Explaination about " distance, evolution etc..." to FRANK
First explaination about that " distance, evolution etc.. " with exemples:
One man heard for the first time: CEREVISIA, but he doesn't know how to write that because in his time just a few people knew to read and to write. He didn't know how to write that word ,however, he talked to another guy as he understood it and heard that new word, he could start to repeat the same word as he understood it. Then that man says to a friend : The drink is "CEREVESIA" !, but... that friend goes to the home and repeats the word for his wife days later, as "CERVESIA" and the wife speaks for the neighbor who the word is "CERVEJA". (in English = Beer)
Frank, these people didn't have Latin lessons, therefore the language in such a way modified the point of that in some cases nobody see any more the original word. In this case above the modification was lesser because it was a very used word . Then, exactly being the kilometers of distance of where is real Latin speakers, still it is similar the original word. But other words had not the same luck and had been modified by ears and now they didn't know the original word in Latin.
"Concluding. How much less we ( we = the portuguese, brazilian, spanish, italian, romanian, french, etc... ) learn Latin. More distant and understandible will become the languages."
Did u understand it or i have to draw?
In phonological level, it had evolution, alteration, changes, that can be reconstituted through the comparison and analysis of texts.
For example, the groups CL, FL, PL ,in Latin, when preceded of consonants, they had been changedded into CH: ( first words in Latin, and the second in Portuguese.)
( a reply to :" When latin help u to write in portuguese")
pl = pluvia = chuva; plumbium = chumbo;
fl = flama = chama(subst.) / inflare = encher;
cl =clama =chama(v.) clave= chave
Other for evolution :
Masculu > masclu > masclo > macho
Fasculu > fasclu > facho Macula > mancula > mancla
The Latin gerund "ridendum" passed to "riindo" and later for "rindo".( laughing)
Why the "direct object of the verb?" The fall of the Latin declinations - (indicating grammatical morphemes of function of the words in the phrase). In the Latin it's indifferent to say " Hannibal fugavit Minucium" "(Hannibal drove away Minucio) or Minuciumnt fugavit Hannibal " or " Minucium Hannibal fugavit", the grammatical morpheme (termination - um in MinuciUM) indicates the function of the direct object of the verb. In Portuguese, the order is pertinent and dumb the direction. This comes of vulgar Latin one that it preferred to use phrases using the direct object of the verb without declinations.
While in the classic Latin they used to say for example "liber" (the book) the population preferred "illu libru" or "unu libro", these resulting in "illo libro > lo libro > o libro > o livro" (the book) and "unu libru > uno libro > un libro > um libro > um livro (a book) in Portuguese.(in Italian: " il libro " and " uno libro".)
- Still helping to write in Portuguese:
PS that goes for SS. --> ipse > esse ; ipsu > isso ; gypsu > gesso CT it's vocalized --> nocte > noite ; octo > oito ; respctu > respeito PT it's vocalized --> conceptu > conceito ; acceptu > aceito. RB - iB- B transformed in V sound: arbore > árvore ; Turbare > Torvar ; Carbone > Carvão
Dy - to C or J - Audio > audyo > ouço ; Ardeo > ardio > ardyo > arço ( arc.) ; Verecundia > verecundya > vegonça ( arc.) ; Insidio > ensedio > ensejo ; Hodie > hodye > hoje ; Invidia > invidya > inveja
Reply to the question :
___ Apart from your writing, which is quite, erm, hermetic, your idea of
why "our languages" change isn't very clear. Literally you write that
"our languages" change because it is economically important today. I must be misreading this. I read quite a bit about language change, but this one is new to me. Maybe i don't fully understand your lines -- i have
the idea that your train of thoughts has left the tracks -- but care to
Really mine mistake, sorry: I said that our language, the Portuguese, comes assimilating English words that already existed or that they exist in Portuguese. So, we are losing the Portuguese and changing to the English. And .... I affirm that a second language for the whole world could be the Esperanto because it doesn't have one or two countries for backwards of this. A world-wide language cannot depend on economy.
1. JOVANOVIC´, Aleksandar - Descubra a lingüística , 1987, Companhia Editora Nacional.
2. CARVALHO , Dolores Garcia & , NASCIMENTO Manoel, 14º edição - Editora Ática , 1988 . ( This is a rare exemplary, and i have it !! hehehe)
3. SARAIVA, F.R.S. - Novíssimo dicionário latino-português, 10.ed., 1993
4. FERREIRA, A.B.H. - Novo dicionário da língua portuguesa, 3.ed. Rio de Janeiro, Ed. Nova Fronteira, 1999.
5. MICHAELIS-Moderno dicionário da língua portuguesa. São Paulo, Cia. Melhoramentos, 1998.
6. ACADEMIA DAS CIÊNCIAS DE LISBOA - Dicionário da língua portuguesa contemporânea. Lisboa, Ed. Verbo, 2001.9. REY, L. - Dicionário de termos técnicos de medicina e saúde. koogan S.A., 1999.
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