first summer and rape and mustard

          during the first winter. In the next year it is good to plant strong twining

          plants that reproduce well without fertilizer, such as adzuki and cowpea in

          summer and hairy vetch in winter. However, they have the disadvantage of

          covering up young fruit tree seedlings. As the field matures, you can grow a

          variety of other crops.



          Making an Exclusive Field



          It is common to make fields on hilly areas at the foot of mountains or on

          plains, but most field crops are annuals, and many are produced in a few months

          to half a year. The many vegetables that reach about one meter in height also

          have shallow roots. Because the time between sowing and harvest is short and

          several crops can be grown in one year, the surface of the ground is exposed to

          sunlight for much of the year. Therefore, we must accept the premise that there

          is much soil loss from exclusive fields on account of rain and that the soil

          easily loses its fertility and is weak during droughts and cold weather.

          When making the field, the most important concern is the prevention of soil

          erosion, and it is necessary to terrace the field to make the surface level.

          Therefore, the first step in making a field is building up earthen banks or

          making stone walls, and then making terraced fields. The success or failure of

          the field depends on the skill involved in knowing the nature of the soil and

          making banks that will not crumble or in using the stones dug up from the field

          to make stone walls.

          Whether the surface of the terraced field is level or gently sloping also has a

          great effect on growing conditions and agricultural efficiency.

          It goes without saying that the fundamental method for improving the soil of the

          field is to dig deep trenches and bury coarse organic matter in them, but

          another good method is to pile up the soil in tall ridges. In general it is

          sufficient simply to plant shade trees and trees that provide fertilizer.



          Making Paddy Fields



          At present it is easy to make paddy fields by clearing the plains with large

          machines, carrying away the rubbish, and leveling the ground. This also makes

          possible increasing the size of the fields, which will make mechanized

          agricultural even more convenient in the future.

          However, there are some disadvantages to this method, because it is a very

          coarse method of construction;

          (1) The topsoil of the paddy is of uneven depth, because of differences in the

          height of the field surface, and this results in uneven growth of crops.

          (2) Because the large, heavy machines have put pressure on the soil. it is

          compressed more than necessary. Underground water will collect and stagnate..

          it will reach an unnatural state of deoxidation, causing the roots to decay, and

          in many cases the desired result will not be achieved.

          (3) A more serious problem is that, because the ridges all become concretized.

          the microorganisms in the soil change or die, and gradually the soil dies and

          turns to stone. There is a danger of making a field of dead earth.

          Trees are the guardians of the soil in paddies, growing densely, large and

          small, on mounds in the fields. The landscape of paddies near Sukhothai,

          Thailand, is one of the finest examples in the world of the ideals of the

          natural farming method.

          Here I would like to leave the discussion of making modern paddies and conclude

          with a few words about paddy-making in ancient times.

          It would seem to be common sense to make paddy fields on level ground, but in

          ancient times it was often the case that people lived and made paddies not on

          the flat, fertile land beside large rivers, but rather in mountainous areas,

          where there was less danger of floods and strong winds. They would make paddies

          in river valleys and in terraces on the mountainsides, and devote themselves to

          farming there.

          However, it is unnecessary to go to great lengths to grow rice in paddy fields.

          It is quite possible to grow rice in dry fields watered only by the rain.



          PART 6: SOWING A VARIETY OF SEEDS IN THE DESERT TO CREATE A FOREST FOR ELEPHANTS



          You may think it reckless for me to say that we can revegetate the desert.

          Although I have confirmed my theory, unfortunately 1 have had few opportunities

          to prove it on a large scale. Recently, however, the government of India has

          asked for technical assistance in carrying out aerial seeding as a measure

          against desertification, so I have tried, in this hasty manner, to summarize my

          ideas and concrete steps for putting the theory into practice.

          To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have

          destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature,

          nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean nonintervention.

          In the case of places like the desert, which have lost their regenerative power,

          we must mix seeds and microorganisms of every variety in clay pellets and

          scatter them from the air. In India there are more than 500 varieties of trees

          that bear edible nuts and 500 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, we should

          sow among them a mixture of 500 varieties of grains, vegetables, and green

          manure, ideally on the Deccan Plateau and in the desert. My supposition is that,

          no matter how bad the conditions, there will be some seed varieties suited to

          that place that will germinate. Even though some will wither and die from

          extreme dryness and heat, if we sow various green manures, vegetables, and

          grasses along with drought and salt-resistant plants, a number of them will

          survive. If for even a short time the surface of the earth is covered with

          vegetation, its temperature will be lowered. The role of the "pilot" plants is

          to aid in creating conditions that will allow other plants to germinate.

          A second purpose in so wide a variety of plants and microorganisms is to awaken

          the sleeping earth. Among deserts, there are deserts of sand that have lost the

          ability to support life and have died, but most savannas are young clay deserts

          in which the nutrients needed by plants are only sleeping. In order to cause

          chelation, in other words, to rouse the earth and bring about the rebirth of

          life, a variety of seeds of lover plant forms and microorganisms are necessary.

          The earth will not come back to life if we only plant a number of useful trees

          in the desert. A plant cannot grow up in isolation. To grow, a hundred-meter

          tree needs enough soil for one hundred meters of roots. Also, trees of seventy,

          forth, and twenty meters are necessary. Furthermore, trees are needed to protect

          the base of the tall trees, and beneath them, undergrowth vegetation and

          microorganisms are necessary. Only with the aid of all these can a tree grow to

          a height of one hundred meters. Life does not exist in isolation, and a large

          tree is the crystallization of the cooperation of numerous living things. When a

          large forest is created, and the degree of nature, or density of vegetation, is

          high, then rain will begin to fall.

          Clouds will form over the mountains and rise up from the valleys. The principal

          actors in the forest are not just the tall trees. Ferns, moss, and fallen leaves

          all have roles to play.

          Rather than trying to secure water and cause rain to fall using human knowledge,

          we should stop ignoring the mind of nature. Then the earth will naturally be

          covered with lush green vegetation. The mind of nature is the core or heart of

          nature. If we do not know the heart of nature, the fundamental source of the

          creation of the cosmos, then no matter how much we observe the outer aspect of

          nature, the recovery of nature will be impossible.

          If we grasp the mind of nature, which is God, and live in accordance with it,

          nature will be reborn naturally, and pitiful measures, based on human knowledge,

          to prevent desertification will vanish like the dew. The workings of nature are

          governed by nature. When we consider that the interference of human knowledge

          and action is the fundamental cause of global desertification, then the only

          measure against desertification must be the abolishment of human knowledge and

          action.

          From the decision to abandon human knowledge comes the extremely simple, minimal

          human action of sowing a variety of seeds. Sowing a variety of seeds, which is

          in direct opposition to the current, scientific method of selecting and planting

          the most valuable, useful tree varieties, appears to be quite easy, but in fact

          it is exceedingly difficult because it requires a fundamental reversal in human

          values.

          In other words. it is much easier for people to choose something special from

          nature and use it for the benefit of human beings. But, humans make a grave

          error at that time. Extracting one thing from nature, in the name of development

          or of creating something new, and attributing value to it means making other

          things valueless. Making one thing useful results in abandoning other things as

          useless.

          All human economic activity is opposed to nature, and it is the way of human

          beings to plant useful trees in the desert, cut down the undergrowth, and grow

          single crops, thereby sacrificing, as "weeds," many times the achieved amount of

          vegetation. For the same reason, from the viewpoint of nature, most human

          production and efforts to protect nature are linked to the destruction of

          nature.

          People choose what to plant in the desert. Whenever they consider whether a

          plant will grow or not, whether it is useful or harmful, whether it will grow

          rapidly or slowly, they are selecting only special varieties and are discarding

          others. In other words, whenever they make a selection, half the plant varieties

          are lost. From the viewpoint of nature, the number of trees saved by humans is

          much fever than number of plants overlooked. Plant varieties decrease and become

          simplified. so that they are losing both quantity and quality. And this triggers

          desertification. For this reason, when modern farms in the desert are abandoned

          after five years, they become deserts worse than the original.

          There is no good or bad among the life forms on earth. Each has its role. is

          necessary, and has the same value. This is also the basis for sowing seeds of

          many varieties.

          My measures for countering desertification may appear childish and unscientific,

          but they are based on a philosophical view of nature that transcends science. In

          order to understand and put into practice this one simple thing, we are force to

          embrace the extremely difficult position (the revolutionary conclusion) that all

          of man's ideas and actions must be transformed. But if we can do this one thing,

          we can transform the world.

          ...

          " -- everyone please proof read this text as Jamie obtained it from his copy

          from Michiyo by scanning. I have one printed copy also and am proof reading

          Jamie's scan. Please DO NOT distribute this text privately printed by late Mr.

          Fukuoka sensei (and usually the small no. of copies where given to heads of

          state like the Indian Prime Minister or Ministers (i read somewhere)).



          -- Jamie 'souscayrous' Nicol in this group previous quoted this above quote in

          part in this group, here:

          -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5353



          Best wishes to all people,



          Jase.

          south-eastern Oz (vernacular for Australia)



          PS. This message was sent on 28 Nov. 2010 to this Yahoo group Fukuoka_farming

          but for some unexplained reason didn't get through - Dear Moderator please

          explain! So, i'm sending all these two missed backlog messages now that messages

          are getting through... .



          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





























          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Jason Stewart
          Dear friend Sumant, Well, all too briefly, i feel uplifted by your message below, because of its evidently well informed realness, rather than the falsehoods
          Message 4 of 20 , Dec 4, 2010
            Dear friend Sumant,

            Well, all too briefly, i feel uplifted by your message below, because of its
            evidently well informed realness, rather than the falsehoods of
            pollyana–optimism or doom–&–gloom–pessimism.
            Realnees uplifts when the evident future really does threaten us all or when the
            evident future is all rosy.
            Realness about the future (& the past) really does uplift, because of the
            realness –shared mutually respectfully & responsively–, not necessarily because
            of the content of the realness.
            I don't know if that makes sense.
            A simpler way to say it is: honesty uplifts (ultimately—no matter what the
            content) whereas deception, even for the best possible intentions, ultimately
            distances us and let people down.
            IMHO your content within your realness is evidently correct as far as i know.

            Thank you so much, Sumant!!!
            Uplifted!

            Biggest best wishes to you, and to all life–people,

            Jason



            ________________________________
            From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...>
            To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Sunday, December 5, 2010 1:04:11
            Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land



            Well, I am an armchair environmentalist at best, having spent most of my life in
            the Navy. Last few years I have been reading up on a lot of material on
            conservation and found that on almost all fronts, our mother Earth's environment
            is in retreat and deteriorating fast. It seems hopeless, except for the little
            lights I see in people like you all who are doing their bit. The industrial
            revolution has been a failure. Ultimately when the collapse comes, it is these
            talents and learnings which will be useful for humans to survive (read
            'collapse' by Jared Diamond). Like Fukuoka San said "The ultimate goal of
            farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human
            beings." Unless the human race mends it's ways .....
            I have been observing and video-graphing the changing seasons and scenes of
            rural areas and forest areas around my town and seeing the daily destruction
            wrought by wrong farming practices. The hills around my town are completely
            denuded and are an environmental disaster. If nothing else I am planning to make
            a documentary on the situation. From what I read (another Mr Agarwal, who
            founded the centre for science and environment) the problem is systemic. Unless
            local people are given control of their environment, all efforts at conservation
            are probably doomed to failure. All forest lands in India are government
            property.Greening the desert is a noble idea but ultimately, unless systemic
            changes are made, these efforts will not bear fruit. So what can I do? I have a
            small 4.5 acre piece of land which I am planning to use as a forest nursery for
            local endangered trees and plants. I think maybe we should all put aside about
            10% of our farmlands for forest
            trees for more reasons than one including the ones Jason has mentioned. These
            little nuclei will in future form the means for regenerating lost forests.

            Not surprisingly, my efforts at finding the list of endangered trees for this
            part of the world has borne no fruit as yet.
            I hope I don't sound too depressing.

            Warm regards,
            Sumant Joshi

            --- On Fri, 3/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:

            From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
            Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
            To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
            Date: Friday, 3 December, 2010, 2:57 PM



            ________________________________

            Dear Boovarahan Srinivasan, and BTW everyone,

            Please plant trees and tall crop species that can grow tall enough to survive

            and stand above floods and then in the dry season remain to continue to provide

            shade and protection to the soil surface.

            Friend here of many years experience Mr. Raju Titus plants Subabul (Leucaena

            leucocephala), which apparently grows very widespread around India, and which

            late Mr. Fukuoka sensei lauded when he visited Mr. Raju's farm in 1988.

            See -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala

            If you would be in Australia i would have many suitable plant species to

            recommend to you, but i don't really know India.

            Please read all the homework materials in books and blogs and so on and then;

            Please respectfully ask Mr. Raju Titus on his specific suggestions for your

            Indian farmland.

            Please see Mr. Raju's photos uploaded here in Yahoo Fukuoka_Farming photos (see

            below second link) and:

            -> http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus

            -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/photos/album/332255617/pic/list

            i commented on of the photos asking what the plant is, then i saw the older

            previous photos where Mr. Raju writes hemp on the captions, so i deleted my

            question-comment, then i searched for all the different plant species named Hemp


            from India, but didn't succeed in finding this one species in the photos by

            visual-photo recognition. i was interested to find many different prefixes

            before the name Hemp in India meaning for different species of plant all

            commonly named XXXX Hemp.

            From Raju later email (translated by Sumant) we got told that it is Sun Hemp,

            (which translates in botanical terms to Crotalaria juncea L.)

            *Sunn Hemp* (or Sun Hemp) - i wondered but don't know it visually as a plant

            species, and i know it is not Cannabis-Hemp of course :) !

            -> http://www.google.com/search?q=Sunn+hemp

            Boovarahan Srinivasan, all i've learned about this plant species really useful

            to you is that it is grows very tall like more than 2 metres (see the photos),

            and it is ideal as it is a nitrogen fixing legume species, (then that it is a

            tropical species which for my temperate farm is not here suitable rather suited

            to your farm).

            The techniques and approaches (goals) of the practitioner in that video

            completely contradict —at odds with—

            * nature and

            * with late Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature/natural farming ways (techniques which

            vary in any place in the world),

            * principles applicable globally, and

            * with the non-violent philosophy.

            Furthermore, and

            * with no-soil damage, and

            * not necessary doing any earth-moving,

            * not necessary doing any heavy machinery work and

            * not necessary using any powered machinery.

            I think you both will like to learn about this truth (read below), and that this


            cited videos techniques only make a temporary flush of fertility by tearing up

            any fertility that remains in the already damaged or depleted soil -organic

            matter & moisture- thus releasing it from latency to the first few seasons crops


            and to oxidise to the atmosphere, wash away in any floods, and blow away in any

            wind erosion.

            And, incidentally not doing any of these entirely unnecessary destructions saves


            a lot of capital and machine-rental-money, and time.

            ----------------------------------------------------------

            Unicode UTF-8 text character encoding for this message! -- please check your

            browser/email client encoding setting, and fix it to this!

            * 1975 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen (自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践?);

            Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec.,

            310pp. ISBN 978-4788776265.

            * 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy"

            translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. ISBN 978-0870406133.

            This book is out of print and is still available freely in electronic format

            from the soil and health library, see:

            -> http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html

            Scroll down to find Fukuoka Masanobu.

            Quote: "

            Appendix

            Greening the Deserts: Having distanced himself from nature, man finds it

            almost

            impossible to return to the world he formerly knew. However, the recuperative

            powers of nature are more potent and rapid than most of us suspect. The

            restoration

            of an arid desert to a rich land of fluorishing vegetation might seem

            inconceivable to

            the human mind, but at the core of the "green philosophy" is the principle that

            nature always returns to its former state.

            What I have in mind is not the creation of green oases in the deserts through

            the construction of artificial irrigation systems, but the return of entire

            deserts to

            their former state as earthly paradises. If deserts first arose when man parted

            from

            the hand of God and began to till the Garden of Eden, then nature can be made

            to

            recover naturally by applying natural farming to the deserts. I propose that

            natural

            farms be established in the deserts to green them over.

            To grasp the basic concept for designing a natural farm, one must begin by

            looking for the true image of nature. The hills, streams, grasses, and trees

            must be

            allowed to create for themselves a place on the farm. The natural farm is a

            harmonious whole arising from a combination of woods and fruit trees and

            vegetables and grains (see photographs on page 148).

            The idea should not be to build irrigation systems that carry river water to

            the

            fields and there produce only specific crops, but to allow vegetation to thrive

            by the

            riverside, to create forests there and wait for water to gradually penetrate

            deep into

            the ground through the roots of the forest trees. This principle, which I have

            tentatively called the "plant irrigation" method, is applied in Figs. API, AP2.

            For

            example, when acacias are planted every 60 feet along the side of a stream or

            river,

            the trees reach a height of 30 feet five years later, by which time the root

            system has

            spread over an area of 120 square yards. In addition to increasing the amount

            of

            humus, this absorbs and retains moisture. The net effect is to transport water

            a

            distance of 60 feet. In other words, a single tree creates the equivalent of a

            small,

            60-foot channel.

            By utilizing the principle of plant irrigation and using a river or stream as

            the

            source of water, a natural forest can be created as a "plant-irrigated" green

            belt.

            Fields and gardens can then be set up on either side of this forest to increase

            the

            vegetative cover. Later, by extending the forest, the adjoining fields can be

            expanded and the green belt widened.

            As I mentioned in the preface to this book, man today is concerned over the

            desertification of the earth. There is no question that this global loss of

            vegetation

            has its roots in the errors of farming methods that arose from the arrogance of

            the

            human intellect. I strongly believe that, rather than attempting to cultivate

            the

            deserts by building elaborate irrigation systems, it would make more sense to

            establish natural forests and farms using "plant irrigation." This would

            encourage

            the return of vegetation to the deserts with minimal human intervention.

            Many people are skeptical that seeds will grow in the deserts, but quite a few

            methods for successful seeding exist. One such method consists of enclosing the

            seeds of suitable plants in clay pellets and scattering the pellets in the

            deserts— a

            natural farming technique. This could be done, for example, by taking a mixture

            of

            the seeds of green manure trees such as acacias that grow in areas of scant

            rainfall,

            of clover, alfalfa, bur clover and other green manure plants, and of grain and

            vegetable seeds, enclosing this seed mixture in a double coating of earth and

            clay as

            pellets, and scattering the pellets by hand over the desert and savanna. The

            seeds

            within the hard pellets are protected from predation by mice and birds, and do

            not

            germinate until rain has fallen and conditions are just right. A year later,

            several of

            the plants sown will have survived, giving a clue as to how best to proceed.

            Any

            types of plant will do as long as the deserts are soon covered once again with

            vegetation. Such a method will surely bring the rains back to the desert.

            Fig. AP.2 Natural farm and green belt.

            River

            [diagram]

            "

            ----------------------------------------------------------

            * 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no

            kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編 「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin

            Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's own self-publishing-publisher-names) in

            1992 Dec., 230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.

            * 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A

            RECAPITULATION" -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned English-retranslation and

            printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN, printed


            by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a (小心舎)".

            --pages 88 to 100

            -----quote: "

            ...

            A Natural Farming Project in the Desert

            The measures for revegetating the desert are also the measures for natural

            farming, and the plans for the establishment of a natural farm can be used just

            as they are in the desert.

            The fundamental concept of a natural farm begins with intuitively grasping

            nature's original form. It's good if the original plants and features of the

            landscape of the place choose the place spontaneously.

            The ideal natural farm is a place where all varieties of plants grow in

            profusion as a harmonious whole, and among them all kinds of animals live

            together joyfully, in mutual benefit. This also can be applied to the desert.

            In the desert, there are many places with rivers and underground water. One

            method is to first revegetate the banks of the rivers and then gradually work to


            make the interior areas green. If we establish natural forests along the rivers,


            they will naturally expand. If possible, however, we should scatter every kind

            of seed over the entire area at once and bring about the revegetating of the

            desert all at once.

            The theoretical basis of revegetation from the riverbanks is the following

            "plant irrigation" method. It does not rely on running the river water through

            concrete waterways, as is the usual practice today, but encourages the water to

            follow greenbelts of plants and tries to achieve non-irrigation agriculture

            through increasing water retention.

            Water naturally moves to lover areas, is carried by the roots of plants, and

            filters toward dry areas. In the river water, reeds and cattails flourish, while


            species of Arundo will grow in clumps, protecting the banks. Pussy willows,

            purple willows, and alders will provide protection from the wind and draw water.

            Therefore, if we plant every kind of plant, starting from the area around the

            river, the underground water will filter up the roots of the plants, and

            gradually a protective forest should take shape. This is what I call "plant

            irrigation."

            For example, if you plant acacia trees twenty meters apart, in five years the

            trees will reach a height of ten meters, but the roots will have spread ten

            meters in every direction, water will infiltrate, and along with the increased

            fertility of the soil and the accumulation of humus, water retention will

            increase. Although the movement of underground water is extremely slow.

            gradually it will move from one tree to the next. and they will fill the role of


            water bearers.

            If we apply this principle as a measure for revegetating the desert, we begin by


            planting woods along the rivers in the desert. Then, at angles to the river, we

            create belts of natural forest instead of irrigation canals, and have them fill

            the role of waterways.

            In addition, in the center of these greenbelts. we will plant fruit trees and

            vegetables, create natural farms, and by creating natural farms that are the

            same as the natural ecosystem, we will at the same time be attempting to

            revegetate the desert.

            C. Creating a Natural farm (Temperate and Sub-Tropical Zones)

            When one wishes to start a farm following natural methods, the first question

            that must be dealt with is where it will be and how you will choose the place

            and live on it.

            It's fine if, like a mountain man, you go into a mountain forest and live in

            splendid isolation, but usually it is safest to make a farm at the foot of

            a mountain. If the area is slightly elevated, then in terms of climate

            as well, there are many excellent places. There you can easily obtain firewood,

            vegetables, and the other materials for satisfying the necessities of food.

            clothing, and shelter. If there is a river nearby, crops will be easier to grow,


            and you can easily establish your life there.

            No matter what the land is like, you can grow crops if you make the effort, but

            it is best if the place is rich in the bounties of nature. A place where large

            trees grow densely on the hills, the soil is deep and black or dark brown in

            color, and clean water can be obtained, and, in addition, one can enjoy natural

            beauty, is ideal. A good environment and fine scenery are essential elements for


            living an enjoyable life. both materially and spiritually.

            A natural farm must be in a place that can supply all the material necessary to

            provide food, clothing, and shelter. Therefore, you must start a comprehensive

            natural farm that includes not only fields but also the surrounding hills and

            forests. (Please compare with natural farms in the desert.)

            Natural Protective Forests

            We use the forested hills surrounding the natural farm both directly and

            indirectly, as natural protective forests for the farm and as natural sources of


            organic material.

            On a natural farm, the basic measure for carrying out complete, long-term

            no-fertilizer farming is to build deep, fertile soil. There are various methods

            for achieving this, including the following.

            (1) It is good to bury coarse organic matter deep in the ground, but this

            requires a great deal of labor, so it is better to plant a forest around the

            farm.

            (2) In the farm, plant trees and grasses with roots that will grow deep into the


            ;oil, gradually improving it.

            (3) Cause rainwater carrying nutrients from the humus in the forests on the

            slopes above the farm to flow down and enrich the farm.

            The essential thing is to maintain, close at hand, a source of humus, which is

            the basis of fertility.

            You can improve the forests on the slopes above the farm as protective forests.

            but if there are no forested hills, it is good to make new woods or bamboo

            thickets as protective forests.

            Where the protective forest is concerned, our attention is focused on creating a


            deep green, natural forest, but we will plant kinds of trees that enrich the

            soil and will plant a mixture of trees that are highly useful, trees that

            provide food for birds and animals, and those that protect natural predators.

            Raising a Protective Forest

            Generally, the soil at the summit of a hill or mountain is thin, and it easily

            dries out, leaving the hill bare at the top. In places like this, we should

            first grow trailing plants like Ixeris debilis and kudzu to halt the erosion of

            soil and then sow the seeds of pines and sawara cypress, turning it into a pine

            forest. At first, fast growing grasses such as eulalia and cogon grasses, ferns

            such as bracken and scrambling fern, and bushes such as bush clover, Eurya

            japonica and cypress will grow densely, but gradually these plants will be

            replaced, and when Gleichenia glauca, kudzu. and miscellaneous trees begin to

            grow there, the soil will become enriched.

            On the side of the hill, it's good to plant evergreens such as hinoki cypress

            and camphor, along with a mixture of other trees such as Chinese nettle tree,

            zelkova, paulownia, cherry, maple, and eucalyptus. The foot of the hill and the

            valleys are fertile, so you should plant trees such as walnuts and ginkgo among

            evergreens such as cryptomeria and oak.

            It is also good to use bamboo groves as protective forests. Bamboo grows from

            shoots in a single year, and its volume of growth is greater than that of the

            typical tree, so it is quite valuable as a source of coarse organic material

            when buried in the ground.

            Not only are the shoots of moso and other bamboos edible, but when dried, the

            plants are light and easy to carry. Moreover, because bamboo poles are hollow,

            they decompose slowly when buried and are very effective for holding water and

            air underground. In other words, bamboo is an extremely effective material for

            improving the structure of the soil.

            Windbreaks

            Trees planted as windbreaks not only are useful in preventing wind damage but

            also are important in maintaining soil fertility and improving the environment.

            Varieties that mature rapidly are cryptomeria, hinoki cypress, acacia, and

            camphor, and camellia, parasol fir, arbutus, and star anise, while slow-growing.


            are among the most commonly planted.

            Depending on the place, you may also be able to use trees such as evergreen

            oak, Ternstroemia japonica and Ilex integra.

            Making an Orchard

            It is fine if you take basically the same approach to creating the farm and

            planting trees as you would in planting trees in the forest. In other words, you


            cut trees in stages, and nothing — neither the large trunks, branches, nor the

            leaves — are taken out of the field. We line them up along the contour lines,

            leaving them covering the ground, and wait for them to decay naturally.

            The basic principle on a natural farm is to create the farm without clearing the


            land. Generally, land is cleared with a bulldozer. When this is done, the uneven


            surface of the slopes are flattened, broad roads are made. and mechanized

            agriculture is made possible. In modern orchards, bulldozer clearing has become

            the norm.

            With mechanization, it becomes easy to apply fertilizer or agricultural

            chemicals, but other than picking the fruit, this sort of heavy labor is not

            necessary with the natural farming method. Nor is there any need to clear steep

            slopes. Moreover, success is actually more likely when, from the time we begin

            making the farm, we have no money and introduce neither machines nor capital.

            The leaves and branches of trees, along with the roots, will decay in several

            years, becoming a source of organic fertilizer, and will be of use for a long

            time. as they provide nutrients for the fruit trees until they reach the same

            size. Furthermore, the organic matter will provide a covering useful in

            preventing the growth of weeds, will prevent soil loss, will stimulate an

            increase in microorganisms, and will be useful in improving and enriching the

            soil.

            Just like trees planted in a forest, the fruit trees are best planted in contour


            lines with the same space between them. If possible, you should dig holes for

            planting in the shape of octopus traps, add coarse organic matter, and then

            plant the trees on top of that.

            The reason we do not use a bulldozer when creating a natural farm is, of course,


            because of the nature of the soil and parent rock, but also, if you flatten the

            land with a bulldozer, you will scrape off the surface soil, which contains a

            large amount of organic matter that has accumulated for many years. A farm

            cleared by bulldozer and left untouched for ten years loses surface soil and its


            economic life is shortened remarkably.

            The leaves and branches of the trees that are clear-cut when the land is

            cleared. Because they will interfere with farming, are usually burned, but this

            is the same as a burnt-over field, and at a stroke, the fertility is diminished.

            Also, the roots of trees that penetrate to a great depth and in a physical sense


            make the soil difficult to work, become a source of nutrients within the soil

            and serve to carry out chelation, or making undissolved nutrients in the soil

            soluble. Consequently, if you clear land with a bulldozer, dig up the organic

            matter in the soil such as roots, and dispose of it, the natural conditions will


            undergo a violent change. Even if, after the farm is made, you dig up the

            surface of the soil and bury the same amount of coarse organic matter, you will

            have dealt the soil a blow from which it can hardly recover.

