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faster than light

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  • Petar Bosnic
    Petar Bosnic Petrus, Faster than light CONICAL AND PARABOLOIDAL SUPERLUMINAL PARTICLE ACCELERATORS Corrected and enlarged article Theoretical suppositions In
    Message 1 of 1 , Nov 25, 2007
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      Petar Bosnic Petrus,

      Faster than light


      Corrected and enlarged article

      Theoretical suppositions

      In the my previous work: ¡°How the velocity of light
      can be excedeed¡±, I have shown that light is not a
      special // separate (or positive) physical entity and
      that velocity of light, c, is not the property of
      light itself but is, in fact, a vacuum or space
      transference constant - the ability or property of
      vacuum // space to transfer electromagnetic impulses
      at precisely that and only at that speed.

      Using the existing methods and accelerators I have
      also shown that it was not possible to accelerate the
      particles to a speed exceeding the velocity of light,
      c, in other words, that this is not possible, not due
      to the increase the particle mass, m, but because the
      acceleratory effect of force F, which affects the
      particle - and which is transferred exclusively at the
      velocity of light, c, - falls towards zero when at the
      velocity of the particle v that is close to the
      velocity of light c.

      This is the result one arrives at from further
      developing Einstein's key equation of the Special
      theory of relativity - equation related to this

      ¡°Transverse mass = m/ 1 ¨C v2/c2¡± ¡° ¡±

      Once this equation is, at Einstein's own suggestion,
      taken to its ¡°pure¡± form suitable for
      interpretation, the following is obtained:

      m = F/a, m/1-v27c2 = F/a...(2), m =
      F(1-v2/c2)/a...(3), a =F(1-v2/c2)/m...(4)

      , (2),

      or rather .........(4).

      See all eqations and figures at my site, by keywords:
      petar bosnic petrus

      When the velocity of a particle is v = c, the relative
      velocity, crel, of dispersion and effect of the force
      F, which accelerates the particle, is, in relation to
      the particle itself, equal to zero. Consequently, its
      acceleration is also a = 0 // also equals zero. For
      the a > 0 it is necessary that the relative velocity
      of light, crel, in relation to the particle, be higher
      than zero.

      I have also shown that a similar situation occurs with
      an object that is being accelerated by sound waves,
      and that in such a case the Lorentz transformation
      equations, by way of which the acceleration, caused by
      force transferred by sound waves, can be calculated
      extremely accurately, are also applicable. Therefore,
      it is not the increase of the

      E. Einstein
      On the electrodynamics of moving bodies
      ¡ì 10, Slowly accelerated electron.

      particle mass, m, which is calculated using the
      Lorentz transformation equations (as was stated by
      Special Reativity), but rather the reduction of the
      acceleratory effect of force F.

      A similar phenomenon, which occurs in existing
      accelerators, also affects a sailing ship which has
      the wind in it sails coming straight from behind, i.e.
      from the stern. When the velocity of the sailing ship
      approaches the speed of the wind, the relative
      velocity of wind at which it hits the sails drops, and
      with it the force propelling the sailing ship forward.
      In such a case a sailing ship does not, due to the
      resistance of water, reach even the velocity of the
      wind, but a somewhat lower speed.

      The reason for choosing the example of a sailing ship
      lies in its ability to demonstrate a fact of crucial
      significance for the particle acceleration physics, as
      the following short text will show.

      The following is the said text:

      If a sailing ship, which we assume is offering low
      resistance to moving through water, if therefore, this
      sailing ship has wind blowing not from behind but from
      its side - at right angles in relation to the
      direction of its movement - then such a ship is going
      to achieve a speed significantly higher than the speed
      of wind blowing into its sails.

      Ships which are particularly suitable for achievement
      of such supravental velocities are the small,
      lightweight catamarans, because they can (because of
      very low resistance) sail much faster than the
      velocity of the wind propelling them forward.

      But let us return to the particle physics.

      Conical supraluminal accelerator

      In the common types of particle accelerator (linear or
      circular), the waves which accelerates a particle
      comes from behind, just like the wind into the sails
      of the above mentioned sailing ship comes from its
      stern. Which is why the particle cannot achieve the
      velocity of light, let alone exceed it.

      However, if we were to bring that same wave to the
      side of the particle, then it could reach a velocity
      that would be several times greater than c.

      Since a particle has no sails, no keel and no rudder
      which would redirect the force affecting it, we would
      have to bring the waves from all sides, and do so at
      an angle slightly over 900 in relation to the
      direction of its movement.

