## faster than light

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• Petar Bosnic Petrus, Faster than light CONICAL AND PARABOLOIDAL SUPERLUMINAL PARTICLE ACCELERATORS Corrected and enlarged article Theoretical suppositions In
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Petar Bosnic Petrus,

Faster than light

CONICAL AND PARABOLOIDAL SUPERLUMINAL PARTICLE
ACCELERATORS

Corrected and enlarged article

Theoretical suppositions

In the my previous work: ¡°How the velocity of light
can be excedeed¡±, I have shown that light is not a
special // separate (or positive) physical entity and
that velocity of light, c, is not the property of
light itself but is, in fact, a vacuum or space
transference constant - the ability or property of
vacuum // space to transfer electromagnetic impulses
at precisely that and only at that speed.

Using the existing methods and accelerators I have
also shown that it was not possible to accelerate the
particles to a speed exceeding the velocity of light,
c, in other words, that this is not possible, not due
to the increase the particle mass, m, but because the
acceleratory effect of force F, which affects the
particle - and which is transferred exclusively at the
velocity of light, c, - falls towards zero when at the
velocity of the particle v that is close to the
velocity of light c.

This is the result one arrives at from further
developing Einstein's key equation of the Special
theory of relativity - equation related to this
subject-matter.

¡°Transverse mass = m/ 1 ¨C v2/c2¡± ¡° ¡±
(1)*

Once this equation is, at Einstein's own suggestion,
taken to its ¡°pure¡± form suitable for
interpretation, the following is obtained:

m = F/a, m/1-v27c2 = F/a...(2), m =
F(1-v2/c2)/a...(3), a =F(1-v2/c2)/m...(4)

, (2),
(3),

or rather .........(4).

See all eqations and figures at my site, by keywords:
petar bosnic petrus

When the velocity of a particle is v = c, the relative
velocity, crel, of dispersion and effect of the force
F, which accelerates the particle, is, in relation to
the particle itself, equal to zero. Consequently, its
acceleration is also a = 0 // also equals zero. For
the a > 0 it is necessary that the relative velocity
of light, crel, in relation to the particle, be higher
than zero.

I have also shown that a similar situation occurs with
an object that is being accelerated by sound waves,
and that in such a case the Lorentz transformation
equations, by way of which the acceleration, caused by
force transferred by sound waves, can be calculated
extremely accurately, are also applicable. Therefore,
it is not the increase of the

________________
E. Einstein
On the electrodynamics of moving bodies
¡ì 10, Slowly accelerated electron.

particle mass, m, which is calculated using the
Lorentz transformation equations (as was stated by
Special Reativity), but rather the reduction of the
acceleratory effect of force F.

A similar phenomenon, which occurs in existing
accelerators, also affects a sailing ship which has
the wind in it sails coming straight from behind, i.e.
from the stern. When the velocity of the sailing ship
approaches the speed of the wind, the relative
velocity of wind at which it hits the sails drops, and
with it the force propelling the sailing ship forward.
In such a case a sailing ship does not, due to the
resistance of water, reach even the velocity of the
wind, but a somewhat lower speed.

The reason for choosing the example of a sailing ship
lies in its ability to demonstrate a fact of crucial
significance for the particle acceleration physics, as
the following short text will show.

The following is the said text:

If a sailing ship, which we assume is offering low
resistance to moving through water, if therefore, this
sailing ship has wind blowing not from behind but from
its side - at right angles in relation to the
direction of its movement - then such a ship is going
to achieve a speed significantly higher than the speed
of wind blowing into its sails.

Ships which are particularly suitable for achievement
of such supravental velocities are the small,
lightweight catamarans, because they can (because of
very low resistance) sail much faster than the
velocity of the wind propelling them forward.

Conical supraluminal accelerator

In the common types of particle accelerator (linear or
circular), the waves which accelerates a particle
comes from behind, just like the wind into the sails
of the above mentioned sailing ship comes from its
stern. Which is why the particle cannot achieve the
velocity of light, let alone exceed it.

However, if we were to bring that same wave to the
side of the particle, then it could reach a velocity
that would be several times greater than c.

Since a particle has no sails, no keel and no rudder
which would redirect the force affecting it, we would
have to bring the waves from all sides, and do so at
an angle slightly over 900 in relation to the
direction of its movement.