            We can safely say that with 30 cm of topsoil there are enough nutrients within

            the soil to sustain an orchard for ten years without fertilizer, and if you have


            one meter of rich earth, for approximately thirty years. If we can retain the

            rich soil of the natural forest, as it is, then no-fertilizer cultivation is

            possible.

            Also, it is easy to think that, if we plant trees without clearing the land,

            their growth will be poor, but in fact. they are not only not inferior, but it

            appears that there is a tendency for the trees to live longer.

            Making Fields

            Usually a "field" means a place devoted to growing field crops, but using the

            space between the fruit trees in an orchard and growing vegetables and other

            special crops like grass beneath the trees is also a natural form. There is no

            reason why an orchard cannot also be a field for vegetables and grain.

            Of course, if we are pressed to say, the system and methods of cultivation

            differ greatly depending on whether the orchard or field cultivation is

            predominant.

            Making a field where fruit trees are the primary crop and grains and vegetables

            are grown between the trees is almost the same as making an orchard, and it is

            not necessary to clear the land. There is no need to carefully prepare the

            ground or bury coarse organic matter.

            In the first stage of making the field, we must pay attention to preventing weed


            growth and bringing the soil to maturity, so it is good to sow the crops among

            green manure plants, buckwheat during the first summer and rape and mustard

            during the first winter. In the next year it is good to plant strong twining

            plants that reproduce well without fertilizer, such as adzuki and cowpea in

            summer and hairy vetch in winter. However, they have the disadvantage of

            covering up young fruit tree seedlings. As the field matures, you can grow a

            variety of other crops.

            Making an Exclusive Field

            It is common to make fields on hilly areas at the foot of mountains or on

            plains, but most field crops are annuals, and many are produced in a few months

            to half a year. The many vegetables that reach about one meter in height also

            have shallow roots. Because the time between sowing and harvest is short and

            several crops can be grown in one year, the surface of the ground is exposed to

            sunlight for much of the year. Therefore, we must accept the premise that there

            is much soil loss from exclusive fields on account of rain and that the soil

            easily loses its fertility and is weak during droughts and cold weather.

            When making the field, the most important concern is the prevention of soil

            erosion, and it is necessary to terrace the field to make the surface level.

            Therefore, the first step in making a field is building up earthen banks or

            making stone walls, and then making terraced fields. The success or failure of

            the field depends on the skill involved in knowing the nature of the soil and

            making banks that will not crumble or in using the stones dug up from the field

            to make stone walls.

            Whether the surface of the terraced field is level or gently sloping also has a

            great effect on growing conditions and agricultural efficiency.

            It goes without saying that the fundamental method for improving the soil of the


            field is to dig deep trenches and bury coarse organic matter in them, but

            another good method is to pile up the soil in tall ridges. In general it is

            sufficient simply to plant shade trees and trees that provide fertilizer.

            Making Paddy Fields

            At present it is easy to make paddy fields by clearing the plains with large

            machines, carrying away the rubbish, and leveling the ground. This also makes

            possible increasing the size of the fields, which will make mechanized

            agricultural even more convenient in the future.

            However, there are some disadvantages to this method, because it is a very

            coarse method of construction;

            (1) The topsoil of the paddy is of uneven depth, because of differences in the

            height of the field surface, and this results in uneven growth of crops.

            (2) Because the large, heavy machines have put pressure on the soil. it is

            compressed more than necessary. Underground water will collect and stagnate..

            it will reach an unnatural state of deoxidation, causing the roots to decay, and


            in many cases the desired result will not be achieved.

            (3) A more serious problem is that, because the ridges all become concretized.

            the microorganisms in the soil change or die, and gradually the soil dies and

            turns to stone. There is a danger of making a field of dead earth.

            Trees are the guardians of the soil in paddies, growing densely, large and

            small, on mounds in the fields. The landscape of paddies near Sukhothai,

            Thailand, is one of the finest examples in the world of the ideals of the

            natural farming method.

            Here I would like to leave the discussion of making modern paddies and conclude

            with a few words about paddy-making in ancient times.

            It would seem to be common sense to make paddy fields on level ground, but in

            ancient times it was often the case that people lived and made paddies not on

            the flat, fertile land beside large rivers, but rather in mountainous areas,

            where there was less danger of floods and strong winds. They would make paddies

            in river valleys and in terraces on the mountainsides, and devote themselves to

            farming there.

            However, it is unnecessary to go to great lengths to grow rice in paddy fields.

            It is quite possible to grow rice in dry fields watered only by the rain.

            PART 6: SOWING A VARIETY OF SEEDS IN THE DESERT TO CREATE A FOREST FOR ELEPHANTS

            You may think it reckless for me to say that we can revegetate the desert.

            Although I have confirmed my theory, unfortunately 1 have had few opportunities

            to prove it on a large scale. Recently, however, the government of India has

            asked for technical assistance in carrying out aerial seeding as a measure

            against desertification, so I have tried, in this hasty manner, to summarize my

            ideas and concrete steps for putting the theory into practice.

            To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have

            destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature,

            nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean nonintervention.

            In the case of places like the desert, which have lost their regenerative power,


            we must mix seeds and microorganisms of every variety in clay pellets and

            scatter them from the air. In India there are more than 500 varieties of trees

            that bear edible nuts and 500 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, we should

            sow among them a mixture of 500 varieties of grains, vegetables, and green

            manure, ideally on the Deccan Plateau and in the desert. My supposition is that,


            no matter how bad the conditions, there will be some seed varieties suited to

            that place that will germinate. Even though some will wither and die from

            extreme dryness and heat, if we sow various green manures, vegetables, and

            grasses along with drought and salt-resistant plants, a number of them will

            survive. If for even a short time the surface of the earth is covered with

            vegetation, its temperature will be lowered. The role of the "pilot" plants is

            to aid in creating conditions that will allow other plants to germinate.

            A second purpose in so wide a variety of plants and microorganisms is to awaken

            the sleeping earth. Among deserts, there are deserts of sand that have lost the

            ability to support life and have died, but most savannas are young clay deserts

            in which the nutrients needed by plants are only sleeping. In order to cause

            chelation, in other words, to rouse the earth and bring about the rebirth of

            life, a variety of seeds of lover plant forms and microorganisms are necessary.

            The earth will not come back to life if we only plant a number of useful trees

            in the desert. A plant cannot grow up in isolation. To grow, a hundred-meter

            tree needs enough soil for one hundred meters of roots. Also, trees of seventy,

            forth, and twenty meters are necessary. Furthermore, trees are needed to protect


            the base of the tall trees, and beneath them, undergrowth vegetation and

            microorganisms are necessary. Only with the aid of all these can a tree grow to

            a height of one hundred meters. Life does not exist in isolation, and a large

            tree is the crystallization of the cooperation of numerous living things. When a


            large forest is created, and the degree of nature, or density of vegetation, is

            high, then rain will begin to fall.

            Clouds will form over the mountains and rise up from the valleys. The principal

            actors in the forest are not just the tall trees. Ferns, moss, and fallen leaves


            all have roles to play.

            Rather than trying to secure water and cause rain to fall using human knowledge,


            we should stop ignoring the mind of nature. Then the earth will naturally be

            covered with lush green vegetation. The mind of nature is the core or heart of

            nature. If we do not know the heart of nature, the fundamental source of the

            creation of the cosmos, then no matter how much we observe the outer aspect of

            nature, the recovery of nature will be impossible.

            If we grasp the mind of nature, which is God, and live in accordance with it,

            nature will be reborn naturally, and pitiful measures, based on human knowledge,


            to prevent desertification will vanish like the dew. The workings of nature are

            governed by nature. When we consider that the interference of human knowledge

            and action is the fundamental cause of global desertification, then the only

            measure against desertification must be the abolishment of human knowledge and

            action.

            From the decision to abandon human knowledge comes the extremely simple, minimal


            human action of sowing a variety of seeds. Sowing a variety of seeds, which is

            in direct opposition to the current, scientific method of selecting and planting


            the most valuable, useful tree varieties, appears to be quite easy, but in fact

            it is exceedingly difficult because it requires a fundamental reversal in human

            values.

            In other words. it is much easier for people to choose something special from

            nature and use it for the benefit of human beings. But, humans make a grave

            error at that time. Extracting one thing from nature, in the name of development


            or of creating something new, and attributing value to it means making other

            things valueless. Making one thing useful results in abandoning other things as

            useless.

            All human economic activity is opposed to nature, and it is the way of human

            beings to plant useful trees in the desert, cut down the undergrowth, and grow

            single crops, thereby sacrificing, as "weeds," many times the achieved amount of


            vegetation. For the same reason, from the viewpoint of nature, most human

            production and efforts to protect nature are linked to the destruction of

            nature.

            People choose what to plant in the desert. Whenever they consider whether a

            plant will grow or not, whether it is useful or harmful, whether it will grow

            rapidly or slowly, they are selecting only special varieties and are discarding

            others. In other words, whenever they make a selection, half the plant varieties


            are lost. From the viewpoint of nature, the number of trees saved by humans is

            much fever than number of plants overlooked. Plant varieties decrease and become


            simplified. so that they are losing both quantity and quality. And this triggers


            desertification. For this reason, when modern farms in the desert are abandoned

            after five years, they become deserts worse than the original.

            There is no good or bad among the life forms on earth. Each has its role. is

            necessary, and has the same value. This is also the basis for sowing seeds of

            many varieties.

            My measures for countering desertification may appear childish and unscientific,


            but they are based on a philosophical view of nature that transcends science. In


            order to understand and put into practice this one simple thing, we are force to


            embrace the extremely difficult position (the revolutionary conclusion) that all


            of man's ideas and actions must be transformed. But if we can do this one thing,


            we can transform the world.

            ...

            " -- everyone please proof read this text as Jamie obtained it from his copy

            from Michiyo by scanning. I have one printed copy also and am proof reading

            Jamie's scan. Please DO NOT distribute this text privately printed by late Mr.

            Fukuoka sensei (and usually the small no. of copies where given to heads of

            state like the Indian Prime Minister or Ministers (i read somewhere)).

            -- Jamie 'souscayrous' Nicol in this group previous quoted this above quote in

            part in this group, here:

            -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5353

            Best wishes to all people,

            Jase.

            south-eastern Oz (vernacular for Australia)

            PS. This message was sent on 28 Nov. 2010 to this Yahoo group Fukuoka_farming

            but for some unexplained reason didn't get through - Dear Moderator please

            explain! So, i'm sending all these two missed backlog messages now that messages


            are getting through... .

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]






            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Boovarahan Srinivasan
            I tried to grow cowpea in my backyard. I made some seedballs with cowpea and scattered them. But none of the seeds germianted. It s raining here before and
            Message 5 of 20 , Dec 5, 2010
              I tried to grow cowpea in my backyard. I made some seedballs with cowpea and
              scattered them. But none of the seeds germianted. It's raining here before
              and after seeding and so there is no dearth of water.
              Some advise me to soak the seeds in water for 24 hours and then keep them
              wrapped in moist jute sacks so that the seeds could germinate and them plant
              them.
              Please advise.

              Boovarahan s

              On Thu, Dec 2, 2010 at 1:43 AM, injunjo <whitaker.j.alan@...> wrote:

              >
              >
              > It takes about 8 weeks for cowpeas to make.......
              >
              >
              > --- In fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>,
              > Boovarahan Srinivasan <offtown@...> wrote:
              > >
              > > Thanks for the info.
              > > Two weeks before harvesting rice , I plan to broadcast cowpea seeds and
              > hope
              > > it will survive the harvest action for rice. How long will it take to
              > > harvest cowpea ?
              > >
              > > Boovarahan S
              > >
              >
              >
              >


              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Sumant Joshi
              Dear Jason, I guess the least I can do is, encourage others who are doing something other than just talking (like me). And like you said, realness is very
              Message 6 of 20 , Dec 6, 2010
                Dear Jason,
                I guess the least I can do is, encourage others who are doing something other than just talking (like me).
                And like you said, realness is very important. It is uplifting in the sense that unless one knows what the problem is you have no clear idea of what is required to be done and whether one is fit or inclined to do what needs to be done. I am in a situation where I am still groping around in the dark to understand what it is I want to do and whether I have any kind of capacity to do it. First step was off course is to understand the situation, which is why the study and the next is to dump my job. I am zeroing in on education of our youth. Oldies like me are too dumb to change now.One of the things which put me off during my corporate stint was the lies these people instill in their people. Material goals are supposed to be the Nirvana everyone needs to aim for. So everyone consumes more and that creates jobs and that in turn increases consumption and the cycle of 'development' goes on. They don't give a damn about the poor who get the short end of the
                stick. Come to think of it, if these so called high paying jobs ceased to exist, it wouldn't matter, but if you don't look after your farmers and they vanish, you are in real trouble.
                Warm regards, 
                Sumant Joshi
                Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161

                --- On Sat, 4/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:

                From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>
                Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
                To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                Cc: "Sumant Joshi" <sumant_jo@...>
                Date: Saturday, 4 December, 2010, 8:03 PM
















                 









                Dear friend Sumant,



                Well, all too briefly, i feel uplifted by your message below, because of its

                evidently well informed realness, rather than the falsehoods of

                pollyana–optimism or doom–&–gloom–pessimism.

                Realnees uplifts when the evident future really does threaten us all or when the

                evident future is all rosy.

                Realness about the future (& the past) really does uplift, because of the

                realness –shared mutually respectfully & responsively–, not necessarily because

                of the content of the realness.

                I don't know if that makes sense.

                A simpler way to say it is: honesty uplifts (ultimately—no matter what the

                content) whereas deception, even for the best possible intentions, ultimately

                distances us and let people down.

                IMHO your content within your realness is evidently correct as far as i know.



                Thank you so much, Sumant!!!

                Uplifted!



                Biggest best wishes to you, and to all life–people,



                Jason



                ________________________________

                From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...>

                To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com

                Sent: Sunday, December 5, 2010 1:04:11

                Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land



                Well, I am an armchair environmentalist at best, having spent most of my life in

                the Navy. Last few years I have been reading up on a lot of material on

                conservation and found that on almost all fronts, our mother Earth's environment

                is in retreat and deteriorating fast. It seems hopeless, except for the little

                lights I see in people like you all who are doing their bit. The industrial

                revolution has been a failure. Ultimately when the collapse comes, it is these

                talents and learnings which will be useful for humans to survive (read

                'collapse' by Jared Diamond). Like Fukuoka San said "The ultimate goal of

                farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human

                beings." Unless the human race mends it's ways .....

                I have been observing and video-graphing the changing seasons and scenes of

                rural areas and forest areas around my town and seeing the daily destruction

                wrought by wrong farming practices. The hills around my town are completely

                denuded and are an environmental disaster. If nothing else I am planning to make

                a documentary on the situation. From what I read (another Mr Agarwal, who

                founded the centre for science and environment) the problem is systemic. Unless

                local people are given control of their environment, all efforts at conservation

                are probably doomed to failure. All forest lands in India are government

                property.Greening the desert is a noble idea but ultimately, unless systemic

                changes are made, these efforts will not bear fruit. So what can I do? I have a

                small 4.5 acre piece of land which I am planning to use as a forest nursery for

                local endangered trees and plants. I think maybe we should all put aside about

                10% of our farmlands for forest

                trees for more reasons than one including the ones Jason has mentioned. These

                little nuclei will in future form the means for regenerating lost forests.



                Not surprisingly, my efforts at finding the list of endangered trees for this

                part of the world has borne no fruit as yet.

                I hope I don't sound too depressing.



                Warm regards,

                Sumant Joshi



                --- On Fri, 3/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:



                From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>

                Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

                To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com

                Date: Friday, 3 December, 2010, 2:57 PM



                ________________________________



                Dear Boovarahan Srinivasan, and BTW everyone,



                Please plant trees and tall crop species that can grow tall enough to survive



                and stand above floods and then in the dry season remain to continue to provide



                shade and protection to the soil surface.



                Friend here of many years experience Mr. Raju Titus plants Subabul (Leucaena



                leucocephala), which apparently grows very widespread around India, and which



                late Mr. Fukuoka sensei lauded when he visited Mr. Raju's farm in 1988.



                See -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala



                If you would be in Australia i would have many suitable plant species to



                recommend to you, but i don't really know India.



                Please read all the homework materials in books and blogs and so on and then;



                Please respectfully ask Mr. Raju Titus on his specific suggestions for your



                Indian farmland.



                Please see Mr. Raju's photos uploaded here in Yahoo Fukuoka_Farming photos (see



                below second link) and:



                -> http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus



                -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/photos/album/332255617/pic/list



                i commented on of the photos asking what the plant is, then i saw the older



                previous photos where Mr. Raju writes hemp on the captions, so i deleted my



                question-comment, then i searched for all the different plant species named Hemp



                from India, but didn't succeed in finding this one species in the photos by



                visual-photo recognition. i was interested to find many different prefixes



                before the name Hemp in India meaning for different species of plant all



                commonly named XXXX Hemp.



                From Raju later email (translated by Sumant) we got told that it is Sun Hemp,



                (which translates in botanical terms to Crotalaria juncea L.)



                *Sunn Hemp* (or Sun Hemp) - i wondered but don't know it visually as a plant



                species, and i know it is not Cannabis-Hemp of course :) !



                -> http://www.google.com/search?q=Sunn+hemp



                Boovarahan Srinivasan, all i've learned about this plant species really useful



                to you is that it is grows very tall like more than 2 metres (see the photos),



                and it is ideal as it is a nitrogen fixing legume species, (then that it is a



                tropical species which for my temperate farm is not here suitable rather suited



                to your farm).



                The techniques and approaches (goals) of the practitioner in that video



                completely contradict —at odds with—



                * nature and



                * with late Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature/natural farming ways (techniques which



                vary in any place in the world),



                * principles applicable globally, and



                * with the non-violent philosophy.



                Furthermore, and



                * with no-soil damage, and



                * not necessary doing any earth-moving,



                * not necessary doing any heavy machinery work and



                * not necessary using any powered machinery.



                I think you both will like to learn about this truth (read below), and that this



                cited videos techniques only make a temporary flush of fertility by tearing up



                any fertility that remains in the already damaged or depleted soil -organic



                matter & moisture- thus releasing it from latency to the first few seasons crops



                and to oxidise to the atmosphere, wash away in any floods, and blow away in any



                wind erosion.



                And, incidentally not doing any of these entirely unnecessary destructions saves



                a lot of capital and machine-rental-money, and time.



                ----------------------------------------------------------



                Unicode UTF-8 text character encoding for this message! -- please check your



                browser/email client encoding setting, and fix it to this!



                * 1975 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen (自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践?);



                Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec.,



                310pp. ISBN 978-4788776265.



                * 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy"



                translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. ISBN 978-0870406133.



                This book is out of print and is still available freely in electronic format



                from the soil and health library, see:



                -> http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html



                Scroll down to find Fukuoka Masanobu.



                Quote: "



                Appendix



                Greening the Deserts: Having distanced himself from nature, man finds it



                almost



                impossible to return to the world he formerly knew. However, the recuperative



                powers of nature are more potent and rapid than most of us suspect. The



                restoration



                of an arid desert to a rich land of fluorishing vegetation might seem



                inconceivable to



                the human mind, but at the core of the "green philosophy" is the principle that



                nature always returns to its former state.



                What I have in mind is not the creation of green oases in the deserts through



                the construction of artificial irrigation systems, but the return of entire



                deserts to



                their former state as earthly paradises. If deserts first arose when man parted



                from



                the hand of God and began to till the Garden of Eden, then nature can be made



                to



                recover naturally by applying natural farming to the deserts. I propose that



                natural



                farms be established in the deserts to green them over.



                To grasp the basic concept for designing a natural farm, one must begin by



                looking for the true image of nature. The hills, streams, grasses, and trees



                must be



                allowed to create for themselves a place on the farm. The natural farm is a



                harmonious whole arising from a combination of woods and fruit trees and



                vegetables and grains (see photographs on page 148).



                The idea should not be to build irrigation systems that carry river water to



                the



                fields and there produce only specific crops, but to allow vegetation to thrive



                by the



                riverside, to create forests there and wait for water to gradually penetrate



                deep into



                the ground through the roots of the forest trees. This principle, which I have



                tentatively called the "plant irrigation" method, is applied in Figs. API, AP2.



                For



                example, when acacias are planted every 60 feet along the side of a stream or



                river,



                the trees reach a height of 30 feet five years later, by which time the root



                system has



                spread over an area of 120 square yards. In addition to increasing the amount



                of



                humus, this absorbs and retains moisture. The net effect is to transport water



                a



                distance of 60 feet. In other words, a single tree creates the equivalent of a



                small,



                60-foot channel.



                By utilizing the principle of plant irrigation and using a river or stream as



                the



                source of water, a natural forest can be created as a "plant-irrigated" green



                belt.



                Fields and gardens can then be set up on either side of this forest to increase



                the



                vegetative cover. Later, by extending the forest, the adjoining fields can be



                expanded and the green belt widened.



                As I mentioned in the preface to this book, man today is concerned over the



                desertification of the earth. There is no question that this global loss of



                vegetation



                has its roots in the errors of farming methods that arose from the arrogance of



                the



                human intellect. I strongly believe that, rather than attempting to cultivate



                the



                deserts by building elaborate irrigation systems, it would make more sense to



                establish natural forests and farms using "plant irrigation." This would



                encourage



                the return of vegetation to the deserts with minimal human intervention.



                Many people are skeptical that seeds will grow in the deserts, but quite a few



                methods for successful seeding exist. One such method consists of enclosing the



                seeds of suitable plants in clay pellets and scattering the pellets in the



                deserts— a



                natural farming technique. This could be done, for example, by taking a mixture



                of



                the seeds of green manure trees such as acacias that grow in areas of scant



                rainfall,



                of clover, alfalfa, bur clover and other green manure plants, and of grain and



                vegetable seeds, enclosing this seed mixture in a double coating of earth and



                clay as



                pellets, and scattering the pellets by hand over the desert and savanna. The



                seeds



                within the hard pellets are protected from predation by mice and birds, and do



                not



                germinate until rain has fallen and conditions are just right. A year later,



                several of



                the plants sown will have survived, giving a clue as to how best to proceed.



                Any



                types of plant will do as long as the deserts are soon covered once again with



                vegetation. Such a method will surely bring the rains back to the desert.



                Fig. AP.2 Natural farm and green belt.



                River



                [diagram]



                "



                ----------------------------------------------------------



                * 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no



                kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編 「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin



                Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's own self-publishing-publisher-names) in



                1992 Dec., 230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.



                * 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A



                RECAPITULATION" -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned English-retranslation and



                printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN, printed



                by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a (小心舎)".



                --pages 88 to 100



                -----quote: "



                ...



                A Natural Farming Project in the Desert



                The measures for revegetating the desert are also the measures for natural



                farming, and the plans for the establishment of a natural farm can be used just



                as they are in the desert.



                The fundamental concept of a natural farm begins with intuitively grasping



                nature's original form. It's good if the original plants and features of the



                landscape of the place choose the place spontaneously.



                The ideal natural farm is a place where all varieties of plants grow in



                profusion as a harmonious whole, and among them all kinds of animals live



                together joyfully, in mutual benefit. This also can be applied to the desert.



                In the desert, there are many places with rivers and underground water. One



                method is to first revegetate the banks of the rivers and then gradually work to



                make the interior areas green. If we establish natural forests along the rivers,



                they will naturally expand. If possible, however, we should scatter every kind



                of seed over the entire area at once and bring about the revegetating of the



                desert all at once.



                The theoretical basis of revegetation from the riverbanks is the following



                "plant irrigation" method. It does not rely on running the river water through



                concrete waterways, as is the usual practice today, but encourages the water to



                follow greenbelts of plants and tries to achieve non-irrigation agriculture



                through increasing water retention.



                Water naturally moves to lover areas, is carried by the roots of plants, and



                filters toward dry areas. In the river water, reeds and cattails flourish, while



                species of Arundo will grow in clumps, protecting the banks. Pussy willows,



                purple willows, and alders will provide protection from the wind and draw water.



                Therefore, if we plant every kind of plant, starting from the area around the



                river, the underground water will filter up the roots of the plants, and



                gradually a protective forest should take shape. This is what I call "plant



                irrigation."



                For example, if you plant acacia trees twenty meters apart, in five years the



                trees will reach a height of ten meters, but the roots will have spread ten



                meters in every direction, water will infiltrate, and along with the increased



                fertility of the soil and the accumulation of humus, water retention will



                increase. Although the movement of underground water is extremely slow.



                gradually it will move from one tree to the next. and they will fill the role of



                water bearers.



                If we apply this principle as a measure for revegetating the desert, we begin by



                planting woods along the rivers in the desert. Then, at angles to the river, we



                create belts of natural forest instead of irrigation canals, and have them fill



                the role of waterways.



                In addition, in the center of these greenbelts. we will plant fruit trees and



                vegetables, create natural farms, and by creating natural farms that are the



                same as the natural ecosystem, we will at the same time be attempting to



                revegetate the desert.



                C. Creating a Natural farm (Temperate and Sub-Tropical Zones)



                When one wishes to start a farm following natural methods, the first question



                that must be dealt with is where it will be and how you will choose the place



                and live on it.



                It's fine if, like a mountain man, you go into a mountain forest and live in



                splendid isolation, but usually it is safest to make a farm at the foot of



                a mountain. If the area is slightly elevated, then in terms of climate



                as well, there are many excellent places. There you can easily obtain firewood,



                vegetables, and the other materials for satisfying the necessities of food.



                clothing, and shelter. If there is a river nearby, crops will be easier to grow,



                and you can easily establish your life there.



                No matter what the land is like, you can grow crops if you make the effort, but



                it is best if the place is rich in the bounties of nature. A place where large



                trees grow densely on the hills, the soil is deep and black or dark brown in



                color, and clean water can be obtained, and, in addition, one can enjoy natural



                beauty, is ideal. A good environment and fine scenery are essential elements for



                living an enjoyable life. both materially and spiritually.



                A natural farm must be in a place that can supply all the material necessary to



                provide food, clothing, and shelter. Therefore, you must start a comprehensive



                natural farm that includes not only fields but also the surrounding hills and



                forests. (Please compare with natural farms in the desert.)



                Natural Protective Forests



                We use the forested hills surrounding the natural farm both directly and



                indirectly, as natural protective forests for the farm and as natural sources of



                organic material.



                On a natural farm, the basic measure for carrying out complete, long-term



                no-fertilizer farming is to build deep, fertile soil. There are various methods



                for achieving this, including the following.



                (1) It is good to bury coarse organic matter deep in the ground, but this



                requires a great deal of labor, so it is better to plant a forest around the



                farm.



                (2) In the farm, plant trees and grasses with roots that will grow deep into the



                ;oil, gradually improving it.



                (3) Cause rainwater carrying nutrients from the humus in the forests on the



                slopes above the farm to flow down and enrich the farm.



                The essential thing is to maintain, close at hand, a source of humus, which is



                the basis of fertility.



                You can improve the forests on the slopes above the farm as protective forests.



                but if there are no forested hills, it is good to make new woods or bamboo



                thickets as protective forests.



                Where the protective forest is concerned, our attention is focused on creating a



                deep green, natural forest, but we will plant kinds of trees that enrich the



                soil and will plant a mixture of trees that are highly useful, trees that



                provide food for birds and animals, and those that protect natural predators.



                Raising a Protective Forest



                Generally, the soil at the summit of a hill or mountain is thin, and it easily



                dries out, leaving the hill bare at the top. In places like this, we should



                first grow trailing plants like Ixeris debilis and kudzu to halt the erosion of



                soil and then sow the seeds of pines and sawara cypress, turning it into a pine



                forest. At first, fast growing grasses such as eulalia and cogon grasses, ferns



                such as bracken and scrambling fern, and bushes such as bush clover, Eurya



                japonica and cypress will grow densely, but gradually these plants will be



                replaced, and when Gleichenia glauca, kudzu. and miscellaneous trees begin to



                grow there, the soil will become enriched.



                On the side of the hill, it's good to plant evergreens such as hinoki cypress



                and camphor, along with a mixture of other trees such as Chinese nettle tree,



                zelkova, paulownia, cherry, maple, and eucalyptus. The foot of the hill and the



                valleys are fertile, so you should plant trees such as walnuts and ginkgo among



                evergreens such as cryptomeria and oak.