      This can be achieved with a conical accelerator ¨C a
      funnel-shaped accelerator. See

      Picture 1.

      Figures at my main site: petar bosnic petrus com

      Picture 1: ax - axis of conical accelerator and
      trajectory of accelerated particles; 1 - wall of the
      conical accelerator; 2 ¨C coils; 3 - electromagnetic
      waves; 4 - accelerated particle; 5 point of
      intersection of electromagnetic waves; 6 - standard
      accelerator tube or cathode tube; 7 - cisoidal
      cross-section of mantle resulting from the
      acceleration of particles to the speed exceeding the
      speed of light - Cherenkov effect.


      A particle is first accelerated in a standard
      accelerator to a subluminal velocity close to the
      velocity c and then introduced into the funnel-shaped,
      or rather the conical, accelerator. Instead of a
      circular or linear accelerator, 6, a more powerful
      cathode tube can be used.

      The electromagnetic waves 3 - created by the coils 2
      of the conical accelerator, all of which are turned on
      at the same time - moves tansversally, i.e.
      perpendiculary // vertically in relation to the wall
      of the funnel, 1 towards its axis ax. At the same time
      waves approaches both the particle it accelerates, 4
      and axis ax along which the particle moves, at an
      angle somewhat greater than 900 in relation to the
      movement direction of the particle. The intersection
      point of electromagnetic waves 5 which is located on
      axis ax, moves along the axis as many times faster as
      the axis ax is longer than the radius r. The particle
      is propelled and accelerated by the vector sum of all
      electromagnetic forces affecting it in the funnel
      (conical accelerator). The ultimate particle velocity
      v depends, as already said, on the ratio between axis
      ax, and radius r of the large aperture of the funnel.
      If axis ax is four times longer than radius r (as
      shown in our picture), then the particle velocity at
      the exit from the funnel will necessarily be four time
      faster than velocity c, due to the fact that the
      electromagnetic waves which accelerate it along axis
      ax, and the point of their intersection, 5, must - in
      the same period of time in which, in their transversal
      motion, they cover the length of the radius r - cover
      a four times greater distance while moving along axis
      ax in an approximately longitudinal direction. Taken
      in general, ultimate particle velocity v is as many
      times higher than c the axis of the cone is longer
      than the radius r. In the conical accelerator shown in
      Picture 1 that ratio is 4:1. With a higher ratio, for
      instance 5:1, the vector sum of forces affecting the
      particle would be smaller, which would have to be
      compensated for with a more powerful electromagnetic
      wave. And if the waves were strong enough, the
      ultimate velocity of the particle would be 5 times
      that of velocity c.

      Still one analogical explanation.

      Please do imagine very smooth, but unshapred scissors
      and try to cut a peace of steel file. You will not be
      able to cut it. Smooth blades of scissors will pull
      the steel file towards the its top (top of sccisors)
      by velocity several times larger than is the velocity
      of movement of the blades itself.

      In this example, the blades of scissors are
      representing the electromagnetic vawes of accelerator
      and its velocity. Steel file is representing charged
      particle. The charged particle will behaviour just as
      steel file. This accelerator functions as an
      electromagnetic scissors.


      The difference between the conical accelerator and
      existing ones lies in its ability to make the relative
      velocity of the electromagnetic waves crel ¨C for
      particles which move at the velocity of light or
      greater - several times greater than the velocity of
      the particles themselves, v, thus enabling their
      acceleration above the speed of light. In standard
      accelerators the relative velocity of waves, crel. is,
      in relation to the highly accelerated particle, very
      close to zero, crel @ 0. while in a conical
      accelerator it is crel. > 0, several times over.

      The electromagnetic field of a conical accelerator
      need not be of enormously great power or density
      since, due to its specific shape, the density of
      electromagnetic wave - similar to those in fusion
      reactors - concentrates and increases the closer it
      gets to axis ax, and consequently, when close to the
      axis of the electromagnetic field it increases to an
      very high density. At every point of axis ax value od
      the density of magnetic field §¶ax will increase for
      the value §¶0 x 2r ¦Ð . Where the §¶0 is density of
      magnetic field onto the surface of coils; r is radius,
      i.e. distance from coils to certain point onto the
      axis ax.

