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15265Re: [fukuoka_farming] Agroforestry in a Nutshell | Center For Deep Ecology

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  • Murat Tiryakioglu
    Apr 5, 2013
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      Here is his book Restoration Agriculture
      http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1601730357/ref=gno_cart_title_1?ie=UTF8&psc=1&smid=ATVPDKIKX0DER


      On Sat, Mar 23, 2013 at 5:57 AM, Sumant Joshi <sumant_jo@...> wrote:

      > **
      >
      >
      > Very interesting indeed!! especially Sheppard's ideas and the food forest.
      > This is real long term sustainability. Unless people adopt these new memes,
      > it is indeed going to be very difficult if not calamitous for many
      > societies. Sheppard's forest is what I call 'pockets of sustainability'.
      >
      > I like this ""There are two problems with agriculture - even organic
      > agriculture," said Shepard recently on the phone. "You are either trying to
      > keep something alive that wants to die, or you are trying to kill something
      > that wants to stay alive."
      >
      > When these things really catch on, the 'conventional' economy is going to
      > take a hit
      >
      > Sent from my BSNL landline B-fone
      >
      > Warm regards,
      >
      > Sumant Joshi
      > Tel - 09370010424, 0253-2361161
      >
      > >________________________________
      > > From: Ohnwentsya <dorianeldritch@...>
      > >To: fukuoka_farming@yahoogroups.com
      > >Sent: Saturday, 23 March 2013 1:40 AM
      > >Subject: [fukuoka_farming] Agroforestry in a Nutshell | Center For Deep
      > Ecology
      >
      > >
      > >
      > >
      > >I got this on another list I read, and it seems like this person is
      > following Fukuoka's work to some degree, even tho he is not mentioned. I
      > like the mention of following the ecosystem that was present in the area
      > prior to colonization as a map-it seems like if we work with what is
      > natural for the area we can more easily overcome the obstacles.
      > >
      > >I guess the trick would be in places that have been under cultivation for
      > millenia, to discover what that original ecosystem was, tho maybe it is
      > represented in smaller areas that were not disturbed for whatever reason?
      > >
      > >I got a book called "Priceless Florida" that goes into detail on each of
      > the dominant ecosystems that were present here(and still are in more
      > fragmented form) and how they work, what plants and animals are endemic to
      > them etc. I don't know if such books exist for all areas but where they are
      > available they could be very helpful to overcoming things like the cover
      > crop issue that has been discussed here.
      > >
      > >If you can discover what covered the ground before it was disturbed, even
      > if that plant is not easy to establish again in the disturbed state you
      > would know the characteristics that are most adapted to the soil and
      > rainfall etc. and it might be possible to find things that would replace
      > the hard to eradicate weed grasses but be beneficial, even if they were
      > native to somewhere else.
      > >
      > >Where I live is beach sand and is considered part of the "back dune"
      > environment, basically a transition area between the beach and the open
      > Pine forest ecosystem that once covered most upland areas. Annual crop type
      > agriculture is near impossible, but Surinam cherries, citrus, carambola,
      > loquat and many other tropical and subtropical fruit trees survive with no
      > inputs and thrive with a little attention. The only groundcovers that
      > succeed here are beach plants and desert plants-except of course where
      > people have watering systems, add fertilizer etc.
      > >
      > >Blessings,
      > >Ohnwentsya
      > >Agroforestry in a Nutshell
      > >Posted on March 12, 2013 by C4DE
      > >
      > >"Invest in the millennium. Plant sequoias," said farmer and author
      > Wendell Berry.
      > >
      > >Or, if you're Mark Shepard, plant chestnuts. For Shepard, the owner of
      > New Forest Farm and a farming consultant, the long-lived perennial trees
      > are a central feature in the ideal farm landscape. Annuals - i.e. corn,
      > soybeans, and many other vegetables that have to be planted and harvested
      > every year - are labor-intensive and come with steep environmental costs
      > such as erosion, soil degradation, and nutrient runoff. So permaculturists
      > like Shepard see planting fruit and nut trees and other perennials - which
      > only need to be planted once, and then, once mature, continue to produce
      > year after year - as a key to sustainable food systems. His 106-acre farm
      > in southwestern Wisconsin is filled with hazelnuts, chestnuts, pine nuts,
      > currants, berries, apples, and much more.
      > >
      > >Shepard calls his approach "restoration agriculture" (that's also the
      > name of his recently published book), and his hope is to mimic nature as
      > much as possible to produce high-quality crops while restoring the health
      > and fertility of the land.
      > >
      > >"There are two problems with agriculture - even organic agriculture,"
      > said Shepard recently on the phone. "You are either trying to keep
      > something alive that wants to die, or you are trying to kill something that