                It is also good to use bamboo groves as protective forests. Bamboo grows from



                shoots in a single year, and its volume of growth is greater than that of the



                typical tree, so it is quite valuable as a source of coarse organic material



                when buried in the ground.



                Not only are the shoots of moso and other bamboos edible, but when dried, the



                plants are light and easy to carry. Moreover, because bamboo poles are hollow,



                they decompose slowly when buried and are very effective for holding water and



                air underground. In other words, bamboo is an extremely effective material for



                improving the structure of the soil.



                Windbreaks



                Trees planted as windbreaks not only are useful in preventing wind damage but



                also are important in maintaining soil fertility and improving the environment.



                Varieties that mature rapidly are cryptomeria, hinoki cypress, acacia, and



                camphor, and camellia, parasol fir, arbutus, and star anise, while slow-growing.



                are among the most commonly planted.



                Depending on the place, you may also be able to use trees such as evergreen



                oak, Ternstroemia japonica and Ilex integra.



                Making an Orchard



                It is fine if you take basically the same approach to creating the farm and



                planting trees as you would in planting trees in the forest. In other words, you



                cut trees in stages, and nothing — neither the large trunks, branches, nor the



                leaves — are taken out of the field. We line them up along the contour lines,



                leaving them covering the ground, and wait for them to decay naturally.



                The basic principle on a natural farm is to create the farm without clearing the



                land. Generally, land is cleared with a bulldozer. When this is done, the uneven



                surface of the slopes are flattened, broad roads are made. and mechanized



                agriculture is made possible. In modern orchards, bulldozer clearing has become



                the norm.



                With mechanization, it becomes easy to apply fertilizer or agricultural



                chemicals, but other than picking the fruit, this sort of heavy labor is not



                necessary with the natural farming method. Nor is there any need to clear steep



                slopes. Moreover, success is actually more likely when, from the time we begin



                making the farm, we have no money and introduce neither machines nor capital.



                The leaves and branches of trees, along with the roots, will decay in several



                years, becoming a source of organic fertilizer, and will be of use for a long



                time. as they provide nutrients for the fruit trees until they reach the same



                size. Furthermore, the organic matter will provide a covering useful in



                preventing the growth of weeds, will prevent soil loss, will stimulate an



                increase in microorganisms, and will be useful in improving and enriching the



                soil.



                Just like trees planted in a forest, the fruit trees are best planted in contour



                lines with the same space between them. If possible, you should dig holes for



                planting in the shape of octopus traps, add coarse organic matter, and then



                plant the trees on top of that.



                The reason we do not use a bulldozer when creating a natural farm is, of course,



                because of the nature of the soil and parent rock, but also, if you flatten the



                land with a bulldozer, you will scrape off the surface soil, which contains a



                large amount of organic matter that has accumulated for many years. A farm



                cleared by bulldozer and left untouched for ten years loses surface soil and its



                economic life is shortened remarkably.



                The leaves and branches of the trees that are clear-cut when the land is



                cleared. Because they will interfere with farming, are usually burned, but this



                is the same as a burnt-over field, and at a stroke, the fertility is diminished.



                Also, the roots of trees that penetrate to a great depth and in a physical sense



                make the soil difficult to work, become a source of nutrients within the soil



                and serve to carry out chelation, or making undissolved nutrients in the soil



                soluble. Consequently, if you clear land with a bulldozer, dig up the organic



                matter in the soil such as roots, and dispose of it, the natural conditions will



                undergo a violent change. Even if, after the farm is made, you dig up the



                surface of the soil and bury the same amount of coarse organic matter, you will



                have dealt the soil a blow from which it can hardly recover.



                We can safely say that with 30 cm of topsoil there are enough nutrients within



                the soil to sustain an orchard for ten years without fertilizer, and if you have



                one meter of rich earth, for approximately thirty years. If we can retain the



                rich soil of the natural forest, as it is, then no-fertilizer cultivation is



                possible.



                Also, it is easy to think that, if we plant trees without clearing the land,



                their growth will be poor, but in fact. they are not only not inferior, but it



                appears that there is a tendency for the trees to live longer.



                Making Fields



                Usually a "field" means a place devoted to growing field crops, but using the



                space between the fruit trees in an orchard and growing vegetables and other



                special crops like grass beneath the trees is also a natural form. There is no



                reason why an orchard cannot also be a field for vegetables and grain.



                Of course, if we are pressed to say, the system and methods of cultivation



                differ greatly depending on whether the orchard or field cultivation is



                predominant.



                Making a field where fruit trees are the primary crop and grains and vegetables



                are grown between the trees is almost the same as making an orchard, and it is



                not necessary to clear the land. There is no need to carefully prepare the



                ground or bury coarse organic matter.



                In the first stage of making the field, we must pay attention to preventing weed



                growth and bringing the soil to maturity, so it is good to sow the crops among



                green manure plants, buckwheat during the first summer and rape and mustard



                during the first winter. In the next year it is good to plant strong twining



                plants that reproduce well without fertilizer, such as adzuki and cowpea in



                summer and hairy vetch in winter. However, they have the disadvantage of



                covering up young fruit tree seedlings. As the field matures, you can grow a



                variety of other crops.



                Making an Exclusive Field



                It is common to make fields on hilly areas at the foot of mountains or on



                plains, but most field crops are annuals, and many are produced in a few months



                to half a year. The many vegetables that reach about one meter in height also



                have shallow roots. Because the time between sowing and harvest is short and



                several crops can be grown in one year, the surface of the ground is exposed to



                sunlight for much of the year. Therefore, we must accept the premise that there



                is much soil loss from exclusive fields on account of rain and that the soil



                easily loses its fertility and is weak during droughts and cold weather.



                When making the field, the most important concern is the prevention of soil



                erosion, and it is necessary to terrace the field to make the surface level.



                Therefore, the first step in making a field is building up earthen banks or



                making stone walls, and then making terraced fields. The success or failure of



                the field depends on the skill involved in knowing the nature of the soil and



                making banks that will not crumble or in using the stones dug up from the field



                to make stone walls.



                Whether the surface of the terraced field is level or gently sloping also has a



                great effect on growing conditions and agricultural efficiency.



                It goes without saying that the fundamental method for improving the soil of the



                field is to dig deep trenches and bury coarse organic matter in them, but



                another good method is to pile up the soil in tall ridges. In general it is



                sufficient simply to plant shade trees and trees that provide fertilizer.



                Making Paddy Fields



                At present it is easy to make paddy fields by clearing the plains with large



                machines, carrying away the rubbish, and leveling the ground. This also makes



                possible increasing the size of the fields, which will make mechanized



                agricultural even more convenient in the future.



                However, there are some disadvantages to this method, because it is a very



                coarse method of construction;



                (1) The topsoil of the paddy is of uneven depth, because of differences in the



                height of the field surface, and this results in uneven growth of crops.



                (2) Because the large, heavy machines have put pressure on the soil. it is



                compressed more than necessary. Underground water will collect and stagnate..



                it will reach an unnatural state of deoxidation, causing the roots to decay, and



                in many cases the desired result will not be achieved.



                (3) A more serious problem is that, because the ridges all become concretized.



                the microorganisms in the soil change or die, and gradually the soil dies and



                turns to stone. There is a danger of making a field of dead earth.



                Trees are the guardians of the soil in paddies, growing densely, large and



                small, on mounds in the fields. The landscape of paddies near Sukhothai,



                Thailand, is one of the finest examples in the world of the ideals of the



                natural farming method.



                Here I would like to leave the discussion of making modern paddies and conclude



                with a few words about paddy-making in ancient times.



                It would seem to be common sense to make paddy fields on level ground, but in



                ancient times it was often the case that people lived and made paddies not on



                the flat, fertile land beside large rivers, but rather in mountainous areas,



                where there was less danger of floods and strong winds. They would make paddies



                in river valleys and in terraces on the mountainsides, and devote themselves to



                farming there.



                However, it is unnecessary to go to great lengths to grow rice in paddy fields.



                It is quite possible to grow rice in dry fields watered only by the rain.



                PART 6: SOWING A VARIETY OF SEEDS IN THE DESERT TO CREATE A FOREST FOR ELEPHANTS



                You may think it reckless for me to say that we can revegetate the desert.



                Although I have confirmed my theory, unfortunately 1 have had few opportunities



                to prove it on a large scale. Recently, however, the government of India has



                asked for technical assistance in carrying out aerial seeding as a measure



                against desertification, so I have tried, in this hasty manner, to summarize my



                ideas and concrete steps for putting the theory into practice.



                To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have



                destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature,



                nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean nonintervention.



                In the case of places like the desert, which have lost their regenerative power,



                we must mix seeds and microorganisms of every variety in clay pellets and



                scatter them from the air. In India there are more than 500 varieties of trees



                that bear edible nuts and 500 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, we should



                sow among them a mixture of 500 varieties of grains, vegetables, and green



                manure, ideally on the Deccan Plateau and in the desert. My supposition is that,



                no matter how bad the conditions, there will be some seed varieties suited to



                that place that will germinate. Even though some will wither and die from



                extreme dryness and heat, if we sow various green manures, vegetables, and



                grasses along with drought and salt-resistant plants, a number of them will



                survive. If for even a short time the surface of the earth is covered with



                vegetation, its temperature will be lowered. The role of the "pilot" plants is



                to aid in creating conditions that will allow other plants to germinate.



                A second purpose in so wide a variety of plants and microorganisms is to awaken



                the sleeping earth. Among deserts, there are deserts of sand that have lost the



                ability to support life and have died, but most savannas are young clay deserts



                in which the nutrients needed by plants are only sleeping. In order to cause



                chelation, in other words, to rouse the earth and bring about the rebirth of



                life, a variety of seeds of lover plant forms and microorganisms are necessary.



                The earth will not come back to life if we only plant a number of useful trees



                in the desert. A plant cannot grow up in isolation. To grow, a hundred-meter



                tree needs enough soil for one hundred meters of roots. Also, trees of seventy,



                forth, and twenty meters are necessary. Furthermore, trees are needed to protect



                the base of the tall trees, and beneath them, undergrowth vegetation and



                microorganisms are necessary. Only with the aid of all these can a tree grow to



                a height of one hundred meters. Life does not exist in isolation, and a large



                tree is the crystallization of the cooperation of numerous living things. When a



                large forest is created, and the degree of nature, or density of vegetation, is



                high, then rain will begin to fall.



                Clouds will form over the mountains and rise up from the valleys. The principal



                actors in the forest are not just the tall trees. Ferns, moss, and fallen leaves



                all have roles to play.



                Rather than trying to secure water and cause rain to fall using human knowledge,



                we should stop ignoring the mind of nature. Then the earth will naturally be



                covered with lush green vegetation. The mind of nature is the core or heart of



                nature. If we do not know the heart of nature, the fundamental source of the



                creation of the cosmos, then no matter how much we observe the outer aspect of



                nature, the recovery of nature will be impossible.



                If we grasp the mind of nature, which is God, and live in accordance with it,



                nature will be reborn naturally, and pitiful measures, based on human knowledge,



                to prevent desertification will vanish like the dew. The workings of nature are



                governed by nature. When we consider that the interference of human knowledge



                and action is the fundamental cause of global desertification, then the only



                measure against desertification must be the abolishment of human knowledge and



                action.



                From the decision to abandon human knowledge comes the extremely simple, minimal



                human action of sowing a variety of seeds. Sowing a variety of seeds, which is



                in direct opposition to the current, scientific method of selecting and planting



                the most valuable, useful tree varieties, appears to be quite easy, but in fact



                it is exceedingly difficult because it requires a fundamental reversal in human



                values.



                In other words. it is much easier for people to choose something special from



                nature and use it for the benefit of human beings. But, humans make a grave



                error at that time. Extracting one thing from nature, in the name of development



                or of creating something new, and attributing value to it means making other



                things valueless. Making one thing useful results in abandoning other things as



                useless.



                All human economic activity is opposed to nature, and it is the way of human



                beings to plant useful trees in the desert, cut down the undergrowth, and grow



                single crops, thereby sacrificing, as "weeds," many times the achieved amount of



                vegetation. For the same reason, from the viewpoint of nature, most human



                production and efforts to protect nature are linked to the destruction of



                nature.



                People choose what to plant in the desert. Whenever they consider whether a



                plant will grow or not, whether it is useful or harmful, whether it will grow



                rapidly or slowly, they are selecting only special varieties and are discarding



                others. In other words, whenever they make a selection, half the plant varieties



                are lost. From the viewpoint of nature, the number of trees saved by humans is



                much fever than number of plants overlooked. Plant varieties decrease and become



                simplified. so that they are losing both quantity and quality. And this triggers



                desertification. For this reason, when modern farms in the desert are abandoned



                after five years, they become deserts worse than the original.



                There is no good or bad among the life forms on earth. Each has its role. is



                necessary, and has the same value. This is also the basis for sowing seeds of



                many varieties.



                My measures for countering desertification may appear childish and unscientific,



                but they are based on a philosophical view of nature that transcends science. In



                order to understand and put into practice this one simple thing, we are force to



                embrace the extremely difficult position (the revolutionary conclusion) that all



                of man's ideas and actions must be transformed. But if we can do this one thing,



                we can transform the world.



                ...



                " -- everyone please proof read this text as Jamie obtained it from his copy



                from Michiyo by scanning. I have one printed copy also and am proof reading



                Jamie's scan. Please DO NOT distribute this text privately printed by late Mr.



                Fukuoka sensei (and usually the small no. of copies where given to heads of



                state like the Indian Prime Minister or Ministers (i read somewhere)).



                -- Jamie 'souscayrous' Nicol in this group previous quoted this above quote in



                part in this group, here:



                -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5353



                Best wishes to all people,



                Jase.



                south-eastern Oz (vernacular for Australia)



                PS. This message was sent on 28 Nov. 2010 to this Yahoo group Fukuoka_farming



                but for some unexplained reason didn't get through - Dear Moderator please



                explain! So, i'm sending all these two missed backlog messages now that messages



                are getting through... .



                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





























                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Nandan Palaparambil
                Farming gets the least attention and farm produce gets the least of the prices. IT Jobs gets heavily paid even thought it is not critical for human existance.
                Message 7 of 20 , Dec 6, 2010
                  Farming gets the least attention and farm produce gets the least of the prices. IT Jobs gets heavily paid even thought it is not critical for human existance. Only difference is more intelligent (or at least so called) control the cities and all high paid jobs and farmers really struggle. One solution for farmers is to reject all the consumer goods and live/enjoy on the land, probably a new community has to come up like that.


                  Regards,
                  Nandan

                  --- On Mon, 12/6/10, Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...> wrote:

                  From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...>
                  Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
                  To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                  Date: Monday, December 6, 2010, 8:18 PM







                   









                  Dear Jason,

                  I guess the least I can do is, encourage others who are doing something other than just talking (like me).

                  And like you said, realness is very important. It is uplifting in the sense that unless one knows what the problem is you have no clear idea of what is required to be done and whether one is fit or inclined to do what needs to be done. I am in a situation where I am still groping around in the dark to understand what it is I want to do and whether I have any kind of capacity to do it. First step was off course is to understand the situation, which is why the study and the next is to dump my job. I am zeroing in on education of our youth. Oldies like me are too dumb to change now.One of the things which put me off during my corporate stint was the lies these people instill in their people. Material goals are supposed to be the Nirvana everyone needs to aim for. So everyone consumes more and that creates jobs and that in turn increases consumption and the cycle of 'development' goes on. They don't give a damn about the poor who get the short end of the

                  stick. Come to think of it, if these so called high paying jobs ceased to exist, it wouldn't matter, but if you don't look after your farmers and they vanish, you are in real trouble.

                  Warm regards, 

                  Sumant Joshi

                  Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161



                  --- On Sat, 4/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:



                  From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>

                  Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

                  To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com

                  Cc: "Sumant Joshi" <sumant_jo@...>

                  Date: Saturday, 4 December, 2010, 8:03 PM



                   



                  Dear friend Sumant,



                  Well, all too briefly, i feel uplifted by your message below, because of its



                  evidently well informed realness, rather than the falsehoods of



                  pollyana–optimism or doom–&–gloom–pessimism.



                  Realnees uplifts when the evident future really does threaten us all or when the



                  evident future is all rosy.



                  Realness about the future (& the past) really does uplift, because of the



                  realness –shared mutually respectfully & responsively–, not necessarily because



                  of the content of the realness.



                  I don't know if that makes sense.



                  A simpler way to say it is: honesty uplifts (ultimately—no matter what the



                  content) whereas deception, even for the best possible intentions, ultimately



                  distances us and let people down.



                  IMHO your content within your realness is evidently correct as far as i know.



                  Thank you so much, Sumant!!!



                  Uplifted!



                  Biggest best wishes to you, and to all life–people,



                  Jason



                  ________________________________



                  From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...>



                  To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com



                  Sent: Sunday, December 5, 2010 1:04:11



                  Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land



                  Well, I am an armchair environmentalist at best, having spent most of my life in



                  the Navy. Last few years I have been reading up on a lot of material on



                  conservation and found that on almost all fronts, our mother Earth's environment



                  is in retreat and deteriorating fast. It seems hopeless, except for the little



                  lights I see in people like you all who are doing their bit. The industrial



                  revolution has been a failure. Ultimately when the collapse comes, it is these



                  talents and learnings which will be useful for humans to survive (read



                  'collapse' by Jared Diamond). Like Fukuoka San said "The ultimate goal of



                  farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human



                  beings." Unless the human race mends it's ways .....



                  I have been observing and video-graphing the changing seasons and scenes of



                  rural areas and forest areas around my town and seeing the daily destruction



                  wrought by wrong farming practices. The hills around my town are completely



                  denuded and are an environmental disaster. If nothing else I am planning to make



                  a documentary on the situation. From what I read (another Mr Agarwal, who



                  founded the centre for science and environment) the problem is systemic. Unless



                  local people are given control of their environment, all efforts at conservation



                  are probably doomed to failure. All forest lands in India are government



                  property.Greening the desert is a noble idea but ultimately, unless systemic



                  changes are made, these efforts will not bear fruit. So what can I do? I have a



                  small 4.5 acre piece of land which I am planning to use as a forest nursery for



                  local endangered trees and plants. I think maybe we should all put aside about



                  10% of our farmlands for forest



                  trees for more reasons than one including the ones Jason has mentioned. These



                  little nuclei will in future form the means for regenerating lost forests.



                  Not surprisingly, my efforts at finding the list of endangered trees for this



                  part of the world has borne no fruit as yet.



                  I hope I don't sound too depressing.



                  Warm regards,



                  Sumant Joshi



                  --- On Fri, 3/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:



                  From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>



                  Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land



                  To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com



                  Date: Friday, 3 December, 2010, 2:57 PM



                  ________________________________



                  Dear Boovarahan Srinivasan, and BTW everyone,



                  Please plant trees and tall crop species that can grow tall enough to survive



                  and stand above floods and then in the dry season remain to continue to provide



                  shade and protection to the soil surface.



                  Friend here of many years experience Mr. Raju Titus plants Subabul (Leucaena



                  leucocephala), which apparently grows very widespread around India, and which



                  late Mr. Fukuoka sensei lauded when he visited Mr. Raju's farm in 1988.



                  See -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala



                  If you would be in Australia i would have many suitable plant species to



                  recommend to you, but i don't really know India.



                  Please read all the homework materials in books and blogs and so on and then;



                  Please respectfully ask Mr. Raju Titus on his specific suggestions for your



                  Indian farmland.



                  Please see Mr. Raju's photos uploaded here in Yahoo Fukuoka_Farming photos (see



                  below second link) and:



                  -> http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus



                  -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/photos/album/332255617/pic/list



                  i commented on of the photos asking what the plant is, then i saw the older



                  previous photos where Mr. Raju writes hemp on the captions, so i deleted my



                  question-comment, then i searched for all the different plant species named Hemp



                  from India, but didn't succeed in finding this one species in the photos by



                  visual-photo recognition. i was interested to find many different prefixes



                  before the name Hemp in India meaning for different species of plant all



                  commonly named XXXX Hemp.



                  From Raju later email (translated by Sumant) we got told that it is Sun Hemp,



                  (which translates in botanical terms to Crotalaria juncea L.)



                  *Sunn Hemp* (or Sun Hemp) - i wondered but don't know it visually as a plant



                  species, and i know it is not Cannabis-Hemp of course :) !



                  -> http://www.google.com/search?q=Sunn+hemp



                  Boovarahan Srinivasan, all i've learned about this plant species really useful



                  to you is that it is grows very tall like more than 2 metres (see the photos),



                  and it is ideal as it is a nitrogen fixing legume species, (then that it is a



                  tropical species which for my temperate farm is not here suitable rather suited



                  to your farm).



                  The techniques and approaches (goals) of the practitioner in that video



                  completely contradict —at odds with—



                  * nature and



                  * with late Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature/natural farming ways (techniques which



                  vary in any place in the world),



                  * principles applicable globally, and



                  * with the non-violent philosophy.



                  Furthermore, and



                  * with no-soil damage, and



                  * not necessary doing any earth-moving,



                  * not necessary doing any heavy machinery work and



                  * not necessary using any powered machinery.



                  I think you both will like to learn about this truth (read below), and that this



                  cited videos techniques only make a temporary flush of fertility by tearing up



                  any fertility that remains in the already damaged or depleted soil -organic



                  matter & moisture- thus releasing it from latency to the first few seasons crops



                  and to oxidise to the atmosphere, wash away in any floods, and blow away in any



                  wind erosion.



                  And, incidentally not doing any of these entirely unnecessary destructions saves



                  a lot of capital and machine-rental-money, and time.



                  ----------------------------------------------------------



                  Unicode UTF-8 text character encoding for this message! -- please check your



                  browser/email client encoding setting, and fix it to this!



                  * 1975 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen (自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践?);



                  Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec.,



                  310pp. ISBN 978-4788776265.



                  * 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy"



                  translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. ISBN 978-0870406133.



                  This book is out of print and is still available freely in electronic format



                  from the soil and health library, see:



                  -> http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html



                  Scroll down to find Fukuoka Masanobu.



                  Quote: "



                  Appendix



                  Greening the Deserts: Having distanced himself from nature, man finds it



                  almost



                  impossible to return to the world he formerly knew. However, the recuperative



                  powers of nature are more potent and rapid than most of us suspect. The



                  restoration



                  of an arid desert to a rich land of fluorishing vegetation might seem



                  inconceivable to



                  the human mind, but at the core of the "green philosophy" is the principle that



                  nature always returns to its former state.



                  What I have in mind is not the creation of green oases in the deserts through



                  the construction of artificial irrigation systems, but the return of entire



                  deserts to



                  their former state as earthly paradises. If deserts first arose when man parted



                  from



                  the hand of God and began to till the Garden of Eden, then nature can be made



                  to



                  recover naturally by applying natural farming to the deserts. I propose that



                  natural



                  farms be established in the deserts to green them over.



                  To grasp the basic concept for designing a natural farm, one must begin by



                  looking for the true image of nature. The hills, streams, grasses, and trees



                  must be



                  allowed to create for themselves a place on the farm. The natural farm is a



                  harmonious whole arising from a combination of woods and fruit trees and



                  vegetables and grains (see photographs on page 148).



                  The idea should not be to build irrigation systems that carry river water to



                  the



                  fields and there produce only specific crops, but to allow vegetation to thrive



                  by the



                  riverside, to create forests there and wait for water to gradually penetrate



                  deep into



                  the ground through the roots of the forest trees. This principle, which I have



                  tentatively called the "plant irrigation" method, is applied in Figs. API, AP2.



                  For



                  example, when acacias are planted every 60 feet along the side of a stream or



                  river,



                  the trees reach a height of 30 feet five years later, by which time the root



                  system has



                  spread over an area of 120 square yards. In addition to increasing the amount



                  of



                  humus, this absorbs and retains moisture. The net effect is to transport water



                  a



                  distance of 60 feet. In other words, a single tree creates the equivalent of a



                  small,



                  60-foot channel.



                  By utilizing the principle of plant irrigation and using a river or stream as



                  the



                  source of water, a natural forest can be created as a "plant-irrigated" green



                  belt.



                  Fields and gardens can then be set up on either side of this forest to increase



                  the



                  vegetative cover. Later, by extending the forest, the adjoining fields can be



                  expanded and the green belt widened.



                  As I mentioned in the preface to this book, man today is concerned over the



                  desertification of the earth. There is no question that this global loss of



                  vegetation



                  has its roots in the errors of farming methods that arose from the arrogance of



                  the



                  human intellect. I strongly believe that, rather than attempting to cultivate



                  the



                  deserts by building elaborate irrigation systems, it would make more sense to



                  establish natural forests and farms using "plant irrigation." This would



                  encourage



                  the return of vegetation to the deserts with minimal human intervention.



                  Many people are skeptical that seeds will grow in the deserts, but quite a few



                  methods for successful seeding exist. One such method consists of enclosing the



                  seeds of suitable plants in clay pellets and scattering the pellets in the



                  deserts— a



                  natural farming technique. This could be done, for example, by taking a mixture



                  of



                  the seeds of green manure trees such as acacias that grow in areas of scant



                  rainfall,



                  of clover, alfalfa, bur clover and other green manure plants, and of grain and



                  vegetable seeds, enclosing this seed mixture in a double coating of earth and



                  clay as



                  pellets, and scattering the pellets by hand over the desert and savanna. The



                  seeds



                  within the hard pellets are protected from predation by mice and birds, and do



                  not



                  germinate until rain has fallen and conditions are just right. A year later,



                  several of



                  the plants sown will have survived, giving a clue as to how best to proceed.



                  Any



                  types of plant will do as long as the deserts are soon covered once again with



                  vegetation. Such a method will surely bring the rains back to the desert.



                  Fig. AP.2 Natural farm and green belt.



                  River



                  [diagram]



                  "



                  ----------------------------------------------------------



                  * 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no



                  kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編 「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin



                  Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's own self-publishing-publisher-names) in



                  1992 Dec., 230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.



                  * 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A



                  RECAPITULATION" -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned English-retranslation and



                  printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN, printed



                  by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a (小心舎)".



                  --pages 88 to 100



                  -----quote: "



                  ...



                  A Natural Farming Project in the Desert



                  The measures for revegetating the desert are also the measures for natural



                  farming, and the plans for the establishment of a natural farm can be used just



                  as they are in the desert.



                  The fundamental concept of a natural farm begins with intuitively grasping



                  nature's original form. It's good if the original plants and features of the



                  landscape of the place choose the place spontaneously.



                  The ideal natural farm is a place where all varieties of plants grow in



                  profusion as a harmonious whole, and among them all kinds of animals live



                  together joyfully, in mutual benefit. This also can be applied to the desert.



                  In the desert, there are many places with rivers and underground water. One



                  method is to first revegetate the banks of the rivers and then gradually work to



                  make the interior areas green. If we establish natural forests along the rivers,



                  they will naturally expand. If possible, however, we should scatter every kind



                  of seed over the entire area at once and bring about the revegetating of the



                  desert all at once.



                  The theoretical basis of revegetation from the riverbanks is the following



                  "plant irrigation" method. It does not rely on running the river water through



                  concrete waterways, as is the usual practice today, but encourages the water to



                  follow greenbelts of plants and tries to achieve non-irrigation agriculture



                  through increasing water retention.



                  Water naturally moves to lover areas, is carried by the roots of plants, and



                  filters toward dry areas. In the river water, reeds and cattails flourish, while



                  species of Arundo will grow in clumps, protecting the banks. Pussy willows,



                  purple willows, and alders will provide protection from the wind and draw water.



                  Therefore, if we plant every kind of plant, starting from the area around the



                  river, the underground water will filter up the roots of the plants, and



                  gradually a protective forest should take shape. This is what I call "plant



                  irrigation."



                  For example, if you plant acacia trees twenty meters apart, in five years the



                  trees will reach a height of ten meters, but the roots will have spread ten



                  meters in every direction, water will infiltrate, and along with the increased



                  fertility of the soil and the accumulation of humus, water retention will



                  increase. Although the movement of underground water is extremely slow.



                  gradually it will move from one tree to the next. and they will fill the role of



                  water bearers.