This can be achieved with a conical accelerator ¨C a
funnel-shaped accelerator. See

Picture 1.

Figures at my main site: petar bosnic petrus com

Picture 1: ax - axis of conical accelerator and
trajectory of accelerated particles; 1 - wall of the
conical accelerator; 2 ¨C coils; 3 - electromagnetic
waves; 4 - accelerated particle; 5 point of
intersection of electromagnetic waves; 6 - standard
accelerator tube or cathode tube; 7 - cisoidal
cross-section of mantle resulting from the
acceleration of particles to the speed exceeding the
speed of light - Cherenkov effect.

Procedure

A particle is first accelerated in a standard
accelerator to a subluminal velocity close to the
velocity c and then introduced into the funnel-shaped,
or rather the conical, accelerator. Instead of a
circular or linear accelerator, 6, a more powerful
cathode tube can be used.

The electromagnetic waves 3 - created by the coils 2
of the conical accelerator, all of which are turned on
at the same time - moves tansversally, i.e.
perpendiculary // vertically in relation to the wall
of the funnel, 1 towards its axis ax. At the same time
waves approaches both the particle it accelerates, 4
and axis ax along which the particle moves, at an
angle somewhat greater than 900 in relation to the
movement direction of the particle. The intersection
point of electromagnetic waves 5 which is located on
axis ax, moves along the axis as many times faster as
the axis ax is longer than the radius r. The particle
is propelled and accelerated by the vector sum of all
electromagnetic forces affecting it in the funnel
(conical accelerator). The ultimate particle velocity
v depends, as already said, on the ratio between axis
ax, and radius r of the large aperture of the funnel.
If axis ax is four times longer than radius r (as
shown in our picture), then the particle velocity at
the exit from the funnel will necessarily be four time
faster than velocity c, due to the fact that the
electromagnetic waves which accelerate it along axis
ax, and the point of their intersection, 5, must - in
the same period of time in which, in their transversal
motion, they cover the length of the radius r - cover
a four times greater distance while moving along axis
ax in an approximately longitudinal direction. Taken
in general, ultimate particle velocity v is as many
times higher than c the axis of the cone is longer
than the radius r. In the conical accelerator shown in
Picture 1 that ratio is 4:1. With a higher ratio, for
instance 5:1, the vector sum of forces affecting the
particle would be smaller, which would have to be
compensated for with a more powerful electromagnetic
wave. And if the waves were strong enough, the
ultimate velocity of the particle would be 5 times
that of velocity c.

Still one analogical explanation.

Please do imagine very smooth, but unshapred scissors
and try to cut a peace of steel file. You will not be
able to cut it. Smooth blades of scissors will pull
the steel file towards the its top (top of sccisors)
by velocity several times larger than is the velocity
of movement of the blades itself.

In this example, the blades of scissors are
representing the electromagnetic vawes of accelerator
and its velocity. Steel file is representing charged
particle. The charged particle will behaviour just as
steel file. This accelerator functions as an
electromagnetic scissors.

***

The difference between the conical accelerator and
existing ones lies in its ability to make the relative
velocity of the electromagnetic waves crel ¨C for
particles which move at the velocity of light or
greater - several times greater than the velocity of
the particles themselves, v, thus enabling their
acceleration above the speed of light. In standard
accelerators the relative velocity of waves, crel. is,
in relation to the highly accelerated particle, very
close to zero, crel @ 0. while in a conical
accelerator it is crel. > 0, several times over.

The electromagnetic field of a conical accelerator
need not be of enormously great power or density
since, due to its specific shape, the density of
electromagnetic wave - similar to those in fusion
reactors - concentrates and increases the closer it
gets to axis ax, and consequently, when close to the
axis of the electromagnetic field it increases to an
very high density. At every point of axis ax value od
the density of magnetic field §¶ax will increase for
the value §¶0 x 2r ¦Ð . Where the §¶0 is density of
magnetic field onto the surface of coils; r is radius,
i.e. distance from coils to certain point onto the
axis ax.