      > wants to stay alive."
      > >
      > >Using a method he fondly calls "STUN" - sheer, total, utter neglect -
      > Shepard propagates varieties of fruit and nut trees that produce edibles
      > early and often, and continue to thrive in an agriculture system that, once
      > planted, mostly gets ignored until it's time to harvest. If the plants
      > can't naturally stand up against the vagaries of disease, pests, and
      > weather, Shepard yanks them out. The resilient ones are bred and planted.
      > >
      > >Instead of endless rows of industrially managed corn and soybeans,
      > Shepard utilizes a permaculture technique known as the keyline system to
      > create a series of berms and swales - glorified drain ditches, really - to
      > capture and retain rainwater. From above, the miles of swales feeding
      > hundreds of thousands of thirsty trees and other perennial crops look like
      > mythic crop circles.
      > >
      > >"The trees are the producers of the staple crops," says Shepard.
      > "Chestnuts are nutritionally equivalent to brown rice and similar to corn.
      > Hazelnuts have three times the oil-per-kernel weight and a similar protein
      > profile [as] soybeans. Plus we have the nutshells, which can be burned in a
      > pellet stove or gasified to generate electricity."
      > >
      > >Shepard uses the oak savannah ecosystem - which covered much of the
      > Midwest prior to European settlement - as an ecological model for his farm.
      > Beside larger fruit and nut trees, like apple, mulberry, and pine nut, he
      > grows shrubs like nanking cherry and hazelnut. Berry patches border the
      > forest while other edibles - asparagus, winter squash, or green peppers -
      > fill in the alleys between each row of trees in an agroforestry practice
      > that's referred to as "alley cropping."
      > >
      > >"We used to grow all kinds of annual produce but we are doing less and
      > less of that now since our woody crops [fruit and nut perennials] started
      > producing. When we first began, we were relying on the alley crops for cash
      > flow but [we're] now moving more toward grazing," says Shepard.
      > >
      > >Multi-species grazing on silvopasture - the intentional combination of
      > livestock, forage, and trees on grass - now plays an essential part in the
      > operation. Cattle and pigs eat the grass under the trees as well as
      > whatever fruits and nuts that are not harvested for market sales or the
      > on-farm cidery where apples and other fruits are pressed, fermented, and
      > sold as hard cider. Because the livestock, nuts, and fruits are integrated
      > into the same plot, they complement each other, much like the parts of a
      > forest do, rather than competing for space, nutrients, water, etc.
      > >
      > >While New Forest Farm is still trying to perfect its system, Shepard
      > believes the farm can support up to 100 cattle, 200 hogs, 200 sheep, and
      > thousands of turkeys and chickens. Raising animals in this way has the
      > potential to revolutionize food systems that are dependent on feeding corn,
      > soybeans, and other grain-based feeds to animals in confinement.
      > >
      > >"We've generated numbers that show our system is capable of out-yielding
      > corn by 30 percent on calories per acre," says Shepard. "And as far as
      > nutrition per acre, it's off the charts. Then throw in the fact that the
      > whole system is perennial - we don't have any more planting costs,
      > maintenance costs are minimal, no pest or disease control, no [fertilizer]
      > inputs."
      > >
      > >As animal feed costs are rising because of the record droughts in the
      > Midwest, Shepard stands to do really well raising livestock this way. He
      > gives his large animals a little grain with vitamin supplements (his steer
      > gets only three cups of grain a day, whereas conventionally raised steers
      > need as much as 25 pounds of grain feed a day). Shepard plans to quadruple
      > the number of animals on his farm next year.
      > >
      > >The idea, eventually, is to have cattle, chickens, hogs, sheep, and
      > turkeys in a leader-follower system - all of the animals will be kept in
      > small paddocks and moved frequently to aggressively trample-graze the
      > alleys between trees and shrubs.
      > >
      > >Due to this year's drought, Shepard's apples were nonexistent and the
      > chestnuts and hazelnuts were way down. But the farm has a large variety of
      > crops that produce at different times and thrive in multiple climatic
      > conditions. He believes this approach will be crucial for farmers facing
      > the unpredictable, potentially destructive weather of the future. "This
      > summer was the driest on record in our part of Wisconsin and we had the
      > finest cattle and hogs we've ever had," he says.
      > >
      > >Source: Grist
      > >
      > >This entry was posted in Permaculture, Solutions and tagged Chestnut,
      > Food Forest, Hazelnut, Mark Shepard, New Forest Farm, Permaculture,
      > Restoration Agriculture. Bookmark the permalink.
      > >http://centerfordeepecology.org/agroforestry-in-a-nutshell/
      > >
      > >[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      > >
      > >
      > >
      > >
      > >
      >
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