                  If we apply this principle as a measure for revegetating the desert, we begin by



                  planting woods along the rivers in the desert. Then, at angles to the river, we



                  create belts of natural forest instead of irrigation canals, and have them fill



                  the role of waterways.



                  In addition, in the center of these greenbelts. we will plant fruit trees and



                  vegetables, create natural farms, and by creating natural farms that are the



                  same as the natural ecosystem, we will at the same time be attempting to



                  revegetate the desert.



                  C. Creating a Natural farm (Temperate and Sub-Tropical Zones)



                  When one wishes to start a farm following natural methods, the first question



                  that must be dealt with is where it will be and how you will choose the place



                  and live on it.



                  It's fine if, like a mountain man, you go into a mountain forest and live in



                  splendid isolation, but usually it is safest to make a farm at the foot of



                  a mountain. If the area is slightly elevated, then in terms of climate



                  as well, there are many excellent places. There you can easily obtain firewood,



                  vegetables, and the other materials for satisfying the necessities of food.



                  clothing, and shelter. If there is a river nearby, crops will be easier to grow,



                  and you can easily establish your life there.



                  No matter what the land is like, you can grow crops if you make the effort, but



                  it is best if the place is rich in the bounties of nature. A place where large



                  trees grow densely on the hills, the soil is deep and black or dark brown in



                  color, and clean water can be obtained, and, in addition, one can enjoy natural



                  beauty, is ideal. A good environment and fine scenery are essential elements for



                  living an enjoyable life. both materially and spiritually.



                  A natural farm must be in a place that can supply all the material necessary to



                  provide food, clothing, and shelter. Therefore, you must start a comprehensive



                  natural farm that includes not only fields but also the surrounding hills and



                  forests. (Please compare with natural farms in the desert.)



                  Natural Protective Forests



                  We use the forested hills surrounding the natural farm both directly and



                  indirectly, as natural protective forests for the farm and as natural sources of



                  organic material.



                  On a natural farm, the basic measure for carrying out complete, long-term



                  no-fertilizer farming is to build deep, fertile soil. There are various methods



                  for achieving this, including the following.



                  (1) It is good to bury coarse organic matter deep in the ground, but this



                  requires a great deal of labor, so it is better to plant a forest around the



                  farm.



                  (2) In the farm, plant trees and grasses with roots that will grow deep into the



                  ;oil, gradually improving it.



                  (3) Cause rainwater carrying nutrients from the humus in the forests on the



                  slopes above the farm to flow down and enrich the farm.



                  The essential thing is to maintain, close at hand, a source of humus, which is



                  the basis of fertility.



                  You can improve the forests on the slopes above the farm as protective forests.



                  but if there are no forested hills, it is good to make new woods or bamboo



                  thickets as protective forests.



                  Where the protective forest is concerned, our attention is focused on creating a



                  deep green, natural forest, but we will plant kinds of trees that enrich the



                  soil and will plant a mixture of trees that are highly useful, trees that



                  provide food for birds and animals, and those that protect natural predators.



                  Raising a Protective Forest



                  Generally, the soil at the summit of a hill or mountain is thin, and it easily



                  dries out, leaving the hill bare at the top. In places like this, we should



                  first grow trailing plants like Ixeris debilis and kudzu to halt the erosion of



                  soil and then sow the seeds of pines and sawara cypress, turning it into a pine



                  forest. At first, fast growing grasses such as eulalia and cogon grasses, ferns



                  such as bracken and scrambling fern, and bushes such as bush clover, Eurya



                  japonica and cypress will grow densely, but gradually these plants will be



                  replaced, and when Gleichenia glauca, kudzu. and miscellaneous trees begin to



                  grow there, the soil will become enriched.



                  On the side of the hill, it's good to plant evergreens such as hinoki cypress



                  and camphor, along with a mixture of other trees such as Chinese nettle tree,



                  zelkova, paulownia, cherry, maple, and eucalyptus. The foot of the hill and the



                  valleys are fertile, so you should plant trees such as walnuts and ginkgo among



                  evergreens such as cryptomeria and oak.



                  It is also good to use bamboo groves as protective forests. Bamboo grows from



                  shoots in a single year, and its volume of growth is greater than that of the



                  typical tree, so it is quite valuable as a source of coarse organic material



                  when buried in the ground.



                  Not only are the shoots of moso and other bamboos edible, but when dried, the



                  plants are light and easy to carry. Moreover, because bamboo poles are hollow,



                  they decompose slowly when buried and are very effective for holding water and



                  air underground. In other words, bamboo is an extremely effective material for



                  improving the structure of the soil.



                  Windbreaks



                  Trees planted as windbreaks not only are useful in preventing wind damage but



                  also are important in maintaining soil fertility and improving the environment.



                  Varieties that mature rapidly are cryptomeria, hinoki cypress, acacia, and



                  camphor, and camellia, parasol fir, arbutus, and star anise, while slow-growing.



                  are among the most commonly planted.



                  Depending on the place, you may also be able to use trees such as evergreen



                  oak, Ternstroemia japonica and Ilex integra.



                  Making an Orchard



                  It is fine if you take basically the same approach to creating the farm and



                  planting trees as you would in planting trees in the forest. In other words, you



                  cut trees in stages, and nothing — neither the large trunks, branches, nor the



                  leaves — are taken out of the field. We line them up along the contour lines,



                  leaving them covering the ground, and wait for them to decay naturally.



                  The basic principle on a natural farm is to create the farm without clearing the



                  land. Generally, land is cleared with a bulldozer. When this is done, the uneven



                  surface of the slopes are flattened, broad roads are made. and mechanized



                  agriculture is made possible. In modern orchards, bulldozer clearing has become



                  the norm.



                  With mechanization, it becomes easy to apply fertilizer or agricultural



                  chemicals, but other than picking the fruit, this sort of heavy labor is not



                  necessary with the natural farming method. Nor is there any need to clear steep



                  slopes. Moreover, success is actually more likely when, from the time we begin



                  making the farm, we have no money and introduce neither machines nor capital.



                  The leaves and branches of trees, along with the roots, will decay in several



                  years, becoming a source of organic fertilizer, and will be of use for a long



                  time. as they provide nutrients for the fruit trees until they reach the same



                  size. Furthermore, the organic matter will provide a covering useful in



                  preventing the growth of weeds, will prevent soil loss, will stimulate an



                  increase in microorganisms, and will be useful in improving and enriching the



                  soil.



                  Just like trees planted in a forest, the fruit trees are best planted in contour



                  lines with the same space between them. If possible, you should dig holes for



                  planting in the shape of octopus traps, add coarse organic matter, and then



                  plant the trees on top of that.



                  The reason we do not use a bulldozer when creating a natural farm is, of course,



                  because of the nature of the soil and parent rock, but also, if you flatten the



                  land with a bulldozer, you will scrape off the surface soil, which contains a



                  large amount of organic matter that has accumulated for many years. A farm



                  cleared by bulldozer and left untouched for ten years loses surface soil and its



                  economic life is shortened remarkably.



                  The leaves and branches of the trees that are clear-cut when the land is



                  cleared. Because they will interfere with farming, are usually burned, but this



                  is the same as a burnt-over field, and at a stroke, the fertility is diminished.



                  Also, the roots of trees that penetrate to a great depth and in a physical sense



                  make the soil difficult to work, become a source of nutrients within the soil



                  and serve to carry out chelation, or making undissolved nutrients in the soil



                  soluble. Consequently, if you clear land with a bulldozer, dig up the organic



                  matter in the soil such as roots, and dispose of it, the natural conditions will



                  undergo a violent change. Even if, after the farm is made, you dig up the



                  surface of the soil and bury the same amount of coarse organic matter, you will



                  have dealt the soil a blow from which it can hardly recover.



                  We can safely say that with 30 cm of topsoil there are enough nutrients within



                  the soil to sustain an orchard for ten years without fertilizer, and if you have



                  one meter of rich earth, for approximately thirty years. If we can retain the



                  rich soil of the natural forest, as it is, then no-fertilizer cultivation is



                  possible.



                  Also, it is easy to think that, if we plant trees without clearing the land,



                  their growth will be poor, but in fact. they are not only not inferior, but it



                  appears that there is a tendency for the trees to live longer.



                  Making Fields



                  Usually a "field" means a place devoted to growing field crops, but using the



                  space between the fruit trees in an orchard and growing vegetables and other



                  special crops like grass beneath the trees is also a natural form. There is no



                  reason why an orchard cannot also be a field for vegetables and grain.



                  Of course, if we are pressed to say, the system and methods of cultivation



                  differ greatly depending on whether the orchard or field cultivation is



                  predominant.



                  Making a field where fruit trees are the primary crop and grains and vegetables



                  are grown between the trees is almost the same as making an orchard, and it is



                  not necessary to clear the land. There is no need to carefully prepare the



                  ground or bury coarse organic matter.



                  In the first stage of making the field, we must pay attention to preventing weed



                  growth and bringing the soil to maturity, so it is good to sow the crops among



                  green manure plants, buckwheat during the first summer and rape and mustard



                  during the first winter. In the next year it is good to plant strong twining



                  plants that reproduce well without fertilizer, such as adzuki and cowpea in



                  summer and hairy vetch in winter. However, they have the disadvantage of



                  covering up young fruit tree seedlings. As the field matures, you can grow a



                  variety of other crops.



                  Making an Exclusive Field



                  It is common to make fields on hilly areas at the foot of mountains or on



                  plains, but most field crops are annuals, and many are produced in a few months



                  to half a year. The many vegetables that reach about one meter in height also



                  have shallow roots. Because the time between sowing and harvest is short and



                  several crops can be grown in one year, the surface of the ground is exposed to



                  sunlight for much of the year. Therefore, we must accept the premise that there



                  is much soil loss from exclusive fields on account of rain and that the soil



                  easily loses its fertility and is weak during droughts and cold weather.



                  When making the field, the most important concern is the prevention of soil



                  erosion, and it is necessary to terrace the field to make the surface level.



                  Therefore, the first step in making a field is building up earthen banks or



                  making stone walls, and then making terraced fields. The success or failure of



                  the field depends on the skill involved in knowing the nature of the soil and



                  making banks that will not crumble or in using the stones dug up from the field



                  to make stone walls.



                  Whether the surface of the terraced field is level or gently sloping also has a



                  great effect on growing conditions and agricultural efficiency.



                  It goes without saying that the fundamental method for improving the soil of the



                  field is to dig deep trenches and bury coarse organic matter in them, but



                  another good method is to pile up the soil in tall ridges. In general it is



                  sufficient simply to plant shade trees and trees that provide fertilizer.



                  Making Paddy Fields



                  At present it is easy to make paddy fields by clearing the plains with large



                  machines, carrying away the rubbish, and leveling the ground. This also makes



                  possible increasing the size of the fields, which will make mechanized



                  agricultural even more convenient in the future.



                  However, there are some disadvantages to this method, because it is a very



                  coarse method of construction;



                  (1) The topsoil of the paddy is of uneven depth, because of differences in the



                  height of the field surface, and this results in uneven growth of crops.



                  (2) Because the large, heavy machines have put pressure on the soil. it is



                  compressed more than necessary. Underground water will collect and stagnate..



                  it will reach an unnatural state of deoxidation, causing the roots to decay, and



                  in many cases the desired result will not be achieved.



                  (3) A more serious problem is that, because the ridges all become concretized.



                  the microorganisms in the soil change or die, and gradually the soil dies and



                  turns to stone. There is a danger of making a field of dead earth.



                  Trees are the guardians of the soil in paddies, growing densely, large and



                  small, on mounds in the fields. The landscape of paddies near Sukhothai,



                  Thailand, is one of the finest examples in the world of the ideals of the



                  natural farming method.



                  Here I would like to leave the discussion of making modern paddies and conclude



                  with a few words about paddy-making in ancient times.



                  It would seem to be common sense to make paddy fields on level ground, but in



                  ancient times it was often the case that people lived and made paddies not on



                  the flat, fertile land beside large rivers, but rather in mountainous areas,



                  where there was less danger of floods and strong winds. They would make paddies



                  in river valleys and in terraces on the mountainsides, and devote themselves to



                  farming there.



                  However, it is unnecessary to go to great lengths to grow rice in paddy fields.



                  It is quite possible to grow rice in dry fields watered only by the rain.



                  PART 6: SOWING A VARIETY OF SEEDS IN THE DESERT TO CREATE A FOREST FOR ELEPHANTS



                  You may think it reckless for me to say that we can revegetate the desert.



                  Although I have confirmed my theory, unfortunately 1 have had few opportunities



                  to prove it on a large scale. Recently, however, the government of India has



                  asked for technical assistance in carrying out aerial seeding as a measure



                  against desertification, so I have tried, in this hasty manner, to summarize my



                  ideas and concrete steps for putting the theory into practice.



                  To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have



                  destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature,



                  nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean nonintervention.



                  In the case of places like the desert, which have lost their regenerative power,



                  we must mix seeds and microorganisms of every variety in clay pellets and



                  scatter them from the air. In India there are more than 500 varieties of trees



                  that bear edible nuts and 500 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, we should



                  sow among them a mixture of 500 varieties of grains, vegetables, and green



                  manure, ideally on the Deccan Plateau and in the desert. My supposition is that,



                  no matter how bad the conditions, there will be some seed varieties suited to



                  that place that will germinate. Even though some will wither and die from



                  extreme dryness and heat, if we sow various green manures, vegetables, and



                  grasses along with drought and salt-resistant plants, a number of them will



                  survive. If for even a short time the surface of the earth is covered with



                  vegetation, its temperature will be lowered. The role of the "pilot" plants is



                  to aid in creating conditions that will allow other plants to germinate.



                  A second purpose in so wide a variety of plants and microorganisms is to awaken



                  the sleeping earth. Among deserts, there are deserts of sand that have lost the



                  ability to support life and have died, but most savannas are young clay deserts



                  in which the nutrients needed by plants are only sleeping. In order to cause



                  chelation, in other words, to rouse the earth and bring about the rebirth of



                  life, a variety of seeds of lover plant forms and microorganisms are necessary.



                  The earth will not come back to life if we only plant a number of useful trees



                  in the desert. A plant cannot grow up in isolation. To grow, a hundred-meter



                  tree needs enough soil for one hundred meters of roots. Also, trees of seventy,



                  forth, and twenty meters are necessary. Furthermore, trees are needed to protect



                  the base of the tall trees, and beneath them, undergrowth vegetation and



                  microorganisms are necessary. Only with the aid of all these can a tree grow to



                  a height of one hundred meters. Life does not exist in isolation, and a large



                  tree is the crystallization of the cooperation of numerous living things. When a



                  large forest is created, and the degree of nature, or density of vegetation, is



                  high, then rain will begin to fall.



                  Clouds will form over the mountains and rise up from the valleys. The principal



                  actors in the forest are not just the tall trees. Ferns, moss, and fallen leaves



                  all have roles to play.



                  Rather than trying to secure water and cause rain to fall using human knowledge,



                  we should stop ignoring the mind of nature. Then the earth will naturally be



                  covered with lush green vegetation. The mind of nature is the core or heart of



                  nature. If we do not know the heart of nature, the fundamental source of the



                  creation of the cosmos, then no matter how much we observe the outer aspect of



                  nature, the recovery of nature will be impossible.



                  If we grasp the mind of nature, which is God, and live in accordance with it,



                  nature will be reborn naturally, and pitiful measures, based on human knowledge,



                  to prevent desertification will vanish like the dew. The workings of nature are



                  governed by nature. When we consider that the interference of human knowledge



                  and action is the fundamental cause of global desertification, then the only



                  measure against desertification must be the abolishment of human knowledge and



                  action.



                  From the decision to abandon human knowledge comes the extremely simple, minimal



                  human action of sowing a variety of seeds. Sowing a variety of seeds, which is



                  in direct opposition to the current, scientific method of selecting and planting



                  the most valuable, useful tree varieties, appears to be quite easy, but in fact



                  it is exceedingly difficult because it requires a fundamental reversal in human



                  values.



                  In other words. it is much easier for people to choose something special from



                  nature and use it for the benefit of human beings. But, humans make a grave



                  error at that time. Extracting one thing from nature, in the name of development



                  or of creating something new, and attributing value to it means making other



                  things valueless. Making one thing useful results in abandoning other things as



                  useless.



                  All human economic activity is opposed to nature, and it is the way of human



                  beings to plant useful trees in the desert, cut down the undergrowth, and grow



                  single crops, thereby sacrificing, as "weeds," many times the achieved amount of



                  vegetation. For the same reason, from the viewpoint of nature, most human



                  production and efforts to protect nature are linked to the destruction of



                  nature.



                  People choose what to plant in the desert. Whenever they consider whether a



                  plant will grow or not, whether it is useful or harmful, whether it will grow



                  rapidly or slowly, they are selecting only special varieties and are discarding



                  others. In other words, whenever they make a selection, half the plant varieties



                  are lost. From the viewpoint of nature, the number of trees saved by humans is



                  much fever than number of plants overlooked. Plant varieties decrease and become



                  simplified. so that they are losing both quantity and quality. And this triggers



                  desertification. For this reason, when modern farms in the desert are abandoned



                  after five years, they become deserts worse than the original.



                  There is no good or bad among the life forms on earth. Each has its role. is



                  necessary, and has the same value. This is also the basis for sowing seeds of



                  many varieties.



                  My measures for countering desertification may appear childish and unscientific,



                  but they are based on a philosophical view of nature that transcends science. In



                  order to understand and put into practice this one simple thing, we are force to



                  embrace the extremely difficult position (the revolutionary conclusion) that all



                  of man's ideas and actions must be transformed. But if we can do this one thing,



                  we can transform the world.



                  ...



                  " -- everyone please proof read this text as Jamie obtained it from his copy



                  from Michiyo by scanning. I have one printed copy also and am proof reading



                  Jamie's scan. Please DO NOT distribute this text privately printed by late Mr.



                  Fukuoka sensei (and usually the small no. of copies where given to heads of



                  state like the Indian Prime Minister or Ministers (i read somewhere)).



                  -- Jamie 'souscayrous' Nicol in this group previous quoted this above quote in



                  part in this group, here:



                  -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5353



                  Best wishes to all people,



                  Jase.



                  south-eastern Oz (vernacular for Australia)



                  PS. This message was sent on 28 Nov. 2010 to this Yahoo group Fukuoka_farming



                  but for some unexplained reason didn't get through - Dear Moderator please



                  explain! So, i'm sending all these two missed backlog messages now that messages



                  are getting through... .



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

























                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Sumant Joshi
                  Bingo!! Exactly my idea. I am willing to make land available for such an enterprise if I get volunteers. We need to get a new kind of community going for
                  Message 8 of 20 , Dec 7, 2010
                    Bingo!!
                    Exactly my idea. I am willing to make land available for such an enterprise if I get volunteers. We need to get a new kind of community going for something like this.

                    Warm regards, 
                    Sumant Joshi



                    --- On Tue, 7/12/10, Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...> wrote:

                    From: Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...>
                    Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
                    To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                    Date: Tuesday, 7 December, 2010, 10:37 AM
















                     









                    Farming gets the least attention and farm produce gets the least of the prices. IT Jobs gets heavily paid even thought it is not critical for human existance. Only difference is more intelligent (or at least so called) control the cities and all high paid jobs and farmers really struggle. One solution for farmers is to reject all the consumer goods and live/enjoy on the land, probably a new community has to come up like that.



                    Regards,

                    Nandan



                    --- On Mon, 12/6/10, Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...> wrote:



                    From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...>

                    Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

                    To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com

                    Date: Monday, December 6, 2010, 8:18 PM



                     



                    Dear Jason,



                    I guess the least I can do is, encourage others who are doing something other than just talking (like me).



                    And like you said, realness is very important. It is uplifting in the sense that unless one knows what the problem is you have no clear idea of what is required to be done and whether one is fit or inclined to do what needs to be done. I am in a situation where I am still groping around in the dark to understand what it is I want to do and whether I have any kind of capacity to do it. First step was off course is to understand the situation, which is why the study and the next is to dump my job. I am zeroing in on education of our youth. Oldies like me are too dumb to change now.One of the things which put me off during my corporate stint was the lies these people instill in their people. Material goals are supposed to be the Nirvana everyone needs to aim for. So everyone consumes more and that creates jobs and that in turn increases consumption and the cycle of 'development' goes on. They don't give a damn about the poor who get the short end of the



                    stick. Come to think of it, if these so called high paying jobs ceased to exist, it wouldn't matter, but if you don't look after your farmers and they vanish, you are in real trouble.



                    Warm regards, 



                    Sumant Joshi



                    Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161



                    --- On Sat, 4/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:



                    From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>



                    Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land



                    To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com



                    Cc: "Sumant Joshi" <sumant_jo@...>



                    Date: Saturday, 4 December, 2010, 8:03 PM



                     



                    Dear friend Sumant,



                    Well, all too briefly, i feel uplifted by your message below, because of its



                    evidently well informed realness, rather than the falsehoods of



                    pollyana–optimism or doom–&–gloom–pessimism.



                    Realnees uplifts when the evident future really does threaten us all or when the



                    evident future is all rosy.



                    Realness about the future (& the past) really does uplift, because of the



                    realness –shared mutually respectfully & responsively–, not necessarily because



                    of the content of the realness.



                    I don't know if that makes sense.



                    A simpler way to say it is: honesty uplifts (ultimately—no matter what the



                    content) whereas deception, even for the best possible intentions, ultimately



                    distances us and let people down.



                    IMHO your content within your realness is evidently correct as far as i know.



                    Thank you so much, Sumant!!!



                    Uplifted!



                    Biggest best wishes to you, and to all life–people,



                    Jason



                    ________________________________



                    From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...>



                    To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com



                    Sent: Sunday, December 5, 2010 1:04:11



                    Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land



                    Well, I am an armchair environmentalist at best, having spent most of my life in



                    the Navy. Last few years I have been reading up on a lot of material on



                    conservation and found that on almost all fronts, our mother Earth's environment



                    is in retreat and deteriorating fast. It seems hopeless, except for the little



                    lights I see in people like you all who are doing their bit. The industrial



                    revolution has been a failure. Ultimately when the collapse comes, it is these



                    talents and learnings which will be useful for humans to survive (read



                    'collapse' by Jared Diamond). Like Fukuoka San said "The ultimate goal of



                    farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human



                    beings." Unless the human race mends it's ways .....



                    I have been observing and video-graphing the changing seasons and scenes of



                    rural areas and forest areas around my town and seeing the daily destruction



                    wrought by wrong farming practices. The hills around my town are completely



                    denuded and are an environmental disaster. If nothing else I am planning to make



                    a documentary on the situation. From what I read (another Mr Agarwal, who



                    founded the centre for science and environment) the problem is systemic. Unless



                    local people are given control of their environment, all efforts at conservation



                    are probably doomed to failure. All forest lands in India are government



                    property.Greening the desert is a noble idea but ultimately, unless systemic



                    changes are made, these efforts will not bear fruit. So what can I do? I have a



                    small 4.5 acre piece of land which I am planning to use as a forest nursery for



                    local endangered trees and plants. I think maybe we should all put aside about



                    10% of our farmlands for forest



                    trees for more reasons than one including the ones Jason has mentioned. These



                    little nuclei will in future form the means for regenerating lost forests.



                    Not surprisingly, my efforts at finding the list of endangered trees for this



                    part of the world has borne no fruit as yet.



                    I hope I don't sound too depressing.



                    Warm regards,



                    Sumant Joshi



                    --- On Fri, 3/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...> wrote:



                    From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...>



                    Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land



                    To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com



                    Date: Friday, 3 December, 2010, 2:57 PM



                    ________________________________



                    Dear Boovarahan Srinivasan, and BTW everyone,



                    Please plant trees and tall crop species that can grow tall enough to survive



                    and stand above floods and then in the dry season remain to continue to provide



                    shade and protection to the soil surface.



                    Friend here of many years experience Mr. Raju Titus plants Subabul (Leucaena



                    leucocephala), which apparently grows very widespread around India, and which



                    late Mr. Fukuoka sensei lauded when he visited Mr. Raju's farm in 1988.



                    See -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala



                    If you would be in Australia i would have many suitable plant species to



                    recommend to you, but i don't really know India.



                    Please read all the homework materials in books and blogs and so on and then;



                    Please respectfully ask Mr. Raju Titus on his specific suggestions for your



                    Indian farmland.



                    Please see Mr. Raju's photos uploaded here in Yahoo Fukuoka_Farming photos (see



                    below second link) and:



                    -> http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus



                    -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/photos/album/332255617/pic/list



                    i commented on of the photos asking what the plant is, then i saw the older



                    previous photos where Mr. Raju writes hemp on the captions, so i deleted my



                    question-comment, then i searched for all the different plant species named Hemp



                    from India, but didn't succeed in finding this one species in the photos by



                    visual-photo recognition. i was interested to find many different prefixes



                    before the name Hemp in India meaning for different species of plant all



                    commonly named XXXX Hemp.



                    From Raju later email (translated by Sumant) we got told that it is Sun Hemp,



                    (which translates in botanical terms to Crotalaria juncea L.)



                    *Sunn Hemp* (or Sun Hemp) - i wondered but don't know it visually as a plant



                    species, and i know it is not Cannabis-Hemp of course :) !



                    -> http://www.google.com/search?q=Sunn+hemp



                    Boovarahan Srinivasan, all i've learned about this plant species really useful



                    to you is that it is grows very tall like more than 2 metres (see the photos),



                    and it is ideal as it is a nitrogen fixing legume species, (then that it is a



                    tropical species which for my temperate farm is not here suitable rather suited



                    to your farm).



                    The techniques and approaches (goals) of the practitioner in that video



                    completely contradict —at odds with—



                    * nature and



                    * with late Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature/natural farming ways (techniques which



                    vary in any place in the world),



                    * principles applicable globally, and



                    * with the non-violent philosophy.



                    Furthermore, and



                    * with no-soil damage, and



                    * not necessary doing any earth-moving,



                    * not necessary doing any heavy machinery work and



                    * not necessary using any powered machinery.



                    I think you both will like to learn about this truth (read below), and that this



                    cited videos techniques only make a temporary flush of fertility by tearing up



                    any fertility that remains in the already damaged or depleted soil -organic



                    matter & moisture- thus releasing it from latency to the first few seasons crops



                    and to oxidise to the atmosphere, wash away in any floods, and blow away in any



                    wind erosion.



                    And, incidentally not doing any of these entirely unnecessary destructions saves



                    a lot of capital and machine-rental-money, and time.



                    ----------------------------------------------------------



                    Unicode UTF-8 text character encoding for this message! -- please check your



                    browser/email client encoding setting, and fix it to this!



                    * 1975 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen (自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践?);



                    Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec.,



                    310pp. ISBN 978-4788776265.



                    * 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy"



                    translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. ISBN 978-0870406133.



                    This book is out of print and is still available freely in electronic format



                    from the soil and health library, see:



                    -> http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html



                    Scroll down to find Fukuoka Masanobu.



                    Quote: "



                    Appendix



                    Greening the Deserts: Having distanced himself from nature, man finds it



                    almost



                    impossible to return to the world he formerly knew. However, the recuperative



                    powers of nature are more potent and rapid than most of us suspect. The



                    restoration



                    of an arid desert to a rich land of fluorishing vegetation might seem



                    inconceivable to



                    the human mind, but at the core of the "green philosophy" is the principle that



                    nature always returns to its former state.



                    What I have in mind is not the creation of green oases in the deserts through



                    the construction of artificial irrigation systems, but the return of entire



                    deserts to



                    their former state as earthly paradises. If deserts first arose when man parted



                    from



                    the hand of God and began to till the Garden of Eden, then nature can be made



                    to



                    recover naturally by applying natural farming to the deserts. I propose that



                    natural



                    farms be established in the deserts to green them over.



                    To grasp the basic concept for designing a natural farm, one must begin by



                    looking for the true image of nature. The hills, streams, grasses, and trees



                    must be



                    allowed to create for themselves a place on the farm. The natural farm is a



                    harmonious whole arising from a combination of woods and fruit trees and



                    vegetables and grains (see photographs on page 148).



                    The idea should not be to build irrigation systems that carry river water to



                    the



                    fields and there produce only specific crops, but to allow vegetation to thrive



                    by the



                    riverside, to create forests there and wait for water to gradually penetrate



                    deep into



                    the ground through the roots of the forest trees. This principle, which I have



                    tentatively called the "plant irrigation" method, is applied in Figs. API, AP2.