§¶ax = §¶0∙2r¦Ð ( 5)

Bearing in mind a certain inertion of the particles it
would be necessary, in order to achieve velocities
many times greater than the velocity of light, to
accelerate them with a battery or row of conical
accelerators, the first of which would accelerate the
particle to a speed only twice as fast as the speed of
light, the second three or four times, the third four,
five or six times, and so on.
Paraboloidal supraluminal accelerator...
The same effect could be achieved by an accelerator
whose axial cross-section that would not be strictly
conical and rectiliniar, as the one already shown, but
more like a parabola, i.e. similar to a parabolic
concave mirror. (See Picture 2.) With such an
accelerator the ratio between axis ax and radius r
would be continually increasing from the entry into
the accelerator to the exit from it - the large
aperture of the cone. The velocity of the
electromagnetic waves along axis ax would increase at
the same rate in relation to speed c - from a ratio
of, for instance, 2:1 to 10:1.or 20:1 In these
relations the figure 1 denotes the length of radius r
and the velocity of light c, while figures 2, 10 and
20 denotes the length of the axis ax and the number of
times the velocity of the wave traveling along axis ax
exceeds its transversal velocity c.
Picture 2.

Picture 2: ax - accelerator axis , 1 - wall of the
paraboloidal supraluminal accelerator; 2. - tubes of a
standard accelerator or cathode tube.
When measuring the achieved velocity of a particle one
should bear in mind the existence of theoretical
indications whereby a pure vacuum could, with regard
to the supraluminal particles, behave as a diamagnetic
medium and therefore decelerate them. Ionized particle
would cause a change in the density of a magnetic
field - precisely because of the supraluminal speed -
exclusively in the space behind the accelerated
particle. The particle moving faster than light would
also cause the Cherenkov cone-effect, i.e. conical
mantle of ¡°compressed vacuum¡±, while due to the
acceleration of a particle the axial cross-section
would not be strictly conical - as demonstrated to
date by experiments based on the Cherenkov theory -
but would instead be more of a cisoidal shape
elongated along axis ax.
Theoretical possibility
After leaving the field of accelerator, at the
supraluminal velocity, the space maybe will transforme
ionized particles into neutral.
Electrical, conical and paraboloidal supraluminal,
accelerators
Since the electrical field is spreaded in the same, or
similar manner as a magnetic field does (shovn by
picture 1), instead of magnetic accelarators, provided
with coils, we are enabled to use electrical
accelerators at which the mass of walls, 1 is charged
by positive or negative electricity charge or power,
as shown by the figure 3. In this, electrical type of
accelerators we can also use paraboloidal and conical
shape of accelerator and a battery or row of tham.
Picture 3

Picture 3: ax - accelerator axis , 1 - wall of the
paraboloidal supraluminal accelerator charged by
positive electrical charge; 2. - tubes of a standard
accelerator or cathode tube; 3 ¨Caccelerated, positive
ion, particle.
How does it functions ?

Supraluminal electrical accelerators are turned on, or
charged by electricity, after the charged particle was
introduced into the space of conical or paraboloidal
acceletators. They are accelerating the particles by
repulsive force along the axis ax. Negative charged
particles, eg. Electrons, are accelerated by negative
charge of accelerator.

Maximal velocity

The largest theoretically possible velocity of
accelerated particles at the certain conical or
paraboloidal accelerator depends on the ratio between
radius r and axis ax. We can calculate it by the
relation:
v :c = ax : r, v r = c ax (6)

v = c ax /r ...........(7)

If that ratio should be 1,6m : 0,4m, i.e 4 : 1, than
would follow:

v = c 1,6m / 0,4mm (8)

v = 4c (9)

Maximal, theoretical possible velocity of particles at
this accelerator would be 4c

At which velocity an acceleration of the particle is
falling to zero?

It depends of the ratio between the radius r and axis
ax If the ratio is, eg. 1 : 4 , acceleration of
particle will fall to zero close the velocity 4c.That
is in accordance with eqation based in Lorentz
transformation.

a = F(4 ¨Cv2/4c2)/m (10)

If we want to continue acceleration, or increase
velocity we can not do it by increasing the
accelerative force than rather by increasing ratio
between r and ax. If that ratio should be: eg. 1 : 7
the acceleration will fall to zero close to velocity
7c. In that case, (case of ratio 1 : 7) maximal
theoretically possible velocity also will be slightly
less than 7c

General equation is as follow:

a = F(n ¨Cv2/nc2) / m (11)

n is ratio betwen radius r and axis ax

If the n should be to large or ¡Þ, the acceleration
will be zero, because in that case the direction of
action of accelerating force would be perpendicular to
the line of particles movement.

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