                    For



                    example, when acacias are planted every 60 feet along the side of a stream or



                    river,



                    the trees reach a height of 30 feet five years later, by which time the root



                    system has



                    spread over an area of 120 square yards. In addition to increasing the amount



                    of



                    humus, this absorbs and retains moisture. The net effect is to transport water



                    a



                    distance of 60 feet. In other words, a single tree creates the equivalent of a



                    small,



                    60-foot channel.



                    By utilizing the principle of plant irrigation and using a river or stream as



                    the



                    source of water, a natural forest can be created as a "plant-irrigated" green



                    belt.



                    Fields and gardens can then be set up on either side of this forest to increase



                    the



                    vegetative cover. Later, by extending the forest, the adjoining fields can be



                    expanded and the green belt widened.



                    As I mentioned in the preface to this book, man today is concerned over the



                    desertification of the earth. There is no question that this global loss of



                    vegetation



                    has its roots in the errors of farming methods that arose from the arrogance of



                    the



                    human intellect. I strongly believe that, rather than attempting to cultivate



                    the



                    deserts by building elaborate irrigation systems, it would make more sense to



                    establish natural forests and farms using "plant irrigation." This would



                    encourage



                    the return of vegetation to the deserts with minimal human intervention.



                    Many people are skeptical that seeds will grow in the deserts, but quite a few



                    methods for successful seeding exist. One such method consists of enclosing the



                    seeds of suitable plants in clay pellets and scattering the pellets in the



                    deserts— a



                    natural farming technique. This could be done, for example, by taking a mixture



                    of



                    the seeds of green manure trees such as acacias that grow in areas of scant



                    rainfall,



                    of clover, alfalfa, bur clover and other green manure plants, and of grain and



                    vegetable seeds, enclosing this seed mixture in a double coating of earth and



                    clay as



                    pellets, and scattering the pellets by hand over the desert and savanna. The



                    seeds



                    within the hard pellets are protected from predation by mice and birds, and do



                    not



                    germinate until rain has fallen and conditions are just right. A year later,



                    several of



                    the plants sown will have survived, giving a clue as to how best to proceed.



                    Any



                    types of plant will do as long as the deserts are soon covered once again with



                    vegetation. Such a method will surely bring the rains back to the desert.



                    Fig. AP.2 Natural farm and green belt.



                    River



                    [diagram]



                    "



                    ----------------------------------------------------------



                    * 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no



                    kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編 「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin



                    Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's own self-publishing-publisher-names) in



                    1992 Dec., 230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.



                    * 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A



                    RECAPITULATION" -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned English-retranslation and



                    printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN, printed



                    by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a (小心舎)".



                    --pages 88 to 100



                    -----quote: "



                    ...



                    A Natural Farming Project in the Desert



                    The measures for revegetating the desert are also the measures for natural



                    farming, and the plans for the establishment of a natural farm can be used just



                    as they are in the desert.



                    The fundamental concept of a natural farm begins with intuitively grasping



                    nature's original form. It's good if the original plants and features of the



                    landscape of the place choose the place spontaneously.



                    The ideal natural farm is a place where all varieties of plants grow in



                    profusion as a harmonious whole, and among them all kinds of animals live



                    together joyfully, in mutual benefit. This also can be applied to the desert.



                    In the desert, there are many places with rivers and underground water. One



                    method is to first revegetate the banks of the rivers and then gradually work to



                    make the interior areas green. If we establish natural forests along the rivers,



                    they will naturally expand. If possible, however, we should scatter every kind



                    of seed over the entire area at once and bring about the revegetating of the



                    desert all at once.



                    The theoretical basis of revegetation from the riverbanks is the following



                    "plant irrigation" method. It does not rely on running the river water through



                    concrete waterways, as is the usual practice today, but encourages the water to



                    follow greenbelts of plants and tries to achieve non-irrigation agriculture



                    through increasing water retention.



                    Water naturally moves to lover areas, is carried by the roots of plants, and



                    filters toward dry areas. In the river water, reeds and cattails flourish, while



                    species of Arundo will grow in clumps, protecting the banks. Pussy willows,



                    purple willows, and alders will provide protection from the wind and draw water.



                    Therefore, if we plant every kind of plant, starting from the area around the



                    river, the underground water will filter up the roots of the plants, and



                    gradually a protective forest should take shape. This is what I call "plant



                    irrigation."



                    For example, if you plant acacia trees twenty meters apart, in five years the



                    trees will reach a height of ten meters, but the roots will have spread ten



                    meters in every direction, water will infiltrate, and along with the increased



                    fertility of the soil and the accumulation of humus, water retention will



                    increase. Although the movement of underground water is extremely slow.



                    gradually it will move from one tree to the next. and they will fill the role of



                    water bearers.



                    If we apply this principle as a measure for revegetating the desert, we begin by



                    planting woods along the rivers in the desert. Then, at angles to the river, we



                    create belts of natural forest instead of irrigation canals, and have them fill



                    the role of waterways.



                    In addition, in the center of these greenbelts. we will plant fruit trees and



                    vegetables, create natural farms, and by creating natural farms that are the



                    same as the natural ecosystem, we will at the same time be attempting to



                    revegetate the desert.



                    C. Creating a Natural farm (Temperate and Sub-Tropical Zones)



                    When one wishes to start a farm following natural methods, the first question



                    that must be dealt with is where it will be and how you will choose the place



                    and live on it.



                    It's fine if, like a mountain man, you go into a mountain forest and live in



                    splendid isolation, but usually it is safest to make a farm at the foot of



                    a mountain. If the area is slightly elevated, then in terms of climate



                    as well, there are many excellent places. There you can easily obtain firewood,



                    vegetables, and the other materials for satisfying the necessities of food.



                    clothing, and shelter. If there is a river nearby, crops will be easier to grow,



                    and you can easily establish your life there.



                    No matter what the land is like, you can grow crops if you make the effort, but



                    it is best if the place is rich in the bounties of nature. A place where large



                    trees grow densely on the hills, the soil is deep and black or dark brown in



                    color, and clean water can be obtained, and, in addition, one can enjoy natural



                    beauty, is ideal. A good environment and fine scenery are essential elements for



                    living an enjoyable life. both materially and spiritually.



                    A natural farm must be in a place that can supply all the material necessary to



                    provide food, clothing, and shelter. Therefore, you must start a comprehensive



                    natural farm that includes not only fields but also the surrounding hills and



                    forests. (Please compare with natural farms in the desert.)



                    Natural Protective Forests



                    We use the forested hills surrounding the natural farm both directly and



                    indirectly, as natural protective forests for the farm and as natural sources of



                    organic material.



                    On a natural farm, the basic measure for carrying out complete, long-term



                    no-fertilizer farming is to build deep, fertile soil. There are various methods



                    for achieving this, including the following.



                    (1) It is good to bury coarse organic matter deep in the ground, but this



                    requires a great deal of labor, so it is better to plant a forest around the



                    farm.



                    (2) In the farm, plant trees and grasses with roots that will grow deep into the



                    ;oil, gradually improving it.



                    (3) Cause rainwater carrying nutrients from the humus in the forests on the



                    slopes above the farm to flow down and enrich the farm.



                    The essential thing is to maintain, close at hand, a source of humus, which is



                    the basis of fertility.



                    You can improve the forests on the slopes above the farm as protective forests.



                    but if there are no forested hills, it is good to make new woods or bamboo



                    thickets as protective forests.



                    Where the protective forest is concerned, our attention is focused on creating a



                    deep green, natural forest, but we will plant kinds of trees that enrich the



                    soil and will plant a mixture of trees that are highly useful, trees that



                    provide food for birds and animals, and those that protect natural predators.



                    Raising a Protective Forest



                    Generally, the soil at the summit of a hill or mountain is thin, and it easily



                    dries out, leaving the hill bare at the top. In places like this, we should



                    first grow trailing plants like Ixeris debilis and kudzu to halt the erosion of



                    soil and then sow the seeds of pines and sawara cypress, turning it into a pine



                    forest. At first, fast growing grasses such as eulalia and cogon grasses, ferns



                    such as bracken and scrambling fern, and bushes such as bush clover, Eurya



                    japonica and cypress will grow densely, but gradually these plants will be



                    replaced, and when Gleichenia glauca, kudzu. and miscellaneous trees begin to



                    grow there, the soil will become enriched.



                    On the side of the hill, it's good to plant evergreens such as hinoki cypress



                    and camphor, along with a mixture of other trees such as Chinese nettle tree,



                    zelkova, paulownia, cherry, maple, and eucalyptus. The foot of the hill and the



                    valleys are fertile, so you should plant trees such as walnuts and ginkgo among



                    evergreens such as cryptomeria and oak.



                    It is also good to use bamboo groves as protective forests. Bamboo grows from



                    shoots in a single year, and its volume of growth is greater than that of the



                    typical tree, so it is quite valuable as a source of coarse organic material



                    when buried in the ground.



                    Not only are the shoots of moso and other bamboos edible, but when dried, the



                    plants are light and easy to carry. Moreover, because bamboo poles are hollow,



                    they decompose slowly when buried and are very effective for holding water and



                    air underground. In other words, bamboo is an extremely effective material for



                    improving the structure of the soil.



                    Windbreaks



                    Trees planted as windbreaks not only are useful in preventing wind damage but



                    also are important in maintaining soil fertility and improving the environment.



                    Varieties that mature rapidly are cryptomeria, hinoki cypress, acacia, and



                    camphor, and camellia, parasol fir, arbutus, and star anise, while slow-growing.



                    are among the most commonly planted.



                    Depending on the place, you may also be able to use trees such as evergreen



                    oak, Ternstroemia japonica and Ilex integra.



                    Making an Orchard



                    It is fine if you take basically the same approach to creating the farm and



                    planting trees as you would in planting trees in the forest. In other words, you



                    cut trees in stages, and nothing — neither the large trunks, branches, nor the



                    leaves — are taken out of the field. We line them up along the contour lines,



                    leaving them covering the ground, and wait for them to decay naturally.



                    The basic principle on a natural farm is to create the farm without clearing the



                    land. Generally, land is cleared with a bulldozer. When this is done, the uneven



                    surface of the slopes are flattened, broad roads are made. and mechanized



                    agriculture is made possible. In modern orchards, bulldozer clearing has become



                    the norm.



                    With mechanization, it becomes easy to apply fertilizer or agricultural



                    chemicals, but other than picking the fruit, this sort of heavy labor is not



                    necessary with the natural farming method. Nor is there any need to clear steep



                    slopes. Moreover, success is actually more likely when, from the time we begin



                    making the farm, we have no money and introduce neither machines nor capital.



                    The leaves and branches of trees, along with the roots, will decay in several



                    years, becoming a source of organic fertilizer, and will be of use for a long



                    time. as they provide nutrients for the fruit trees until they reach the same



                    size. Furthermore, the organic matter will provide a covering useful in



                    preventing the growth of weeds, will prevent soil loss, will stimulate an



                    increase in microorganisms, and will be useful in improving and enriching the



                    soil.



                    Just like trees planted in a forest, the fruit trees are best planted in contour



                    lines with the same space between them. If possible, you should dig holes for



                    planting in the shape of octopus traps, add coarse organic matter, and then



                    plant the trees on top of that.



                    The reason we do not use a bulldozer when creating a natural farm is, of course,



                    because of the nature of the soil and parent rock, but also, if you flatten the



                    land with a bulldozer, you will scrape off the surface soil, which contains a



                    large amount of organic matter that has accumulated for many years. A farm



                    cleared by bulldozer and left untouched for ten years loses surface soil and its



                    economic life is shortened remarkably.



                    The leaves and branches of the trees that are clear-cut when the land is



                    cleared. Because they will interfere with farming, are usually burned, but this



                    is the same as a burnt-over field, and at a stroke, the fertility is diminished.



                    Also, the roots of trees that penetrate to a great depth and in a physical sense



                    make the soil difficult to work, become a source of nutrients within the soil



                    and serve to carry out chelation, or making undissolved nutrients in the soil



                    soluble. Consequently, if you clear land with a bulldozer, dig up the organic



                    matter in the soil such as roots, and dispose of it, the natural conditions will



                    undergo a violent change. Even if, after the farm is made, you dig up the



                    surface of the soil and bury the same amount of coarse organic matter, you will



                    have dealt the soil a blow from which it can hardly recover.



                    We can safely say that with 30 cm of topsoil there are enough nutrients within



                    the soil to sustain an orchard for ten years without fertilizer, and if you have



                    one meter of rich earth, for approximately thirty years. If we can retain the



                    rich soil of the natural forest, as it is, then no-fertilizer cultivation is



                    possible.



                    Also, it is easy to think that, if we plant trees without clearing the land,



                    their growth will be poor, but in fact. they are not only not inferior, but it



                    appears that there is a tendency for the trees to live longer.



                    Making Fields



                    Usually a "field" means a place devoted to growing field crops, but using the



                    space between the fruit trees in an orchard and growing vegetables and other



                    special crops like grass beneath the trees is also a natural form. There is no



                    reason why an orchard cannot also be a field for vegetables and grain.



                    Of course, if we are pressed to say, the system and methods of cultivation



                    differ greatly depending on whether the orchard or field cultivation is



                    predominant.



                    Making a field where fruit trees are the primary crop and grains and vegetables



                    are grown between the trees is almost the same as making an orchard, and it is



                    not necessary to clear the land. There is no need to carefully prepare the



                    ground or bury coarse organic matter.



                    In the first stage of making the field, we must pay attention to preventing weed



                    growth and bringing the soil to maturity, so it is good to sow the crops among



                    green manure plants, buckwheat during the first summer and rape and mustard



                    during the first winter. In the next year it is good to plant strong twining



                    plants that reproduce well without fertilizer, such as adzuki and cowpea in



                    summer and hairy vetch in winter. However, they have the disadvantage of



                    covering up young fruit tree seedlings. As the field matures, you can grow a



                    variety of other crops.



                    Making an Exclusive Field



                    It is common to make fields on hilly areas at the foot of mountains or on



                    plains, but most field crops are annuals, and many are produced in a few months



                    to half a year. The many vegetables that reach about one meter in height also



                    have shallow roots. Because the time between sowing and harvest is short and



                    several crops can be grown in one year, the surface of the ground is exposed to



                    sunlight for much of the year. Therefore, we must accept the premise that there



                    is much soil loss from exclusive fields on account of rain and that the soil



                    easily loses its fertility and is weak during droughts and cold weather.



                    When making the field, the most important concern is the prevention of soil



                    erosion, and it is necessary to terrace the field to make the surface level.



                    Therefore, the first step in making a field is building up earthen banks or



                    making stone walls, and then making terraced fields. The success or failure of



                    the field depends on the skill involved in knowing the nature of the soil and



                    making banks that will not crumble or in using the stones dug up from the field



                    to make stone walls.



                    Whether the surface of the terraced field is level or gently sloping also has a



                    great effect on growing conditions and agricultural efficiency.



                    It goes without saying that the fundamental method for improving the soil of the



                    field is to dig deep trenches and bury coarse organic matter in them, but



                    another good method is to pile up the soil in tall ridges. In general it is



                    sufficient simply to plant shade trees and trees that provide fertilizer.



                    Making Paddy Fields



                    At present it is easy to make paddy fields by clearing the plains with large



                    machines, carrying away the rubbish, and leveling the ground. This also makes



                    possible increasing the size of the fields, which will make mechanized



                    agricultural even more convenient in the future.



                    However, there are some disadvantages to this method, because it is a very



                    coarse method of construction;



                    (1) The topsoil of the paddy is of uneven depth, because of differences in the



                    height of the field surface, and this results in uneven growth of crops.



                    (2) Because the large, heavy machines have put pressure on the soil. it is



                    compressed more than necessary. Underground water will collect and stagnate..



                    it will reach an unnatural state of deoxidation, causing the roots to decay, and



                    in many cases the desired result will not be achieved.



                    (3) A more serious problem is that, because the ridges all become concretized.



                    the microorganisms in the soil change or die, and gradually the soil dies and



                    turns to stone. There is a danger of making a field of dead earth.



                    Trees are the guardians of the soil in paddies, growing densely, large and



                    small, on mounds in the fields. The landscape of paddies near Sukhothai,



                    Thailand, is one of the finest examples in the world of the ideals of the



                    natural farming method.



                    Here I would like to leave the discussion of making modern paddies and conclude



                    with a few words about paddy-making in ancient times.



                    It would seem to be common sense to make paddy fields on level ground, but in



                    ancient times it was often the case that people lived and made paddies not on



                    the flat, fertile land beside large rivers, but rather in mountainous areas,



                    where there was less danger of floods and strong winds. They would make paddies



                    in river valleys and in terraces on the mountainsides, and devote themselves to



                    farming there.



                    However, it is unnecessary to go to great lengths to grow rice in paddy fields.



                    It is quite possible to grow rice in dry fields watered only by the rain.



                    PART 6: SOWING A VARIETY OF SEEDS IN THE DESERT TO CREATE A FOREST FOR ELEPHANTS



                    You may think it reckless for me to say that we can revegetate the desert.



                    Although I have confirmed my theory, unfortunately 1 have had few opportunities



                    to prove it on a large scale. Recently, however, the government of India has



                    asked for technical assistance in carrying out aerial seeding as a measure



                    against desertification, so I have tried, in this hasty manner, to summarize my



                    ideas and concrete steps for putting the theory into practice.



                    To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have



                    destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature,



                    nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean nonintervention.



                    In the case of places like the desert, which have lost their regenerative power,



                    we must mix seeds and microorganisms of every variety in clay pellets and



                    scatter them from the air. In India there are more than 500 varieties of trees



                    that bear edible nuts and 500 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, we should



                    sow among them a mixture of 500 varieties of grains, vegetables, and green



                    manure, ideally on the Deccan Plateau and in the desert. My supposition is that,



                    no matter how bad the conditions, there will be some seed varieties suited to



                    that place that will germinate. Even though some will wither and die from



                    extreme dryness and heat, if we sow various green manures, vegetables, and



                    grasses along with drought and salt-resistant plants, a number of them will



                    survive. If for even a short time the surface of the earth is covered with



                    vegetation, its temperature will be lowered. The role of the "pilot" plants is



                    to aid in creating conditions that will allow other plants to germinate.



                    A second purpose in so wide a variety of plants and microorganisms is to awaken



                    the sleeping earth. Among deserts, there are deserts of sand that have lost the



                    ability to support life and have died, but most savannas are young clay deserts



                    in which the nutrients needed by plants are only sleeping. In order to cause



                    chelation, in other words, to rouse the earth and bring about the rebirth of



                    life, a variety of seeds of lover plant forms and microorganisms are necessary.



                    The earth will not come back to life if we only plant a number of useful trees



                    in the desert. A plant cannot grow up in isolation. To grow, a hundred-meter



                    tree needs enough soil for one hundred meters of roots. Also, trees of seventy,



                    forth, and twenty meters are necessary. Furthermore, trees are needed to protect



                    the base of the tall trees, and beneath them, undergrowth vegetation and



                    microorganisms are necessary. Only with the aid of all these can a tree grow to



                    a height of one hundred meters. Life does not exist in isolation, and a large



                    tree is the crystallization of the cooperation of numerous living things. When a



                    large forest is created, and the degree of nature, or density of vegetation, is



                    high, then rain will begin to fall.



                    Clouds will form over the mountains and rise up from the valleys. The principal



                    actors in the forest are not just the tall trees. Ferns, moss, and fallen leaves



                    all have roles to play.



                    Rather than trying to secure water and cause rain to fall using human knowledge,



                    we should stop ignoring the mind of nature. Then the earth will naturally be



                    covered with lush green vegetation. The mind of nature is the core or heart of



                    nature. If we do not know the heart of nature, the fundamental source of the



                    creation of the cosmos, then no matter how much we observe the outer aspect of



                    nature, the recovery of nature will be impossible.



                    If we grasp the mind of nature, which is God, and live in accordance with it,



                    nature will be reborn naturally, and pitiful measures, based on human knowledge,



                    to prevent desertification will vanish like the dew. The workings of nature are



                    governed by nature. When we consider that the interference of human knowledge



                    and action is the fundamental cause of global desertification, then the only



                    measure against desertification must be the abolishment of human knowledge and



                    action.



                    From the decision to abandon human knowledge comes the extremely simple, minimal



                    human action of sowing a variety of seeds. Sowing a variety of seeds, which is



                    in direct opposition to the current, scientific method of selecting and planting



                    the most valuable, useful tree varieties, appears to be quite easy, but in fact



                    it is exceedingly difficult because it requires a fundamental reversal in human



                    values.



                    In other words. it is much easier for people to choose something special from



                    nature and use it for the benefit of human beings. But, humans make a grave



                    error at that time. Extracting one thing from nature, in the name of development



                    or of creating something new, and attributing value to it means making other



                    things valueless. Making one thing useful results in abandoning other things as



                    useless.



                    All human economic activity is opposed to nature, and it is the way of human



                    beings to plant useful trees in the desert, cut down the undergrowth, and grow



                    single crops, thereby sacrificing, as "weeds," many times the achieved amount of



                    vegetation. For the same reason, from the viewpoint of nature, most human



                    production and efforts to protect nature are linked to the destruction of



                    nature.



                    People choose what to plant in the desert. Whenever they consider whether a



                    plant will grow or not, whether it is useful or harmful, whether it will grow



                    rapidly or slowly, they are selecting only special varieties and are discarding



                    others. In other words, whenever they make a selection, half the plant varieties



                    are lost. From the viewpoint of nature, the number of trees saved by humans is



                    much fever than number of plants overlooked. Plant varieties decrease and become



                    simplified. so that they are losing both quantity and quality. And this triggers



                    desertification. For this reason, when modern farms in the desert are abandoned



                    after five years, they become deserts worse than the original.



                    There is no good or bad among the life forms on earth. Each has its role. is



                    necessary, and has the same value. This is also the basis for sowing seeds of



                    many varieties.



                    My measures for countering desertification may appear childish and unscientific,



                    but they are based on a philosophical view of nature that transcends science. In



                    order to understand and put into practice this one simple thing, we are force to



                    embrace the extremely difficult position (the revolutionary conclusion) that all



                    of man's ideas and actions must be transformed. But if we can do this one thing,



                    we can transform the world.



                    ...



                    " -- everyone please proof read this text as Jamie obtained it from his copy



                    from Michiyo by scanning. I have one printed copy also and am proof reading



                    Jamie's scan. Please DO NOT distribute this text privately printed by late Mr.



                    Fukuoka sensei (and usually the small no. of copies where given to heads of



                    state like the Indian Prime Minister or Ministers (i read somewhere)).



                    -- Jamie 'souscayrous' Nicol in this group previous quoted this above quote in



                    part in this group, here:



                    -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5353



                    Best wishes to all people,



                    Jase.



                    south-eastern Oz (vernacular for Australia)



                    PS. This message was sent on 28 Nov. 2010 to this Yahoo group Fukuoka_farming



                    but for some unexplained reason didn't get through - Dear Moderator please



                    explain! So, i'm sending all these two missed backlog messages now that messages



                    are getting through... .



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





























                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Raju Titus
                    Dear Nandan, When i was new in N.F wanted more and more money from farm but failed. Than i started growing in small land not more than one eked with fruit
                    Message 9 of 20 , Dec 7, 2010
                      Dear Nandan,
                      When i was new in N.F wanted more and more money from farm but failed. Than
                      i started growing in small land not more than one eked with fruit
                      trees,grain,vegetables etc.for our self and given rest to to rest of the
                      land. This land is occupied with trees and giving me lots of money. Now
                      people saying that if all started doing this than who will feed people those
                      not having land.
                      thanks
                      Raju

                      On Tue, Dec 7, 2010 at 10:37 AM, Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...
                      > wrote:

                      >
                      >
                      > Farming gets the least attention and farm produce gets the least of the
                      > prices. IT Jobs gets heavily paid even thought it is not critical for human
                      > existance. Only difference is more intelligent (or at least so called)
                      > control the cities and all high paid jobs and farmers really struggle. One
                      > solution for farmers is to reject all the consumer goods and live/enjoy on
                      > the land, probably a new community has to come up like that.
                      >
                      > Regards,
                      > Nandan
                      >
                      >
                      > --- On Mon, 12/6/10, Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...<sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>
                      > wrote:
                      >
                      > From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@... <sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>
                      > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
                      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>
                      > Date: Monday, December 6, 2010, 8:18 PM
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Dear Jason,
                      >
                      > I guess the least I can do is, encourage others who are doing something
                      > other than just talking (like me).
                      >
                      > And like you said, realness is very important. It is uplifting in the sense
                      > that unless one knows what the problem is you have no clear idea of what is
                      > required to be done and whether one is fit or inclined to do what needs to
                      > be done. I am in a situation where I am still groping around in the dark to
                      > understand what it is I want to do and whether I have any kind of capacity
                      > to do it. First step was off course is to understand the situation, which is
                      > why the study and the next is to dump my job. I am zeroing in on education
                      > of our youth. Oldies like me are too dumb to change now.One of the things
                      > which put me off during my corporate stint was the lies these people instill
                      > in their people. Material goals are supposed to be the Nirvana everyone
                      > needs to aim for. So everyone consumes more and that creates jobs and that
                      > in turn increases consumption and the cycle of 'development' goes on. They
                      > don't give a damn about the poor who get the short end of the
                      >
                      > stick. Come to think of it, if these so called high paying jobs ceased to
                      > exist, it wouldn't matter, but if you don't look after your farmers and they
                      > vanish, you are in real trouble.
                      >
                      > Warm regards,
                      >
                      > Sumant Joshi
                      >
                      > Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161
                      >
                      > --- On Sat, 4/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...<macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>>
                      > wrote:
                      >
                      > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@... <macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>
                      > >
                      >
                      > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
                      >
                      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>
                      >
                      > Cc: "Sumant Joshi" <sumant_jo@... <sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>
                      >
                      > Date: Saturday, 4 December, 2010, 8:03 PM
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Dear friend Sumant,
                      >
                      > Well, all too briefly, i feel uplifted by your message below, because of
                      > its
                      >
                      > evidently well informed realness, rather than the falsehoods of
                      >
                      > pollyana–optimism or doom–&–gloom–pessimism.
                      >
                      > Realnees uplifts when the evident future really does threaten us all or
                      > when the
                      >
                      > evident future is all rosy.
                      >
                      > Realness about the future (& the past) really does uplift, because of the
                      >
                      > realness –shared mutually respectfully & responsively–, not necessarily
                      > because
                      >
                      > of the content of the realness.
                      >
                      > I don't know if that makes sense.
                      >
                      > A simpler way to say it is: honesty uplifts (ultimately—no matter what the
                      >
                      > content) whereas deception, even for the best possible intentions,
                      > ultimately
                      >
                      > distances us and let people down.
                      >
                      > IMHO your content within your realness is evidently correct as far as i
                      > know.
                      >
                      > Thank you so much, Sumant!!!
                      >
                      > Uplifted!
                      >
                      > Biggest best wishes to you, and to all life–people,
                      >
                      > Jason
                      >
                      > ________________________________
                      >
                      > From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@... <sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>
                      >
                      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>
                      >
                      > Sent: Sunday, December 5, 2010 1:04:11
                      >
                      > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
                      >
                      > Well, I am an armchair environmentalist at best, having spent most of my
                      > life in
                      >
                      > the Navy. Last few years I have been reading up on a lot of material on
                      >
                      > conservation and found that on almost all fronts, our mother Earth's
                      > environment
                      >
                      > is in retreat and deteriorating fast. It seems hopeless, except for the
                      > little
                      >
                      > lights I see in people like you all who are doing their bit. The industrial
                      >
                      >
                      > revolution has been a failure. Ultimately when the collapse comes, it is
                      > these
                      >
                      > talents and learnings which will be useful for humans to survive (read
                      >
                      > 'collapse' by Jared Diamond). Like Fukuoka San said "The ultimate goal of
                      >
                      > farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of
                      > human
                      >
                      > beings." Unless the human race mends it's ways .....
                      >
                      > I have been observing and video-graphing the changing seasons and scenes of
                      >
                      >
                      > rural areas and forest areas around my town and seeing the daily
                      > destruction
                      >
                      > wrought by wrong farming practices. The hills around my town are completely
                      >
                      >
                      > denuded and are an environmental disaster. If nothing else I am planning to
                      > make
                      >
                      > a documentary on the situation. From what I read (another Mr Agarwal, who
                      >
                      > founded the centre for science and environment) the problem is systemic.
                      > Unless
                      >
                      > local people are given control of their environment, all efforts at
                      > conservation
                      >
                      > are probably doomed to failure. All forest lands in India are government
                      >
                      > property.Greening the desert is a noble idea but ultimately, unless
                      > systemic
                      >
                      > changes are made, these efforts will not bear fruit. So what can I do? I
                      > have a
                      >
                      > small 4.5 acre piece of land which I am planning to use as a forest nursery
                      > for
                      >
                      > local endangered trees and plants. I think maybe we should all put aside
                      > about
                      >
                      > 10% of our farmlands for forest
                      >
                      > trees for more reasons than one including the ones Jason has mentioned.
                      > These
                      >
                      > little nuclei will in future form the means for regenerating lost forests.
                      >
                      > Not surprisingly, my efforts at finding the list of endangered trees for
                      > this
                      >
                      > part of the world has borne no fruit as yet.
                      >
                      > I hope I don't sound too depressing.
                      >
                      > Warm regards,
                      >
                      > Sumant Joshi
                      >
                      > --- On Fri, 3/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...<macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>>
                      > wrote:
                      >
                      > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@... <macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>
                      > >
                      >
                      > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
                      >
                      > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>
                      >
                      > Date: Friday, 3 December, 2010, 2:57 PM
                      >
                      > ________________________________
                      >
                      > Dear Boovarahan Srinivasan, and BTW everyone,
                      >
                      > Please plant trees and tall crop species that can grow tall enough to
                      > survive
                      >
                      > and stand above floods and then in the dry season remain to continue to
                      > provide
                      >
                      > shade and protection to the soil surface.
                      >
                      > Friend here of many years experience Mr. Raju Titus plants Subabul
                      > (Leucaena
                      >
                      > leucocephala), which apparently grows very widespread around India, and
                      > which
                      >
                      > late Mr. Fukuoka sensei lauded when he visited Mr. Raju's farm in 1988.
                      >
                      > See -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala
                      >
                      > If you would be in Australia i would have many suitable plant species to
                      >
                      > recommend to you, but i don't really know India.
                      >
                      > Please read all the homework materials in books and blogs and so on and
                      > then;
                      >
                      > Please respectfully ask Mr. Raju Titus on his specific suggestions for your
                      >
                      >
                      > Indian farmland.
                      >
                      > Please see Mr. Raju's photos uploaded here in Yahoo Fukuoka_Farming photos
                      > (see
                      >
                      > below second link) and:
                      >
                      > -> http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus
                      >
                      > ->
                      > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/photos/album/332255617/pic/list
                      >
                      > i commented on of the photos asking what the plant is, then i saw the older
                      >
                      >
                      > previous photos where Mr. Raju writes hemp on the captions, so i deleted my
                      >
                      >
                      > question-comment, then i searched for all the different plant species named
                      > Hemp
                      >
                      > from India, but didn't succeed in finding this one species in the photos by
                      >
                      >
                      > visual-photo recognition. i was interested to find many different prefixes
                      >
                      > before the name Hemp in India meaning for different species of plant all
                      >
                      > commonly named XXXX Hemp.
                      >
                      > From Raju later email (translated by Sumant) we got told that it is Sun
                      > Hemp,
                      >
                      > (which translates in botanical terms to Crotalaria juncea L.)
                      >
                      > *Sunn Hemp* (or Sun Hemp) - i wondered but don't know it visually as a
                      > plant
                      >
                      > species, and i know it is not Cannabis-Hemp of course :) !
                      >
                      > -> http://www.google.com/search?q=Sunn+hemp
                      >
                      > Boovarahan Srinivasan, all i've learned about this plant species really
                      > useful
                      >
                      > to you is that it is grows very tall like more than 2 metres (see the
                      > photos),
                      >
                      > and it is ideal as it is a nitrogen fixing legume species, (then that it is
                      > a
                      >
                      > tropical species which for my temperate farm is not here suitable rather
                      > suited
                      >
                      > to your farm).
                      >
                      > The techniques and approaches (goals) of the practitioner in that video
                      >
                      > completely contradict —at odds with—
                      >
                      > * nature and
                      >
                      > * with late Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature/natural farming ways (techniques
                      > which
                      >
                      > vary in any place in the world),
                      >
                      > * principles applicable globally, and
                      >
                      > * with the non-violent philosophy.
                      >
                      > Furthermore, and
                      >
                      > * with no-soil damage, and
                      >
                      > * not necessary doing any earth-moving,
                      >
                      > * not necessary doing any heavy machinery work and
                      >
                      > * not necessary using any powered machinery.
                      >
                      > I think you both will like to learn about this truth (read below), and that
                      > this
                      >
                      > cited videos techniques only make a temporary flush of fertility by tearing
                      > up
                      >
                      > any fertility that remains in the already damaged or depleted soil -organic
                      >
                      >
                      > matter & moisture- thus releasing it from latency to the first few seasons
                      > crops
                      >
                      > and to oxidise to the atmosphere, wash away in any floods, and blow away in
                      > any
                      >
                      > wind erosion.
                      >
                      > And, incidentally not doing any of these entirely unnecessary destructions
                      > saves
                      >
                      > a lot of capital and machine-rental-money, and time.
                      >
                      > ----------------------------------------------------------
                      >
                      > Unicode UTF-8 text character encoding for this message! -- please check
                      > your
                      >
                      > browser/email client encoding setting, and fix it to this!
                      >
                      > * 1975 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen
                      > (自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践?);
                      >
                      > Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec.,
                      >
                      >
                      > 310pp. ISBN 978-4788776265.
                      >
                      > * 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green
                      > Philosophy"
                      >
                      > translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. ISBN
                      > 978-0870406133.
                      >
                      > This book is out of print and is still available freely in electronic
                      > format
                      >
                      > from the soil and health library, see:
                      >
                      > -> http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html
                      >
                      > Scroll down to find Fukuoka Masanobu.
                      >
                      > Quote: "
                      >
                      > Appendix
                      >
                      > Greening the Deserts: Having distanced himself from nature, man finds it
                      >
                      > almost
                      >
                      > impossible to return to the world he formerly knew. However, the
                      > recuperative
                      >
                      > powers of nature are more potent and rapid than most of us suspect. The
                      >
                      > restoration
                      >
                      > of an arid desert to a rich land of fluorishing vegetation might seem
                      >
                      > inconceivable to
                      >
                      > the human mind, but at the core of the "green philosophy" is the principle
                      > that
                      >
                      > nature always returns to its former state.
                      >
                      > What I have in mind is not the creation of green oases in the deserts
                      > through
                      >
                      > the construction of artificial irrigation systems, but the return of entire
                      >
                      >
                      > deserts to
                      >
                      > their former state as earthly paradises. If deserts first arose when man
                      > parted
                      >
                      > from
                      >
                      > the hand of God and began to till the Garden of Eden, then nature can be
                      > made
                      >
                      > to
                      >
                      > recover naturally by applying natural farming to the deserts. I propose
                      > that
                      >
                      > natural
                      >
                      > farms be established in the deserts to green them over.
                      >
                      > To grasp the basic concept for designing a natural farm, one must begin by
                      >
                      > looking for the true image of nature. The hills, streams, grasses, and
                      > trees
                      >
                      > must be
                      >
                      > allowed to create for themselves a place on the farm. The natural farm is a
                      >
                      >
                      > harmonious whole arising from a combination of woods and fruit trees and
                      >
                      > vegetables and grains (see photographs on page 148).
                      >
                      > The idea should not be to build irrigation systems that carry river water
                      > to
                      >
                      > the
                      >
                      > fields and there produce only specific crops, but to allow vegetation to
                      > thrive
                      >
                      > by the
                      >
                      > riverside, to create forests there and wait for water to gradually
                      > penetrate
                      >
                      > deep into
                      >
                      > the ground through the roots of the forest trees. This principle, which I
                      > have
                      >
                      > tentatively called the "plant irrigation" method, is applied in Figs. API,
                      > AP2.
                      >
                      > For
                      >
                      > example, when acacias are planted every 60 feet along the side of a stream
                      > or
                      >
                      > river,
                      >
                      > the trees reach a height of 30 feet five years later, by which time the
                      > root
                      >
                      > system has
                      >
                      > spread over an area of 120 square yards. In addition to increasing the
                      > amount
                      >
                      > of
                      >
                      > humus, this absorbs and retains moisture. The net effect is to transport
                      > water
                      >
                      > a
                      >
                      > distance of 60 feet. In other words, a single tree creates the equivalent
                      > of a
                      >
                      > small,
                      >
                      > 60-foot channel.
                      >
                      > By utilizing the principle of plant irrigation and using a river or stream
                      > as
                      >
                      > the
                      >
                      > source of water, a natural forest can be created as a "plant-irrigated"
                      > green
                      >
                      > belt.
                      >
                      > Fields and gardens can then be set up on either side of this forest to
                      > increase
                      >
                      > the
                      >
                      > vegetative cover. Later, by extending the forest, the adjoining fields can
                      > be
                      >
                      > expanded and the green belt widened.
                      >
                      > As I mentioned in the preface to this book, man today is concerned over the
                      >
                      >
                      > desertification of the earth. There is no question that this global loss of
                      >
                      >
                      > vegetation
                      >
                      > has its roots in the errors of farming methods that arose from the
                      > arrogance of
                      >
                      > the
                      >
                      > human intellect. I strongly believe that, rather than attempting to
                      > cultivate
                      >
                      > the
                      >
                      > deserts by building elaborate irrigation systems, it would make more sense
                      > to
                      >
                      > establish natural forests and farms using "plant irrigation." This would
                      >
                      > encourage
                      >
                      > the return of vegetation to the deserts with minimal human intervention.
                      >
                      > Many people are skeptical that seeds will grow in the deserts, but quite a
                      > few
                      >
                      > methods for successful seeding exist. One such method consists of enclosing
                      > the
                      >
                      > seeds of suitable plants in clay pellets and scattering the pellets in the
                      >
                      > deserts— a
                      >
                      > natural farming technique. This could be done, for example, by taking a
                      > mixture
                      >
                      > of
                      >
                      > the seeds of green manure trees such as acacias that grow in areas of scant
                      >
                      >
                      > rainfall,
                      >
                      > of clover, alfalfa, bur clover and other green manure plants, and of grain
                      > and
                      >
                      > vegetable seeds, enclosing this seed mixture in a double coating of earth
                      > and
                      >
                      > clay as
                      >
                      > pellets, and scattering the pellets by hand over the desert and savanna.
                      > The
                      >
                      > seeds
                      >
                      > within the hard pellets are protected from predation by mice and birds, and
                      > do
                      >
                      > not
                      >
                      > germinate until rain has fallen and conditions are just right. A year
                      > later,
                      >
                      > several of
                      >
                      > the plants sown will have survived, giving a clue as to how best to
                      > proceed.
                      >
                      > Any
                      >
                      > types of plant will do as long as the deserts are soon covered once again
                      > with
                      >
                      > vegetation. Such a method will surely bring the rains back to the desert.
                      >
                      > Fig. AP.2 Natural farm and green belt.
                      >
                      > River
                      >
                      > [diagram]
                      >
                      > "
                      >
                      > ----------------------------------------------------------
                      >
                      > * 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no
                      >
                      > kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編 「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou
                      > Shin
                      >
                      > Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's own
                      > self-publishing-publisher-names) in
                      >
                      > 1992 Dec., 230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.
                      >
                      > * 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A
                      >
                      > RECAPITULATION" -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned English-retranslation and
                      >
                      >
                      > printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN,
                      > printed
                      >
                      > by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a
                      > (小心舎)".
                      >
                      > --pages 88 to 100
                      >
                      > -----quote: "
                      >
                      > ...
                      >
                      > A Natural Farming Project in the Desert
                      >
                      > The measures for revegetating the desert are also the measures for natural
                      >
                      > farming, and the plans for the establishment of a natural farm can be used
                      > just
                      >
                      > as they are in the desert.
                      >
                      > The fundamental concept of a natural farm begins with intuitively grasping
                      >
                      > nature's original form. It's good if the original plants and features of
                      > the
                      >
                      > landscape of the place choose the place spontaneously.
                      >
                      > The ideal natural farm is a place where all varieties of plants grow in
                      >
                      > profusion as a harmonious whole, and among them all kinds of animals live
                      >
                      > together joyfully, in mutual benefit. This also can be applied to the
                      > desert.
                      >
                      > In the desert, there are many places with rivers and underground water. One
                      >
                      >
                      > method is to first revegetate the banks of the rivers and then gradually
                      > work to
                      >
                      > make the interior areas green. If we establish natural forests along the
                      > rivers,
                      >
                      > they will naturally expand. If possible, however, we should scatter every
                      > kind
                      >
                      > of seed over the entire area at once and bring about the revegetating of
                      > the
                      >
                      > desert all at once.
                      >
                      > The theoretical basis of revegetation from the riverbanks is the following
                      >
                      > "plant irrigation" method. It does not rely on running the river water
                      > through
                      >
                      > concrete waterways, as is the usual practice today, but encourages the
                      > water to
                      >
                      > follow greenbelts of plants and tries to achieve non-irrigation agriculture
                      >
                      >
                      > through increasing water retention.
                      >
                      > Water naturally moves to lover areas, is carried by the roots of plants,
                      > and
                      >
                      > filters toward dry areas. In the river water, reeds and cattails flourish,
                      > while
                      >
                      > species of Arundo will grow in clumps, protecting the banks. Pussy willows,
                      >
                      >
                      > purple willows, and alders will provide protection from the wind and draw
                      > water.
                      >
                      > Therefore, if we plant every kind of plant, starting from the area around
                      > the
                      >
                      > river, the underground water will filter up the roots of the plants, and
                      >
                      > gradually a protective forest should take shape. This is what I call "plant
                      >
                      >
                      > irrigation."
                      >
                      > For example, if you plant acacia trees twenty meters apart, in five years
                      > the
                      >
                      > trees will reach a height of ten meters, but the roots will have spread ten
                      >
                      >
                      > meters in every direction, water will infiltrate, and along with the
                      > increased
                      >
                      > fertility of the soil and the accumulation of humus, water retention will
                      >
                      > increase. Although the movement of underground water is extremely slow.
                      >
                      > gradually it will move from one tree to the next. and they will fill the
                      > role of
                      >
                      > water bearers.
                      >
                      > If we apply this principle as a measure for revegetating the desert, we
                      > begin by
                      >
                      > planting woods along the rivers in the desert. Then, at angles to the
                      > river, we
                      >
                      > create belts of natural forest instead of irrigation canals, and have them
                      > fill
                      >
                      > the role of waterways.
                      >
                      > In addition, in the center of these greenbelts. we will plant fruit trees
                      > and
                      >
                      > vegetables, create natural farms, and by creating natural farms that are
                      > the
                      >
                      > same as the natural ecosystem, we will at the same time be attempting to
                      >
                      > revegetate the desert.
                      >
                      > C. Creating a Natural farm (Temperate and Sub-Tropical Zones)
                      >
                      > When one wishes to start a farm following natural methods, the first
                      > question
                      >
                      > that must be dealt with is where it will be and how you will choose the
                      > place
                      >
                      > and live on it.
                      >
                      > It's fine if, like a mountain man, you go into a mountain forest and live
                      > in
                      >
                      > splendid isolation, but usually it is safest to make a farm at the foot of
                      >
                      > a mountain. If the area is slightly elevated, then in terms of climate
                      >
                      > as well, there are many excellent places. There you can easily obtain
                      > firewood,
                      >
                      > vegetables, and the other materials for satisfying the necessities of food.
                      >
                      >
                      > clothing, and shelter. If there is a river nearby, crops will be easier to
                      > grow,
                      >
                      > and you can easily establish your life there.
                      >
                      > No matter what the land is like, you can grow crops if you make the effort,
                      > but
                      >
                      > it is best if the place is rich in the bounties of nature. A place where
                      > large
                      >
                      > trees grow densely on the hills, the soil is deep and black or dark brown
                      > in
                      >
                      > color, and clean water can be obtained, and, in addition, one can enjoy
                      > natural
                      >
                      > beauty, is ideal. A good environment and fine scenery are essential
                      > elements for
                      >
                      > living an enjoyable life. both materially and spiritually.
                      >
                      > A natural farm must be in a place that can supply all the material
                      > necessary to
                      >
                      > provide food, clothing, and shelter. Therefore, you must start a
                      > comprehensive
                      >
                      > natural farm that includes not only fields but also the surrounding hills
                      > and
                      >
                      > forests. (Please compare with natural farms in the desert.)
                      >
                      > Natural Protective Forests
                      >
                      > We use the forested hills surrounding the natural farm both directly and
                      >
                      > indirectly, as natural protective forests for the farm and as natural
                      > sources of
                      >
                      > organic material.
                      >
                      > On a natural farm, the basic measure for carrying out complete, long-term
                      >
                      > no-fertilizer farming is to build deep, fertile soil. There are various
                      > methods
                      >
                      > for achieving this, including the following.
                      >
                      > (1) It is good to bury coarse organic matter deep in the ground, but this
                      >
                      > requires a great deal of labor, so it is better to plant a forest around
                      > the
                      >
                      > farm.
                      >
                      > (2) In the farm, plant trees and grasses with roots that will grow deep
                      > into the
                      >
                      > ;oil, gradually improving it.
                      >
                      > (3) Cause rainwater carrying nutrients from the humus in the forests on the
                      >
                      >
                      > slopes above the farm to flow down and enrich the farm.
                      >
                      > The essential thing is to maintain, close at hand, a source of humus, which
                      > is
                      >
                      > the basis of fertility.
                      >
                      > You can improve the forests on the slopes above the farm as protective
                      > forests.
                      >
                      > but if there are no forested hills, it is good to make new woods or bamboo
                      >
                      > thickets as protective forests.
                      >
                      > Where the protective forest is concerned, our attention is focused on
                      > creating a
                      >
                      > deep green, natural forest, but we will plant kinds of trees that enrich
                      > the
                      >
                      > soil and will plant a mixture of trees that are highly useful, trees that
                      >
                      > provide food for birds and animals, and those that protect natural
                      > predators.
                      >
                      > Raising a Protective Forest
                      >
                      > Generally, the soil at the summit of a hill or mountain is thin, and it
                      > easily
                      >
                      > dries out, leaving the hill bare at the top. In places like this, we should
                      >
                      >
                      > first grow trailing plants like Ixeris debilis and kudzu to halt the
                      > erosion of
                      >
                      > soil and then sow the seeds of pines and sawara cypress, turning it into a
                      > pine
                      >
                      > forest. At first, fast growing grasses such as eulalia and cogon grasses,
                      > ferns
                      >
                      > such as bracken and scrambling fern, and bushes such as bush clover, Eurya
                      >
                      > japonica and cypress will grow densely, but gradually these plants will be
                      >
                      > replaced, and when Gleichenia glauca, kudzu. and miscellaneous trees begin
                      > to
                      >
                      > grow there, the soil will become enriched.
                      >
                      > On the side of the hill, it's good to plant evergreens such as hinoki
                      > cypress
                      >
                      > and camphor, along with a mixture of other trees such as Chinese nettle
                      > tree,
                      >
                      > zelkova, paulownia, cherry, maple, and eucalyptus. The foot of the hill and
                      > the
                      >
                      > valleys are fertile, so you should plant trees such as walnuts and ginkgo
                      > among
                      >
                      > evergreens such as cryptomeria and oak.
                      >
                      > It is also good to use bamboo groves as protective forests. Bamboo grows
                      > from
                      >
                      > shoots in a single year, and its volume of growth is greater than that of
                      > the
                      >
                      > typical tree, so it is quite valuable as a source of coarse organic
                      > material
                      >
                      > when buried in the ground.
                      >
                      > Not only are the shoots of moso and other bamboos edible, but when dried,
                      > the
                      >
                      > plants are light and easy to carry. Moreover, because bamboo poles are
                      > hollow,
                      >
                      > they decompose slowly when buried and are very effective for holding water
                      > and
                      >
                      > air underground. In other words, bamboo is an extremely effective material
                      > for
                      >
                      > improving the structure of the soil.
                      >
                      > Windbreaks
                      >
                      > Trees planted as windbreaks not only are useful in preventing wind damage
                      > but
                      >
                      > also are important in maintaining soil fertility and improving the
                      > environment.
                      >
                      > Varieties that mature rapidly are cryptomeria, hinoki cypress, acacia, and
                      >
                      > camphor, and camellia, parasol fir, arbutus, and star anise, while
                      > slow-growing.
                      >
                      > are among the most commonly planted.
                      >
                      > Depending on the place, you may also be able to use trees such as evergreen
                      >
                      >
                      > oak, Ternstroemia japonica and Ilex integra.
                      >
                      > Making an Orchard
                      >
                      > It is fine if you take basically the same approach to creating the farm and
                      >
                      >
                      > planting trees as you would in planting trees in the forest. In other
                      > words, you
                      >
                      > cut trees in stages, and nothing — neither the large trunks, branches, nor
                      > the
                      >
                      > leaves — are taken out of the field. We line them up along the contour
                      > lines,
                      >
                      > leaving them covering the ground, and wait for them to decay naturally.
                      >
                      > The basic principle on a natural farm is to create the farm without
                      > clearing the
                      >
                      > land. Generally, land is cleared with a bulldozer. When this is done, the
                      > uneven
                      >
                      > surface of the slopes are flattened, broad roads are made. and mechanized
                      >
                      > agriculture is made possible. In modern orchards, bulldozer clearing has
                      > become
                      >
                      > the norm.
                      >
                      > With mechanization, it becomes easy to apply fertilizer or agricultural
                      >
                      > chemicals, but other than picking the fruit, this sort of heavy labor is
                      > not
                      >
                      > necessary with the natural farming method. Nor is there any need to clear
                      > steep
                      >
                      > slopes. Moreover, success is actually more likely when, from the time we
                      > begin
                      >
                      > making the farm, we have no money and introduce neither machines nor
                      > capital.
                      >
                      > The leaves and branches of trees, along with the roots, will decay in
                      > several
                      >
                      > years, becoming a source of organic fertilizer, and will be of use for a
                      > long
                      >
                      > time. as they provide nutrients for the fruit trees until they reach the
                      > same
                      >
                      > size. Furthermore, the organic matter will provide a covering useful in
                      >
                      > preventing the growth of weeds, will prevent soil loss, will stimulate an
                      >
                      > increase in microorganisms, and will be useful in improving and enriching
                      > the
                      >
                      > soil.
                      >
                      > Just like trees planted in a forest, the fruit trees are best planted in
                      > contour
                      >
                      > lines with the same space between them. If possible, you should dig holes
                      > for
                      >
                      > planting in the shape of octopus traps, add coarse organic matter, and then
                      >
                      >
                      > plant the trees on top of that.
                      >
                      > The reason we do not use a bulldozer when creating a natural farm is, of
                      > course,
                      >
                      > because of the nature of the soil and parent rock, but also, if you flatten
                      > the
                      >
                      > land with a bulldozer, you will scrape off the surface soil, which contains
                      > a
                      >
                      > large amount of organic matter that has accumulated for many years. A farm
                      >
                      > cleared by bulldozer and left untouched for ten years loses surface soil
                      > and its
                      >
                      > economic life is shortened remarkably.
                      >
                      > The leaves and branches of the trees that are clear-cut when the land is
                      >
                      > cleared. Because they will interfere with farming, are usually burned, but
                      > this
                      >
                      > is the same as a burnt-over field, and at a stroke, the fertility is
                      > diminished.
                      >
                      > Also, the roots of trees that penetrate to a great depth and in a physical
                      > sense
                      >
                      > make the soil difficult to work, become a source of nutrients within the
                      > soil
                      >
                      > and serve to carry out chelation, or making undissolved nutrients in the
                      > soil
                      >
                      > soluble. Consequently, if you clear land with a bulldozer, dig up the
                      > organic
                      >
                      > matter in the soil such as roots, and dispose of it, the natural conditions
                      > will
                      >
                      > undergo a violent change. Even if, after the farm is made, you dig up the
                      >
                      > surface of the soil and bury the same amount of coarse organic matter, you
                      > will
                      >
                      > have dealt the soil a blow from which it can hardly recover.
                      >
                      > We can safely say that with 30 cm of topsoil there are enough nutrients
                      > within
                      >
                      > the soil to sustain an orchard for ten years without fertilizer, and if you
                      > have
                      >
                      > one meter of rich earth, for approximately thirty years. If we can retain
                      > the
                      >
                      > rich soil of the natural forest, as it is, then no-fertilizer cultivation
                      > is
                      >
                      > possible.
                      >
                      > Also, it is easy to think that, if we plant trees without clearing the
                      > land,
                      >
                      > their growth will be poor, but in fact. they are not only not inferior, but
                      > it
                      >
                      > appears that there is a tendency for the trees to live longer.
                      >
                      > Making Fields
                      >
                      > Usually a "field" means a place devoted to growing field crops, but using
                      > the
                      >
                      > space between the fruit trees in an orchard and growing vegetables and
                      > other
                      >
                      > special crops like grass beneath the trees is also a natural form. There is
                      > no
                      >
                      > reason why an orchard cannot also be a field for vegetables and grain.
                      >
                      > Of course, if we are pressed to say, the system and methods of cultivation
                      >
                      > differ greatly depending on whether the orchard or field cultivation is
                      >
                      > predominant.
                      >
                      > Making a field where fruit trees are the primary crop and grains and
                      > vegetables
                      >
                      > are grown between the trees is almost the same as making an orchard, and it
                      > is
                      >
                      > not necessary to clear the land. There is no need to carefully prepare the
                      >
                      > ground or bury coarse organic matter.
                      >
                      > In the first stage of making the field, we must pay attention to preventing
                      > weed
                      >
                      > growth and bringing the soil to maturity, so it is good to sow the crops
                      > among
                      >
                      > green manure plants, buckwheat during the first summer and rape and mustard
                      >
                      >
                      > during the first winter. In the next year it is good to plant strong
                      > twining
                      >
                      > plants that reproduce well without fertilizer, such as adzuki and cowpea in
                      >
                      >
                      > summer and hairy vetch in winter. However, they have the disadvantage of
                      >
                      > covering up young fruit tree seedlings. As the field matures, you can grow
                      > a
                      >
                      > variety of other crops.
                      >
                      > Making an Exclusive Field
                      >
                      > It is common to make fields on hilly areas at the foot of mountains or on
                      >
                      > plains, but most field crops are annuals, and many are produced in a few
                      > months
                      >
                      > to half a year. The many vegetables that reach about one meter in height
                      > also
                      >
                      > have shallow roots. Because the time between sowing and harvest is short
                      > and
                      >
                      > several crops can be grown in one year, the surface of the ground is
                      > exposed to
                      >
                      > sunlight for much of the year. Therefore, we must accept the premise that
                      > there
                      >
                      > is much soil loss from exclusive fields on account of rain and that the
                      > soil
                      >
                      > easily loses its fertility and is weak during droughts and cold weather.
                      >
                      > When making the field, the most important concern is the prevention of soil
                      >
                      >
                      > erosion, and it is necessary to terrace the field to make the surface
                      > level.
                      >
                      > Therefore, the first step in making a field is building up earthen banks or
                      >
                      >
                      > making stone walls, and then making terraced fields. The success or failure
                      > of
                      >
                      > the field depends on the skill involved in knowing the nature of the soil
                      > and
                      >
                      > making banks that will not crumble or in using the stones dug up from the
                      > field
                      >
                      > to make stone walls.
                      >
                      > Whether the surface of the terraced field is level or gently sloping also
                      > has a
                      >
                      > great effect on growing conditions and agricultural efficiency.
                      >
                      > It goes without saying that the fundamental method for improving the soil
                      > of the
                      >
                      > field is to dig deep trenches and bury coarse organic matter in them, but
                      >
                      > another good method is to pile up the soil in tall ridges. In general it is
                      >
                      >
                      > sufficient simply to plant shade trees and trees that provide fertilizer.
                      >
                      > Making Paddy Fields
                      >
                      > At present it is easy to make paddy fields by clearing the plains with
                      > large
                      >
                      > machines, carrying away the rubbish, and leveling the ground. This also
                      > makes
                      >
                      > possible increasing the size of the fields, which will make mechanized
                      >
                      > agricultural even more convenient in the future.
                      >
                      > However, there are some disadvantages to this method, because it is a very
                      >
                      > coarse method of construction;
                      >
                      > (1) The topsoil of the paddy is of uneven depth, because of differences in
                      > the
                      >
                      > height of the field surface, and this results in uneven growth of crops.
                      >
                      > (2) Because the large, heavy machines have put pressure on the soil. it is
                      >
                      > compressed more than necessary. Underground water will collect and
                      > stagnate..
                      >
                      > it will reach an unnatural state of deoxidation, causing the roots to
                      > decay, and
                      >
                      > in many cases the desired result will not be achieved.
                      >
                      > (3) A more serious problem is that, because the ridges all become
                      > concretized.
                      >
                      > the microorganisms in the soil change or die, and gradually the soil dies
                      > and
                      >
                      > turns to stone. There is a danger of making a field of dead earth.
                      >
                      > Trees are the guardians of the soil in paddies, growing densely, large and
                      >
                      > small, on mounds in the fields. The landscape of paddies near Sukhothai,
                      >
                      > Thailand, is one of the finest examples in the world of the ideals of the
                      >
                      > natural farming method.
                      >
                      > Here I would like to leave the discussion of making modern paddies and
                      > conclude
                      >
                      > with a few words about paddy-making in ancient times.
                      >
                      > It would seem to be common sense to make paddy fields on level ground, but
                      > in
                      >
                      > ancient times it was often the case that people lived and made paddies not
                      > on
                      >
                      > the flat, fertile land beside large rivers, but rather in mountainous
                      > areas,
                      >
                      > where there was less danger of floods and strong winds. They would make
                      > paddies
                      >
                      > in river valleys and in terraces on the mountainsides, and devote
                      > themselves to
                      >
                      > farming there.
                      >
                      > However, it is unnecessary to go to great lengths to grow rice in paddy
                      > fields.
                      >
                      > It is quite possible to grow rice in dry fields watered only by the rain.
                      >
                      > PART 6: SOWING A VARIETY OF SEEDS IN THE DESERT TO CREATE A FOREST FOR
                      > ELEPHANTS
                      >
                      > You may think it reckless for me to say that we can revegetate the desert.
                      >
                      > Although I have confirmed my theory, unfortunately 1 have had few
                      > opportunities
                      >
                      > to prove it on a large scale. Recently, however, the government of India
                      > has
                      >
                      > asked for technical assistance in carrying out aerial seeding as a measure
                      >
                      > against desertification, so I have tried, in this hasty manner, to
                      > summarize my
                      >
                      > ideas and concrete steps for putting the theory into practice.
                      >
                      > To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have
                      >
                      > destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature,
                      >
                      > nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean
                      > nonintervention.
                      >
                      > In the case of places like the desert, which have lost their regenerative
                      > power,
                      >
                      > we must mix seeds and microorganisms of every variety in clay pellets and
                      >
                      > scatter them from the air. In India there are more than 500 varieties of
                      > trees
                      >
                      > that bear edible nuts and 500 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, we
                      > should
                      >
                      > sow among them a mixture of 500 varieties of grains, vegetables, and green
                      >
                      > manure, ideally on the Deccan Plateau and in the desert. My supposition is
                      > that,
                      >
                      > no matter how bad the conditions, there will be some seed varieties suited
                      > to
                      >
                      > that place that will germinate. Even though some will wither and die from
                      >
                      > extreme dryness and heat, if we sow various green manures, vegetables, and
                      >
                      > grasses along with drought and salt-resistant plants, a number of them will
                      >
                      >
                      > survive. If for even a short time the surface of the earth is covered with
                      >
                      > vegetation, its temperature will be lowered. The role of the "pilot" plants
                      > is
                      >
                      > to aid in creating conditions that will allow other plants to germinate.
                      >
                      > A second purpose in so wide a variety of plants and microorganisms is to
                      > awaken
                      >
                      > the sleeping earth. Among deserts, there are deserts of sand that have lost
                      > the
                      >
                      > ability to support life and have died, but most savannas are young clay
                      > deserts
                      >
                      > in which the nutrients needed by plants are only sleeping. In order to
                      > cause
                      >
                      > chelation, in other words, to rouse the earth and bring about the rebirth
                      > of
                      >
                      > life, a variety of seeds of lover plant forms and microorganisms are
                      > necessary.
                      >
                      > The earth will not come back to life if we only plant a number of useful
                      > trees
                      >
                      > in the desert. A plant cannot grow up in isolation. To grow, a
                      > hundred-meter
                      >
                      > tree needs enough soil for one hundred meters of roots. Also, trees of
                      > seventy,
                      >
                      > forth, and twenty meters are necessary. Furthermore, trees are needed to
                      > protect
                      >
                      > the base of the tall trees, and beneath them, undergrowth vegetation and
                      >
                      > microorganisms are necessary. Only with the aid of all these can a tree
                      > grow to
                      >
                      > a height of one hundred meters. Life does not exist in isolation, and a
                      > large
                      >
                      > tree is the crystallization of the cooperation of numerous living things.
                      > When a
                      >
                      > large forest is created, and the degree of nature, or density of
                      > vegetation, is
                      >
                      > high, then rain will begin to fall.
                      >
                      > Clouds will form over the mountains and rise up from the valleys. The
                      > principal
                      >
                      > actors in the forest are not just the tall trees. Ferns, moss, and fallen
                      > leaves
                      >
                      > all have roles to play.
                      >
                      > Rather than trying to secure water and cause rain to fall using human
                      > knowledge,
                      >
                      > we should stop ignoring the mind of nature. Then the earth will naturally
                      > be
                      >
                      > covered with lush green vegetation. The mind of nature is the core or heart
                      > of
                      >
                      > nature. If we do not know the heart of nature, the fundamental source of
                      > the
                      >
                      > creation of the cosmos, then no matter how much we observe the outer aspect
                      > of
                      >
                      > nature, the recovery of nature will be impossible.
                      >
                      > If we grasp the mind of nature, which is God, and live in accordance with
                      > it,
                      >
                      > nature will be reborn naturally, and pitiful measures, based on human
                      > knowledge,
                      >
                      > to prevent desertification will vanish like the dew. The workings of nature
                      > are
                      >
                      > governed by nature. When we consider that the interference of human
                      > knowledge
                      >
                      > and action is the fundamental cause of global desertification, then the
                      > only
                      >
                      > measure against desertification must be the abolishment of human knowledge
                      > and
                      >
                      > action.
                      >
                      > From the decision to abandon human knowledge comes the extremely simple,
                      > minimal
                      >
                      > human action of sowing a variety of seeds. Sowing a variety of seeds, which
                      > is
                      >
                      > in direct opposition to the current, scientific method of selecting and
                      > planting
                      >
                      > the most valuable, useful tree varieties, appears to be quite easy, but in
                      > fact
                      >
                      > it is exceedingly difficult because it requires a fundamental reversal in
                      > human
                      >
                      > values.
                      >
                      > In other words. it is much easier for people to choose something special
                      > from
                      >
                      > nature and use it for the benefit of human beings. But, humans make a grave
                      >
                      >
                      > error at that time. Extracting one thing from nature, in the name of
                      > development
                      >
                      > or of creating something new, and attributing value to it means making
                      > other
                      >
                      > things valueless. Making one thing useful results in abandoning other
                      > things as
                      >
                      > useless.
                      >
                      > All human economic activity is opposed to nature, and it is the way of
                      > human
                      >
                      > beings to plant useful trees in the desert, cut down the undergrowth, and
                      > grow
                      >
                      > single crops, thereby sacrificing, as "weeds," many times the achieved
                      > amount of
                      >
                      > vegetation. For the same reason, from the viewpoint of nature, most human
                      >
                      > production and efforts to protect nature are linked to the destruction of
                      >
                      > nature.
                      >
                      > People choose what to plant in the desert. Whenever they consider whether a
                      >
                      >
                      > plant will grow or not, whether it is useful or harmful, whether it will
                      > grow
                      >
                      > rapidly or slowly, they are selecting only special varieties and are
                      > discarding
                      >
                      > others. In other words, whenever they make a selection, half the plant
                      > varieties
                      >
                      > are lost. From the viewpoint of nature, the number of trees saved by humans
                      > is
                      >
                      > much fever than number of plants overlooked. Plant varieties decrease and
                      > become
                      >
                      > simplified. so that they are losing both quantity and quality. And this
                      > triggers
                      >
                      > desertification. For this reason, when modern farms in the desert are
                      > abandoned
                      >
                      > after five years, they become deserts worse than the original.
                      >
                      > There is no good or bad among the life forms on earth. Each has its role.
                      > is
                      >
                      > necessary, and has the same value. This is also the basis for sowing seeds
                      > of
                      >
                      > many varieties.
                      >
                      > My measures for countering desertification may appear childish and
                      > unscientific,
                      >
                      > but they are based on a philosophical view of nature that transcends
                      > science. In
                      >
                      > order to understand and put into practice this one simple thing, we are
                      > force to
                      >
                      > embrace the extremely difficult position (the revolutionary conclusion)
                      > that all
                      >
                      > of man's ideas and actions must be transformed. But if we can do this one
                      > thing,
                      >
                      > we can transform the world.
                      >
                      > ...
                      >
                      > " -- everyone please proof read this text as Jamie obtained it from his
                      > copy
                      >
                      > from Michiyo by scanning. I have one printed copy also and am proof reading
                      >
                      >
                      > Jamie's scan. Please DO NOT distribute this text privately printed by late
                      > Mr.
                      >
                      > Fukuoka sensei (and usually the small no. of copies where given to heads of
                      >
                      >
                      > state like the Indian Prime Minister or Ministers (i read somewhere)).
                      >
                      > -- Jamie 'souscayrous' Nicol in this group previous quoted this above quote
                      > in
                      >
                      > part in this group, here:
                      >
                      > -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5353
                      >
                      > Best wishes to all people,
                      >
                      > Jase.
                      >
                      > south-eastern Oz (vernacular for Australia)
                      >
                      > PS. This message was sent on 28 Nov. 2010 to this Yahoo group
                      > Fukuoka_farming
                      >
                      > but for some unexplained reason didn't get through - Dear Moderator please
                      >
                      > explain! So, i'm sending all these two missed backlog messages now that
                      > messages
                      >
                      > are getting through... .
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      >
                      >



                      --
                      Raju Titus. Hoshangabad. 461001.India.
                      +919179738049.
                      http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus<http://picasawebalbum.google.com/rajuktitus>
                      fukuoka_farming yahoogroup


                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Nandan Palaparambil
                      Dear Raju sir, Yes, this is a tricky situation. -  May be when there are not sufficient food, more people will come to farming and farming will get more
                      Message 10 of 20 , Dec 8, 2010
                        Dear Raju sir,

                        Yes, this is a tricky situation.

                        -  May be when there are not sufficient food, more people will come to farming and farming will get more importance
                        - It may also happen that big companies will enter into farming and they will take the control of the food production and people may have to follow their terms
                        - Lot of these things are beyond our control, so just produce as much as we can do using natural farming methods which is the lowest effort method and sell the produce at normal rate in the market. There will be lot of struggle we have to do as a farmer, but just keep enjoying it.




                        Regards,
                        Nandan

                        --- On Wed, 12/8/10, Raju Titus <rajuktitus@...> wrote:

                        From: Raju Titus <rajuktitus@...>
                        Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land
                        To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
                        Date: Wednesday, December 8, 2010, 10:55 AM







                         









                        Dear Nandan,

                        When i was new in N.F wanted more and more money from farm but failed. Than

                        i started growing in small land not more than one eked with fruit

                        trees,grain,vegetables etc.for our self and given rest to to rest of the

                        land. This land is occupied with trees and giving me lots of money. Now

                        people saying that if all started doing this than who will feed people those

                        not having land.

                        thanks

                        Raju



                        On Tue, Dec 7, 2010 at 10:37 AM, Nandan Palaparambil <p_k_nandanan@...

                        > wrote:



                        >

                        >

                        > Farming gets the least attention and farm produce gets the least of the

                        > prices. IT Jobs gets heavily paid even thought it is not critical for human

                        > existance. Only difference is more intelligent (or at least so called)

                        > control the cities and all high paid jobs and farmers really struggle. One

                        > solution for farmers is to reject all the consumer goods and live/enjoy on

                        > the land, probably a new community has to come up like that.

                        >

                        > Regards,

                        > Nandan

                        >

                        >

                        > --- On Mon, 12/6/10, Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...<sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>

                        > wrote:

                        >

                        > From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@... <sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>

                        > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

                        > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>

                        > Date: Monday, December 6, 2010, 8:18 PM

                        >

                        >

                        >

                        >

                        > Dear Jason,

                        >

                        > I guess the least I can do is, encourage others who are doing something

                        > other than just talking (like me).

                        >

                        > And like you said, realness is very important. It is uplifting in the sense

                        > that unless one knows what the problem is you have no clear idea of what is

                        > required to be done and whether one is fit or inclined to do what needs to

                        > be done. I am in a situation where I am still groping around in the dark to

                        > understand what it is I want to do and whether I have any kind of capacity

                        > to do it. First step was off course is to understand the situation, which is

                        > why the study and the next is to dump my job. I am zeroing in on education

                        > of our youth. Oldies like me are too dumb to change now.One of the things

                        > which put me off during my corporate stint was the lies these people instill

                        > in their people. Material goals are supposed to be the Nirvana everyone

                        > needs to aim for. So everyone consumes more and that creates jobs and that

                        > in turn increases consumption and the cycle of 'development' goes on. They

                        > don't give a damn about the poor who get the short end of the

                        >

                        > stick. Come to think of it, if these so called high paying jobs ceased to

                        > exist, it wouldn't matter, but if you don't look after your farmers and they

                        > vanish, you are in real trouble.

                        >

                        > Warm regards,

                        >

                        > Sumant Joshi

                        >

                        > Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161

                        >

                        > --- On Sat, 4/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...<macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>>

                        > wrote:

                        >

                        > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@... <macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>

                        > >

                        >

                        > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

                        >

                        > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>

                        >

                        > Cc: "Sumant Joshi" <sumant_jo@... <sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>

                        >

                        > Date: Saturday, 4 December, 2010, 8:03 PM

                        >

                        >

                        >

                        > Dear friend Sumant,

                        >

                        > Well, all too briefly, i feel uplifted by your message below, because of

                        > its

                        >

                        > evidently well informed realness, rather than the falsehoods of

                        >

                        > pollyana–optimism or doom–&–gloom–pessimism.

                        >

                        > Realnees uplifts when the evident future really does threaten us all or

                        > when the

                        >

                        > evident future is all rosy.

                        >

                        > Realness about the future (& the past) really does uplift, because of the

                        >

                        > realness –shared mutually respectfully & responsively–, not necessarily

                        > because

                        >

                        > of the content of the realness.

                        >

                        > I don't know if that makes sense.

                        >

                        > A simpler way to say it is: honesty uplifts (ultimately—no matter what the

                        >

                        > content) whereas deception, even for the best possible intentions,

                        > ultimately

                        >

                        > distances us and let people down.

                        >

                        > IMHO your content within your realness is evidently correct as far as i

                        > know.

                        >

                        > Thank you so much, Sumant!!!

                        >

                        > Uplifted!

                        >

                        > Biggest best wishes to you, and to all life–people,

                        >

                        > Jason

                        >

                        > ________________________________

                        >

                        > From: Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@... <sumant_jo%40yahoo.com>>

                        >

                        > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>

                        >

                        > Sent: Sunday, December 5, 2010 1:04:11

                        >

                        > Subject: Re: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

                        >

                        > Well, I am an armchair environmentalist at best, having spent most of my

                        > life in

                        >

                        > the Navy. Last few years I have been reading up on a lot of material on

                        >

                        > conservation and found that on almost all fronts, our mother Earth's

                        > environment

                        >

                        > is in retreat and deteriorating fast. It seems hopeless, except for the

                        > little

                        >

                        > lights I see in people like you all who are doing their bit. The industrial

                        >

                        >

                        > revolution has been a failure. Ultimately when the collapse comes, it is

                        > these

                        >

                        > talents and learnings which will be useful for humans to survive (read

                        >

                        > 'collapse' by Jared Diamond). Like Fukuoka San said "The ultimate goal of

                        >

                        > farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of

                        > human

                        >

                        > beings." Unless the human race mends it's ways .....

                        >

                        > I have been observing and video-graphing the changing seasons and scenes of

                        >

                        >

                        > rural areas and forest areas around my town and seeing the daily

                        > destruction

                        >

                        > wrought by wrong farming practices. The hills around my town are completely

                        >

                        >

                        > denuded and are an environmental disaster. If nothing else I am planning to

                        > make

                        >

                        > a documentary on the situation. From what I read (another Mr Agarwal, who

                        >

                        > founded the centre for science and environment) the problem is systemic.

                        > Unless

                        >

                        > local people are given control of their environment, all efforts at

                        > conservation

                        >

                        > are probably doomed to failure. All forest lands in India are government

                        >

                        > property.Greening the desert is a noble idea but ultimately, unless

                        > systemic

                        >

                        > changes are made, these efforts will not bear fruit. So what can I do? I

                        > have a

                        >

                        > small 4.5 acre piece of land which I am planning to use as a forest nursery

                        > for

                        >

                        > local endangered trees and plants. I think maybe we should all put aside

                        > about

                        >

                        > 10% of our farmlands for forest

                        >

                        > trees for more reasons than one including the ones Jason has mentioned.

                        > These

                        >

                        > little nuclei will in future form the means for regenerating lost forests.

                        >

                        > Not surprisingly, my efforts at finding the list of endangered trees for

                        > this

                        >

                        > part of the world has borne no fruit as yet.

                        >

                        > I hope I don't sound too depressing.

                        >

                        > Warm regards,

                        >

                        > Sumant Joshi

                        >

                        > --- On Fri, 3/12/10, Jason Stewart <macropneuma@...<macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>>

                        > wrote:

                        >

                        > From: Jason Stewart <macropneuma@... <macropneuma%40yahoo.com.au>

                        > >

                        >

                        > Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Re: Reclaiming land

                        >

                        > To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com <fukuoka_farming%40yahoogroups.com>

                        >

                        > Date: Friday, 3 December, 2010, 2:57 PM

                        >

                        > ________________________________

                        >

                        > Dear Boovarahan Srinivasan, and BTW everyone,

                        >

                        > Please plant trees and tall crop species that can grow tall enough to

                        > survive

                        >

                        > and stand above floods and then in the dry season remain to continue to

                        > provide

                        >

                        > shade and protection to the soil surface.

                        >

                        > Friend here of many years experience Mr. Raju Titus plants Subabul

                        > (Leucaena

                        >

                        > leucocephala), which apparently grows very widespread around India, and

                        > which

                        >

                        > late Mr. Fukuoka sensei lauded when he visited Mr. Raju's farm in 1988.

                        >

                        > See -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala

                        >

                        > If you would be in Australia i would have many suitable plant species to

                        >

                        > recommend to you, but i don't really know India.

                        >

                        > Please read all the homework materials in books and blogs and so on and

                        > then;

                        >

                        > Please respectfully ask Mr. Raju Titus on his specific suggestions for your

                        >

                        >

                        > Indian farmland.

                        >

                        > Please see Mr. Raju's photos uploaded here in Yahoo Fukuoka_Farming photos

                        > (see

                        >

                        > below second link) and:

                        >

                        > -> http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus

                        >

                        > ->

                        > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/photos/album/332255617/pic/list

                        >

                        > i commented on of the photos asking what the plant is, then i saw the older

                        >

                        >

                        > previous photos where Mr. Raju writes hemp on the captions, so i deleted my

                        >

                        >

                        > question-comment, then i searched for all the different plant species named

                        > Hemp

                        >

                        > from India, but didn't succeed in finding this one species in the photos by

                        >

                        >

                        > visual-photo recognition. i was interested to find many different prefixes

                        >

                        > before the name Hemp in India meaning for different species of plant all

                        >

                        > commonly named XXXX Hemp.

                        >

                        > From Raju later email (translated by Sumant) we got told that it is Sun

                        > Hemp,

                        >

                        > (which translates in botanical terms to Crotalaria juncea L.)

                        >

                        > *Sunn Hemp* (or Sun Hemp) - i wondered but don't know it visually as a

                        > plant

                        >

                        > species, and i know it is not Cannabis-Hemp of course :) !

                        >

                        > -> http://www.google.com/search?q=Sunn+hemp

                        >

                        > Boovarahan Srinivasan, all i've learned about this plant species really

                        > useful

                        >

                        > to you is that it is grows very tall like more than 2 metres (see the

                        > photos),

                        >

                        > and it is ideal as it is a nitrogen fixing legume species, (then that it is

                        > a

                        >

                        > tropical species which for my temperate farm is not here suitable rather

                        > suited

                        >

                        > to your farm).

                        >

                        > The techniques and approaches (goals) of the practitioner in that video

                        >

                        > completely contradict —at odds with—

                        >

                        > * nature and

                        >

                        > * with late Mr. Fukuoka sensei's nature/natural farming ways (techniques

                        > which

                        >

                        > vary in any place in the world),

                        >

                        > * principles applicable globally, and

                        >

                        > * with the non-violent philosophy.

                        >

                        > Furthermore, and

                        >

                        > * with no-soil damage, and

                        >

                        > * not necessary doing any earth-moving,

                        >

                        > * not necessary doing any heavy machinery work and

                        >

                        > * not necessary using any powered machinery.

                        >

                        > I think you both will like to learn about this truth (read below), and that

                        > this

                        >

                        > cited videos techniques only make a temporary flush of fertility by tearing

                        > up

                        >

                        > any fertility that remains in the already damaged or depleted soil -organic

                        >

                        >

                        > matter & moisture- thus releasing it from latency to the first few seasons

                        > crops

                        >

                        > and to oxidise to the atmosphere, wash away in any floods, and blow away in

                        > any

                        >

                        > wind erosion.

                        >

                        > And, incidentally not doing any of these entirely unnecessary destructions

                        > saves

                        >

                        > a lot of capital and machine-rental-money, and time.

                        >

                        > ----------------------------------------------------------

                        >

                        > Unicode UTF-8 text character encoding for this message! -- please check

                        > your

                        >

                        > browser/email client encoding setting, and fix it to this!

                        >

                        > * 1975 shizen nōhō-midori no tetsugaku no riron to jissen

                        > (自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践?);

                        >

                        > Published by Jiji tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec.,

                        >

                        >

                        > 310pp. ISBN 978-4788776265.

                        >

                        > * 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green

                        > Philosophy"

                        >

                        > translated by Frederic P. Metreaud; Japan Publications. ISBN

                        > 978-0870406133.

                        >

                        > This book is out of print and is still available freely in electronic

                        > format

                        >

                        > from the soil and health library, see:

                        >

                        > -> http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html

                        >

                        > Scroll down to find Fukuoka Masanobu.

                        >

                        > Quote: "

                        >

                        > Appendix

                        >

                        > Greening the Deserts: Having distanced himself from nature, man finds it

                        >

                        > almost

                        >

                        > impossible to return to the world he formerly knew. However, the

                        > recuperative

                        >

                        > powers of nature are more potent and rapid than most of us suspect. The

                        >

                        > restoration

                        >

                        > of an arid desert to a rich land of fluorishing vegetation might seem

                        >

                        > inconceivable to

                        >

                        > the human mind, but at the core of the "green philosophy" is the principle

                        > that

                        >

                        > nature always returns to its former state.

                        >

                        > What I have in mind is not the creation of green oases in the deserts

                        > through

                        >

                        > the construction of artificial irrigation systems, but the return of entire

                        >

                        >

                        > deserts to

                        >

                        > their former state as earthly paradises. If deserts first arose when man

                        > parted

                        >

                        > from

                        >

                        > the hand of God and began to till the Garden of Eden, then nature can be

                        > made

                        >

                        > to

                        >

                        > recover naturally by applying natural farming to the deserts. I propose

                        > that

                        >

                        > natural

                        >

                        > farms be established in the deserts to green them over.

                        >

                        > To grasp the basic concept for designing a natural farm, one must begin by

                        >

                        > looking for the true image of nature. The hills, streams, grasses, and

                        > trees

                        >

                        > must be

                        >

                        > allowed to create for themselves a place on the farm. The natural farm is a

                        >

                        >

                        > harmonious whole arising from a combination of woods and fruit trees and

                        >

                        > vegetables and grains (see photographs on page 148).

                        >

                        > The idea should not be to build irrigation systems that carry river water

                        > to

                        >

                        > the

                        >

                        > fields and there produce only specific crops, but to allow vegetation to

                        > thrive

                        >

                        > by the

                        >

                        > riverside, to create forests there and wait for water to gradually

                        > penetrate

                        >

                        > deep into

                        >

                        > the ground through the roots of the forest trees. This principle, which I

                        > have

                        >

                        > tentatively called the "plant irrigation" method, is applied in Figs. API,

                        > AP2.

                        >

                        > For

                        >

                        > example, when acacias are planted every 60 feet along the side of a stream

                        > or

                        >

                        > river,

                        >

                        > the trees reach a height of 30 feet five years later, by which time the

                        > root

                        >

                        > system has

                        >

                        > spread over an area of 120 square yards. In addition to increasing the

                        > amount

                        >

                        > of

                        >

                        > humus, this absorbs and retains moisture. The net effect is to transport

                        > water

                        >

                        > a

                        >

                        > distance of 60 feet. In other words, a single tree creates the equivalent

                        > of a

                        >

                        > small,

                        >

                        > 60-foot channel.

                        >

                        > By utilizing the principle of plant irrigation and using a river or stream

                        > as

                        >

                        > the

                        >

                        > source of water, a natural forest can be created as a "plant-irrigated"

                        > green

                        >

                        > belt.

                        >

                        > Fields and gardens can then be set up on either side of this forest to

                        > increase

                        >

                        > the

                        >

                        > vegetative cover. Later, by extending the forest, the adjoining fields can

                        > be

                        >

                        > expanded and the green belt widened.

                        >

                        > As I mentioned in the preface to this book, man today is concerned over the

                        >

                        >

                        > desertification of the earth. There is no question that this global loss of

                        >

                        >

                        > vegetation

                        >

                        > has its roots in the errors of farming methods that arose from the

                        > arrogance of

                        >

                        > the

                        >

                        > human intellect. I strongly believe that, rather than attempting to

                        > cultivate

                        >

                        > the

                        >

                        > deserts by building elaborate irrigation systems, it would make more sense

                        > to

                        >

                        > establish natural forests and farms using "plant irrigation." This would

                        >

                        > encourage

                        >

                        > the return of vegetation to the deserts with minimal human intervention.

                        >

                        > Many people are skeptical that seeds will grow in the deserts, but quite a

                        > few

                        >

                        > methods for successful seeding exist. One such method consists of enclosing

                        > the

                        >

                        > seeds of suitable plants in clay pellets and scattering the pellets in the

                        >

                        > deserts— a

                        >

                        > natural farming technique. This could be done, for example, by taking a

                        > mixture

                        >

                        > of

                        >

                        > the seeds of green manure trees such as acacias that grow in areas of scant

                        >

                        >

                        > rainfall,

                        >

                        > of clover, alfalfa, bur clover and other green manure plants, and of grain

                        > and

                        >

                        > vegetable seeds, enclosing this seed mixture in a double coating of earth

                        > and

                        >

                        > clay as

                        >

                        > pellets, and scattering the pellets by hand over the desert and savanna.

                        > The

                        >

                        > seeds

                        >

                        > within the hard pellets are protected from predation by mice and birds, and

                        > do

                        >

                        > not

                        >

                        > germinate until rain has fallen and conditions are just right. A year

                        > later,

                        >

                        > several of

                        >

                        > the plants sown will have survived, giving a clue as to how best to

                        > proceed.

                        >

                        > Any

                        >

                        > types of plant will do as long as the deserts are soon covered once again

                        > with

                        >

                        > vegetation. Such a method will surely bring the rains back to the desert.

                        >

                        > Fig. AP.2 Natural farm and green belt.

                        >

                        > River

                        >

                        > [diagram]

                        >

                        > "

                        >

                        > ----------------------------------------------------------

                        >

                        > * 1992 wara ippon no kakumei・sōkatsuhen 「kami to shizen to hito no

                        >

                        > kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編 「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou

                        > Shin

                        >

                        > Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Mr. Fukuoka's own

                        > self-publishing-publisher-names) in

                        >

                        > 1992 Dec., 230 pp., 26×26cm ISBN 978-4938743017; ISBN 4938743019.

                        >

                        > * 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of GOD NATURE The One-Straw Revolution A

                        >

                        > RECAPITULATION" -Mr. Fukuoka himself commissioned English-retranslation and

                        >

                        >

                        > printing in an extremely limited edition, less than 100 copies, no ISBN,

                        > printed

                        >

                        > by the author hence the publisher name is, quote: "S h o u S h i n S h a

                        > (小心舎)".

                        >

                        > --pages 88 to 100

                        >

                        > -----quote: "

                        >

                        > ...

                        >

                        > A Natural Farming Project in the Desert

                        >

                        > The measures for revegetating the desert are also the measures for natural

                        >

                        > farming, and the plans for the establishment of a natural farm can be used

                        > just

                        >

                        > as they are in the desert.

                        >

                        > The fundamental concept of a natural farm begins with intuitively grasping

                        >

                        > nature's original form. It's good if the original plants and features of

                        > the

                        >

                        > landscape of the place choose the place spontaneously.

                        >

                        > The ideal natural farm is a place where all varieties of plants grow in

                        >

                        > profusion as a harmonious whole, and among them all kinds of animals live

                        >

                        > together joyfully, in mutual benefit. This also can be applied to the

                        > desert.

                        >

                        > In the desert, there are many places with rivers and underground water. One

                        >

                        >

                        > method is to first revegetate the banks of the rivers and then gradually

                        > work to

                        >

                        > make the interior areas green. If we establish natural forests along the

                        > rivers,

                        >

                        > they will naturally expand. If possible, however, we should scatter every

                        > kind

                        >

                        > of seed over the entire area at once and bring about the revegetating of

                        > the

                        >

                        > desert all at once.

                        >

                        > The theoretical basis of revegetation from the riverbanks is the following

                        >

                        > "plant irrigation" method. It does not rely on running the river water

                        > through

                        >

                        > concrete waterways, as is the usual practice today, but encourages the

                        > water to

                        >

                        > follow greenbelts of plants and tries to achieve non-irrigation agriculture

                        >

                        >

                        > through increasing water retention.

                        >

                        > Water naturally moves to lover areas, is carried by the roots of plants,

                        > and

                        >

                        > filters toward dry areas. In the river water, reeds and cattails flourish,

                        > while

                        >

                        > species of Arundo will grow in clumps, protecting the banks. Pussy willows,

                        >

                        >

                        > purple willows, and alders will provide protection from the wind and draw

                        > water.

                        >

                        > Therefore, if we plant every kind of plant, starting from the area around

                        > the

                        >

                        > river, the underground water will filter up the roots of the plants, and

                        >

                        > gradually a protective forest should take shape. This is what I call "plant

                        >

                        >

                        > irrigation."

                        >

                        > For example, if you plant acacia trees twenty meters apart, in five years

                        > the

                        >

                        > trees will reach a height of ten meters, but the roots will have spread ten

                        >

                        >

                        > meters in every direction, water will infiltrate, and along with the

                        > increased

                        >

                        > fertility of the soil and the accumulation of humus, water retention will

                        >

                        > increase. Although the movement of underground water is extremely slow.

                        >

                        > gradually it will move from one tree to the next. and they will fill the

                        > role of

                        >

                        > water bearers.

                        >

                        > If we apply this principle as a measure for revegetating the desert, we

                        > begin by

                        >

                        > planting woods along the rivers in the desert. Then, at angles to the

                        > river, we

                        >

                        > create belts of natural forest instead of irrigation canals, and have them

                        > fill

                        >

                        > the role of waterways.

                        >

                        > In addition, in the center of these greenbelts. we will plant fruit trees

                        > and

                        >

                        > vegetables, create natural farms, and by creating natural farms that are

                        > the

                        >

                        > same as the natural ecosystem, we will at the same time be attempting to

                        >

                        > revegetate the desert.

                        >

                        > C. Creating a Natural farm (Temperate and Sub-Tropical Zones)

                        >

                        > When one wishes to start a farm following natural methods, the first

                        > question

                        >

                        > that must be dealt with is where it will be and how you will choose the

                        > place

                        >

                        > and live on it.

                        >

                        > It's fine if, like a mountain man, you go into a mountain forest and live

                        > in

                        >

                        > splendid isolation, but usually it is safest to make a farm at the foot of

                        >

                        > a mountain. If the area is slightly elevated, then in terms of climate

                        >

                        > as well, there are many excellent places. There you can easily obtain

                        > firewood,

                        >

                        > vegetables, and the other materials for satisfying the necessities of food.

                        >

                        >

                        > clothing, and shelter. If there is a river nearby, crops will be easier to

                        > grow,

                        >

                        > and you can easily establish your life there.

                        >

                        > No matter what the land is like, you can grow crops if you make the effort,

                        > but

                        >

                        > it is best if the place is rich in the bounties of nature. A place where

                        > large

                        >

                        > trees grow densely on the hills, the soil is deep and black or dark brown

                        > in

                        >

                        > color, and clean water can be obtained, and, in addition, one can enjoy

                        > natural

                        >

                        > beauty, is ideal. A good environment and fine scenery are essential

                        > elements for

                        >

                        > living an enjoyable life. both materially and spiritually.

                        >

                        > A natural farm must be in a place that can supply all the material

                        > necessary to

                        >

                        > provide food, clothing, and shelter. Therefore, you must start a

                        > comprehensive

                        >

                        > natural farm that includes not only fields but also the surrounding hills

                        > and

                        >

                        > forests. (Please compare with natural farms in the desert.)

                        >

                        > Natural Protective Forests

                        >

                        > We use the forested hills surrounding the natural farm both directly and

                        >

                        > indirectly, as natural protective forests for the farm and as natural

                        > sources of

                        >

                        > organic material.

                        >

                        > On a natural farm, the basic measure for carrying out complete, long-term

                        >

                        > no-fertilizer farming is to build deep, fertile soil. There are various

                        > methods

                        >

                        > for achieving this, including the following.

                        >

                        > (1) It is good to bury coarse organic matter deep in the ground, but this

                        >

                        > requires a great deal of labor, so it is better to plant a forest around

                        > the

                        >

                        > farm.

                        >

                        > (2) In the farm, plant trees and grasses with roots that will grow deep

                        > into the

                        >

                        > ;oil, gradually improving it.

                        >

                        > (3) Cause rainwater carrying nutrients from the humus in the forests on the

                        >

                        >

                        > slopes above the farm to flow down and enrich the farm.

                        >

                        > The essential thing is to maintain, close at hand, a source of humus, which

                        > is

                        >

                        > the basis of fertility.

                        >

                        > You can improve the forests on the slopes above the farm as protective

                        > forests.

                        >

                        > but if there are no forested hills, it is good to make new woods or bamboo

                        >

                        > thickets as protective forests.

                        >

                        > Where the protective forest is concerned, our attention is focused on

                        > creating a

                        >

                        > deep green, natural forest, but we will plant kinds of trees that enrich

                        > the

                        >

                        > soil and will plant a mixture of trees that are highly useful, trees that

                        >

                        > provide food for birds and animals, and those that protect natural

                        > predators.

                        >

                        > Raising a Protective Forest

                        >

                        > Generally, the soil at the summit of a hill or mountain is thin, and it

                        > easily

                        >

                        > dries out, leaving the hill bare at the top. In places like this, we should

                        >

                        >

                        > first grow trailing plants like Ixeris debilis and kudzu to halt the

                        > erosion of

                        >

                        > soil and then sow the seeds of pines and sawara cypress, turning it into a

                        > pine

                        >

                        > forest. At first, fast growing grasses such as eulalia and cogon grasses,

                        > ferns

                        >

                        > such as bracken and scrambling fern, and bushes such as bush clover, Eurya

                        >

                        > japonica and cypress will grow densely, but gradually these plants will be

                        >

                        > replaced, and when Gleichenia glauca, kudzu. and miscellaneous trees begin

                        > to

                        >

                        > grow there, the soil will become enriched.

                        >

                        > On the side of the hill, it's good to plant evergreens such as hinoki

                        > cypress

                        >

                        > and camphor, along with a mixture of other trees such as Chinese nettle

                        > tree,

                        >

                        > zelkova, paulownia, cherry, maple, and eucalyptus. The foot of the hill and

                        > the

                        >

                        > valleys are fertile, so you should plant trees such as walnuts and ginkgo

                        > among

                        >

                        > evergreens such as cryptomeria and oak.

                        >

                        > It is also good to use bamboo groves as protective forests. Bamboo grows

                        > from

                        >

                        > shoots in a single year, and its volume of growth is greater than that of

                        > the

                        >

                        > typical tree, so it is quite valuable as a source of coarse organic

                        > material

                        >

                        > when buried in the ground.

                        >

                        > Not only are the shoots of moso and other bamboos edible, but when dried,

                        > the

                        >

                        > plants are light and easy to carry. Moreover, because bamboo poles are

                        > hollow,

                        >

                        > they decompose slowly when buried and are very effective for holding water

                        > and

                        >

                        > air underground. In other words, bamboo is an extremely effective material

                        > for

                        >

                        > improving the structure of the soil.

                        >

                        > Windbreaks

                        >

                        > Trees planted as windbreaks not only are useful in preventing wind damage

                        > but

                        >

                        > also are important in maintaining soil fertility and improving the

                        > environment.

                        >

                        > Varieties that mature rapidly are cryptomeria, hinoki cypress, acacia, and

                        >

                        > camphor, and camellia, parasol fir, arbutus, and star anise, while

                        > slow-growing.

                        >

                        > are among the most commonly planted.

                        >

                        > Depending on the place, you may also be able to use trees such as evergreen

                        >

                        >

                        > oak, Ternstroemia japonica and Ilex integra.

                        >

                        > Making an Orchard

                        >

                        > It is fine if you take basically the same approach to creating the farm and

                        >

                        >

                        > planting trees as you would in planting trees in the forest. In other

                        > words, you

                        >

                        > cut trees in stages, and nothing — neither the large trunks, branches, nor

                        > the

                        >

                        > leaves — are taken out of the field. We line them up along the contour

                        > lines,

                        >

                        > leaving them covering the ground, and wait for them to decay naturally.

                        >

                        > The basic principle on a natural farm is to create the farm without

                        > clearing the

                        >

                        > land. Generally, land is cleared with a bulldozer. When this is done, the

                        > uneven

                        >

                        > surface of the slopes are flattened, broad roads are made. and mechanized

                        >

                        > agriculture is made possible. In modern orchards, bulldozer clearing has

                        > become

                        >

                        > the norm.

                        >

                        > With mechanization, it becomes easy to apply fertilizer or agricultural

                        >

                        > chemicals, but other than picking the fruit, this sort of heavy labor is

                        > not

                        >

                        > necessary with the natural farming method. Nor is there any need to clear

                        > steep

                        >

                        > slopes. Moreover, success is actually more likely when, from the time we

                        > begin

                        >

                        > making the farm, we have no money and introduce neither machines nor

                        > capital.

                        >

                        > The leaves and branches of trees, along with the roots, will decay in

                        > several

                        >

                        > years, becoming a source of organic fertilizer, and will be of use for a

                        > long

                        >

                        > time. as they provide nutrients for the fruit trees until they reach the

                        > same

                        >

                        > size. Furthermore, the organic matter will provide a covering useful in

                        >

                        > preventing the growth of weeds, will prevent soil loss, will stimulate an

                        >

                        > increase in microorganisms, and will be useful in improving and enriching

                        > the

                        >

                        > soil.

                        >

                        > Just like trees planted in a forest, the fruit trees are best planted in

                        > contour

                        >

                        > lines with the same space between them. If possible, you should dig holes

                        > for

                        >

                        > planting in the shape of octopus traps, add coarse organic matter, and then

                        >

                        >

                        > plant the trees on top of that.

                        >

                        > The reason we do not use a bulldozer when creating a natural farm is, of

                        > course,

                        >

                        > because of the nature of the soil and parent rock, but also, if you flatten

                        > the

                        >

                        > land with a bulldozer, you will scrape off the surface soil, which contains

                        > a

                        >

                        > large amount of organic matter that has accumulated for many years. A farm

                        >

                        > cleared by bulldozer and left untouched for ten years loses surface soil

                        > and its

                        >

                        > economic life is shortened remarkably.

                        >

                        > The leaves and branches of the trees that are clear-cut when the land is

                        >

                        > cleared. Because they will interfere with farming, are usually burned, but

                        > this

                        >

                        > is the same as a burnt-over field, and at a stroke, the fertility is

                        > diminished.

                        >

                        > Also, the roots of trees that penetrate to a great depth and in a physical

                        > sense

                        >

                        > make the soil difficult to work, become a source of nutrients within the

                        > soil

                        >

                        > and serve to carry out chelation, or making undissolved nutrients in the

                        > soil

                        >

                        > soluble. Consequently, if you clear land with a bulldozer, dig up the

                        > organic

                        >

                        > matter in the soil such as roots, and dispose of it, the natural conditions

                        > will

                        >

                        > undergo a violent change. Even if, after the farm is made, you dig up the

                        >

                        > surface of the soil and bury the same amount of coarse organic matter, you

                        > will

                        >

                        > have dealt the soil a blow from which it can hardly recover.

                        >

                        > We can safely say that with 30 cm of topsoil there are enough nutrients

                        > within

                        >

                        > the soil to sustain an orchard for ten years without fertilizer, and if you

                        > have

                        >

                        > one meter of rich earth, for approximately thirty years. If we can retain

                        > the

                        >

                        > rich soil of the natural forest, as it is, then no-fertilizer cultivation

                        > is

                        >

                        > possible.

                        >

                        > Also, it is easy to think that, if we plant trees without clearing the

                        > land,

                        >

                        > their growth will be poor, but in fact. they are not only not inferior, but

                        > it

                        >

                        > appears that there is a tendency for the trees to live longer.

                        >

                        > Making Fields

                        >

                        > Usually a "field" means a place devoted to growing field crops, but using

                        > the

                        >

                        > space between the fruit trees in an orchard and growing vegetables and

                        > other

                        >

                        > special crops like grass beneath the trees is also a natural form. There is

                        > no

                        >

                        > reason why an orchard cannot also be a field for vegetables and grain.

                        >

                        > Of course, if we are pressed to say, the system and methods of cultivation

                        >

                        > differ greatly depending on whether the orchard or field cultivation is

                        >

                        > predominant.

                        >

                        > Making a field where fruit trees are the primary crop and grains and

                        > vegetables

                        >

                        > are grown between the trees is almost the same as making an orchard, and it

                        > is

                        >

                        > not necessary to clear the land. There is no need to carefully prepare the

                        >

                        > ground or bury coarse organic matter.

                        >

                        > In the first stage of making the field, we must pay attention to preventing

                        > weed

                        >

                        > growth and bringing the soil to maturity, so it is good to sow the crops

                        > among

                        >

                        > green manure plants, buckwheat during the first summer and rape and mustard

                        >

                        >

                        > during the first winter. In the next year it is good to plant strong

                        > twining

                        >

                        > plants that reproduce well without fertilizer, such as adzuki and cowpea in

                        >

                        >

                        > summer and hairy vetch in winter. However, they have the disadvantage of

                        >

                        > covering up young fruit tree seedlings. As the field matures, you can grow

                        > a

                        >

                        > variety of other crops.

                        >

                        > Making an Exclusive Field

                        >

                        > It is common to make fields on hilly areas at the foot of mountains or on

                        >

                        > plains, but most field crops are annuals, and many are produced in a few

                        > months

                        >

                        > to half a year. The many vegetables that reach about one meter in height

                        > also

                        >

                        > have shallow roots. Because the time between sowing and harvest is short

                        > and

                        >

                        > several crops can be grown in one year, the surface of the ground is

                        > exposed to

                        >

                        > sunlight for much of the year. Therefore, we must accept the premise that

                        > there

                        >

                        > is much soil loss from exclusive fields on account of rain and that the

                        > soil

                        >

                        > easily loses its fertility and is weak during droughts and cold weather.

                        >

                        > When making the field, the most important concern is the prevention of soil

                        >

                        >

                        > erosion, and it is necessary to terrace the field to make the surface

                        > level.

                        >

                        > Therefore, the first step in making a field is building up earthen banks or

                        >

                        >

                        > making stone walls, and then making terraced fields. The success or failure

                        > of

                        >

                        > the field depends on the skill involved in knowing the nature of the soil

                        > and

                        >

                        > making banks that will not crumble or in using the stones dug up from the

                        > field

                        >

                        > to make stone walls.

                        >

                        > Whether the surface of the terraced field is level or gently sloping also

                        > has a

                        >

                        > great effect on growing conditions and agricultural efficiency.

                        >

                        > It goes without saying that the fundamental method for improving the soil

                        > of the

                        >

                        > field is to dig deep trenches and bury coarse organic matter in them, but

                        >

                        > another good method is to pile up the soil in tall ridges. In general it is

                        >

                        >

                        > sufficient simply to plant shade trees and trees that provide fertilizer.

                        >

                        > Making Paddy Fields

                        >

                        > At present it is easy to make paddy fields by clearing the plains with

                        > large

                        >

                        > machines, carrying away the rubbish, and leveling the ground. This also

                        > makes

                        >

                        > possible increasing the size of the fields, which will make mechanized

                        >

                        > agricultural even more convenient in the future.

                        >

                        > However, there are some disadvantages to this method, because it is a very

                        >

                        > coarse method of construction;

                        >

                        > (1) The topsoil of the paddy is of uneven depth, because of differences in

                        > the

                        >

                        > height of the field surface, and this results in uneven growth of crops.

                        >

                        > (2) Because the large, heavy machines have put pressure on the soil. it is

                        >

                        > compressed more than necessary. Underground water will collect and

                        > stagnate..

                        >

                        > it will reach an unnatural state of deoxidation, causing the roots to

                        > decay, and

                        >

                        > in many cases the desired result will not be achieved.

                        >

                        > (3) A more serious problem is that, because the ridges all become

                        > concretized.

                        >

                        > the microorganisms in the soil change or die, and gradually the soil dies

                        > and

                        >

                        > turns to stone. There is a danger of making a field of dead earth.

                        >

                        > Trees are the guardians of the soil in paddies, growing densely, large and

                        >

                        > small, on mounds in the fields. The landscape of paddies near Sukhothai,

                        >

                        > Thailand, is one of the finest examples in the world of the ideals of the

                        >

                        > natural farming method.

                        >

                        > Here I would like to leave the discussion of making modern paddies and

                        > conclude

                        >

                        > with a few words about paddy-making in ancient times.

                        >

                        > It would seem to be common sense to make paddy fields on level ground, but

                        > in

                        >

                        > ancient times it was often the case that people lived and made paddies not

                        > on

                        >

                        > the flat, fertile land beside large rivers, but rather in mountainous

                        > areas,

                        >

                        > where there was less danger of floods and strong winds. They would make

                        > paddies

                        >

                        > in river valleys and in terraces on the mountainsides, and devote

                        > themselves to

                        >

                        > farming there.

                        >

                        > However, it is unnecessary to go to great lengths to grow rice in paddy

                        > fields.

                        >

                        > It is quite possible to grow rice in dry fields watered only by the rain.

                        >

                        > PART 6: SOWING A VARIETY OF SEEDS IN THE DESERT TO CREATE A FOREST FOR

                        > ELEPHANTS

                        >

                        > You may think it reckless for me to say that we can revegetate the desert.

                        >

                        > Although I have confirmed my theory, unfortunately 1 have had few

                        > opportunities

                        >

                        > to prove it on a large scale. Recently, however, the government of India

                        > has

                        >

                        > asked for technical assistance in carrying out aerial seeding as a measure

                        >

                        > against desertification, so I have tried, in this hasty manner, to

                        > summarize my

                        >

                        > ideas and concrete steps for putting the theory into practice.

                        >

                        > To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have

                        >

                        > destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature,

                        >

                        > nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean

                        > nonintervention.

                        >

                        > In the case of places like the desert, which have lost their regenerative

                        > power,

                        >

                        > we must mix seeds and microorganisms of every variety in clay pellets and

                        >

                        > scatter them from the air. In India there are more than 500 varieties of

                        > trees

                        >

                        > that bear edible nuts and 500 varieties of fruit trees. In addition, we

                        > should

                        >

                        > sow among them a mixture of 500 varieties of grains, vegetables, and green

                        >

                        > manure, ideally on the Deccan Plateau and in the desert. My supposition is

                        > that,

                        >

                        > no matter how bad the conditions, there will be some seed varieties suited

                        > to

                        >

                        > that place that will germinate. Even though some will wither and die from

                        >

                        > extreme dryness and heat, if we sow various green manures, vegetables, and

                        >

                        > grasses along with drought and salt-resistant plants, a number of them will

                        >

                        >

                        > survive. If for even a short time the surface of the earth is covered with

                        >

                        > vegetation, its temperature will be lowered. The role of the "pilot" plants

                        > is

                        >

                        > to aid in creating conditions that will allow other plants to germinate.

                        >

                        > A second purpose in so wide a variety of plants and microorganisms is to

                        > awaken

                        >

                        > the sleeping earth. Among deserts, there are deserts of sand that have lost

                        > the

                        >

                        > ability to support life and have died, but most savannas are young clay

                        > deserts

                        >

                        > in which the nutrients needed by plants are only sleeping. In order to

                        > cause

                        >

                        > chelation, in other words, to rouse the earth and bring about the rebirth

                        > of

                        >

                        > life, a variety of seeds of lover plant forms and microorganisms are

                        > necessary.

                        >

                        > The earth will not come back to life if we only plant a number of useful

                        > trees

                        >

                        > in the desert. A plant cannot grow up in isolation. To grow, a

                        > hundred-meter

                        >

                        > tree needs enough soil for one hundred meters of roots. Also, trees of

                        > seventy,

                        >

                        > forth, and twenty meters are necessary. Furthermore, trees are needed to

                        > protect

                        >

                        > the base of the tall trees, and beneath them, undergrowth vegetation and

                        >

                        > microorganisms are necessary. Only with the aid of all these can a tree

                        > grow to

                        >

                        > a height of one hundred meters. Life does not exist in isolation, and a

                        > large

                        >

                        > tree is the crystallization of the cooperation of numerous living things.

                        > When a

                        >

                        > large forest is created, and the degree of nature, or density of

                        > vegetation, is

                        >

                        > high, then rain will begin to fall.

                        >

                        > Clouds will form over the mountains and rise up from the valleys. The

                        > principal

                        >

                        > actors in the forest are not just the tall trees. Ferns, moss, and fallen

                        > leaves

                        >

                        > all have roles to play.

                        >

                        > Rather than trying to secure water and cause rain to fall using human

                        > knowledge,

                        >

                        > we should stop ignoring the mind of nature. Then the earth will naturally

                        > be

                        >

                        > covered with lush green vegetation. The mind of nature is the core or heart

                        > of

                        >

                        > nature. If we do not know the heart of nature, the fundamental source of

                        > the

                        >

                        > creation of the cosmos, then no matter how much we observe the outer aspect

                        > of

                        >

                        > nature, the recovery of nature will be impossible.

                        >

                        > If we grasp the mind of nature, which is God, and live in accordance with

                        > it,

                        >

                        > nature will be reborn naturally, and pitiful measures, based on human

                        > knowledge,

                        >

                        > to prevent desertification will vanish like the dew. The workings of nature

                        > are

                        >

                        > governed by nature. When we consider that the interference of human

                        > knowledge

                        >

                        > and action is the fundamental cause of global desertification, then the

                        > only

                        >

                        > measure against desertification must be the abolishment of human knowledge

                        > and

                        >

                        > action.

                        >

                        > From the decision to abandon human knowledge comes the extremely simple,

                        > minimal

                        >

                        > human action of sowing a variety of seeds. Sowing a variety of seeds, which

                        > is

                        >

                        > in direct opposition to the current, scientific method of selecting and

                        > planting

                        >

                        > the most valuable, useful tree varieties, appears to be quite easy, but in

                        > fact

                        >

                        > it is exceedingly difficult because it requires a fundamental reversal in

                        > human

                        >

                        > values.

                        >

                        > In other words. it is much easier for people to choose something special

                        > from

                        >

                        > nature and use it for the benefit of human beings. But, humans make a grave

                        >

                        >

                        > error at that time. Extracting one thing from nature, in the name of

                        > development

                        >

                        > or of creating something new, and attributing value to it means making

                        > other

                        >

                        > things valueless. Making one thing useful results in abandoning other

                        > things as

                        >

                        > useless.

                        >

                        > All human economic activity is opposed to nature, and it is the way of

                        > human

                        >

                        > beings to plant useful trees in the desert, cut down the undergrowth, and

                        > grow

                        >

                        > single crops, thereby sacrificing, as "weeds," many times the achieved

                        > amount of

                        >

                        > vegetation. For the same reason, from the viewpoint of nature, most human

                        >

                        > production and efforts to protect nature are linked to the destruction of

                        >

                        > nature.

                        >

                        > People choose what to plant in the desert. Whenever they consider whether a

                        >

                        >

                        > plant will grow or not, whether it is useful or harmful, whether it will

                        > grow

                        >

                        > rapidly or slowly, they are selecting only special varieties and are

                        > discarding

                        >

                        > others. In other words, whenever they make a selection, half the plant

                        > varieties

                        >

                        > are lost. From the viewpoint of nature, the number of trees saved by humans

                        > is

                        >

                        > much fever than number of plants overlooked. Plant varieties decrease and

                        > become

                        >

                        > simplified. so that they are losing both quantity and quality. And this

                        > triggers

                        >

                        > desertification. For this reason, when modern farms in the desert are

                        > abandoned

                        >

                        > after five years, they become deserts worse than the original.

                        >

                        > There is no good or bad among the life forms on earth. Each has its role.

                        > is

                        >

                        > necessary, and has the same value. This is also the basis for sowing seeds

                        > of

                        >

                        > many varieties.

                        >

                        > My measures for countering desertification may appear childish and

                        > unscientific,

                        >

                        > but they are based on a philosophical view of nature that transcends

                        > science. In

                        >

                        > order to understand and put into practice this one simple thing, we are

                        > force to

                        >

                        > embrace the extremely difficult position (the revolutionary conclusion)

                        > that all

                        >

                        > of man's ideas and actions must be transformed. But if we can do this one

                        > thing,

                        >

                        > we can transform the world.

                        >

                        > ...

                        >

                        > " -- everyone please proof read this text as Jamie obtained it from his

                        > copy

                        >

                        > from Michiyo by scanning. I have one printed copy also and am proof reading

                        >

                        >

                        > Jamie's scan. Please DO NOT distribute this text privately printed by late

                        > Mr.

                        >

                        > Fukuoka sensei (and usually the small no. of copies where given to heads of

                        >

                        >

                        > state like the Indian Prime Minister or Ministers (i read somewhere)).

                        >

                        > -- Jamie 'souscayrous' Nicol in this group previous quoted this above quote

                        > in

                        >

                        > part in this group, here:

                        >

                        > -> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/fukuoka_farming/message/5353

                        >

                        > Best wishes to all people,

                        >

                        > Jase.

                        >

                        > south-eastern Oz (vernacular for Australia)

                        >

                        > PS. This message was sent on 28 Nov. 2010 to this Yahoo group

                        > Fukuoka_farming

                        >

                        > but for some unexplained reason didn't get through - Dear Moderator please

                        >

                        > explain! So, i'm sending all these two missed backlog messages now that

                        > messages

                        >

                        > are getting through... .

                        >

                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                        >

                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                        >

                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                        >

                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                        >

                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                        >

                        >

                        >



                        --

                        Raju Titus. Hoshangabad. 461001.India.

                        +919179738049.

                        http://picasaweb.google.com/rajuktitus<http://picasawebalbum.google.com/rajuktitus>

                        fukuoka_farming yahoogroup



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