      §¶ax = §¶0∙2r¦Ð ( 5)

      Bearing in mind a certain inertion of the particles it
      would be necessary, in order to achieve velocities
      many times greater than the velocity of light, to
      accelerate them with a battery or row of conical
      accelerators, the first of which would accelerate the
      particle to a speed only twice as fast as the speed of
      light, the second three or four times, the third four,
      five or six times, and so on.
      Paraboloidal supraluminal accelerator...
      The same effect could be achieved by an accelerator
      whose axial cross-section that would not be strictly
      conical and rectiliniar, as the one already shown, but
      more like a parabola, i.e. similar to a parabolic
      concave mirror. (See Picture 2.) With such an
      accelerator the ratio between axis ax and radius r
      would be continually increasing from the entry into
      the accelerator to the exit from it - the large
      aperture of the cone. The velocity of the
      electromagnetic waves along axis ax would increase at
      the same rate in relation to speed c - from a ratio
      of, for instance, 2:1 to 10:1.or 20:1 In these
      relations the figure 1 denotes the length of radius r
      and the velocity of light c, while figures 2, 10 and
      20 denotes the length of the axis ax and the number of
      times the velocity of the wave traveling along axis ax
      exceeds its transversal velocity c.
      Picture 2.

      Picture 2: ax - accelerator axis , 1 - wall of the
      paraboloidal supraluminal accelerator; 2. - tubes of a
      standard accelerator or cathode tube.
      When measuring the achieved velocity of a particle one
      should bear in mind the existence of theoretical
      indications whereby a pure vacuum could, with regard
      to the supraluminal particles, behave as a diamagnetic
      medium and therefore decelerate them. Ionized particle
      would cause a change in the density of a magnetic
      field - precisely because of the supraluminal speed -
      exclusively in the space behind the accelerated
      particle. The particle moving faster than light would
      also cause the Cherenkov cone-effect, i.e. conical
      mantle of ¡°compressed vacuum¡±, while due to the
      acceleration of a particle the axial cross-section
      would not be strictly conical - as demonstrated to
      date by experiments based on the Cherenkov theory -
      but would instead be more of a cisoidal shape
      elongated along axis ax.
      Theoretical possibility
      After leaving the field of accelerator, at the
      supraluminal velocity, the space maybe will transforme
      ionized particles into neutral.
      Additional technical solutions
      Electrical, conical and paraboloidal supraluminal,
      Since the electrical field is spreaded in the same, or
      similar manner as a magnetic field does (shovn by
      picture 1), instead of magnetic accelarators, provided
      with coils, we are enabled to use electrical
      accelerators at which the mass of walls, 1 is charged
      by positive or negative electricity charge or power,
      as shown by the figure 3. In this, electrical type of
      accelerators we can also use paraboloidal and conical
      shape of accelerator and a battery or row of tham.
      Picture 3

      Picture 3: ax - accelerator axis , 1 - wall of the
      paraboloidal supraluminal accelerator charged by
      positive electrical charge; 2. - tubes of a standard
      accelerator or cathode tube; 3 ¨Caccelerated, positive
      ion, particle.
      How does it functions ?

      Supraluminal electrical accelerators are turned on, or
      charged by electricity, after the charged particle was
      introduced into the space of conical or paraboloidal
      acceletators. They are accelerating the particles by
      repulsive force along the axis ax. Negative charged
      particles, eg. Electrons, are accelerated by negative
      charge of accelerator.

      Maximal velocity

      The largest theoretically possible velocity of
      accelerated particles at the certain conical or
      paraboloidal accelerator depends on the ratio between
      radius r and axis ax. We can calculate it by the
      v :c = ax : r, v r = c ax (6)

      v = c ax /r ...........(7)

      If that ratio should be 1,6m : 0,4m, i.e 4 : 1, than
      would follow:

      v = c 1,6m / 0,4mm (8)

      v = 4c (9)

      Maximal, theoretical possible velocity of particles at
      this accelerator would be 4c

      At which velocity an acceleration of the particle is
      falling to zero?

      It depends of the ratio between the radius r and axis
      ax If the ratio is, eg. 1 : 4 , acceleration of
      particle will fall to zero close the velocity 4c.That
      is in accordance with eqation based in Lorentz

      a = F(4 ¨Cv2/4c2)/m (10)

      If we want to continue acceleration, or increase
      velocity we can not do it by increasing the
      accelerative force than rather by increasing ratio
      between r and ax. If that ratio should be: eg. 1 : 7
      the acceleration will fall to zero close to velocity
      7c. In that case, (case of ratio 1 : 7) maximal
      theoretically possible velocity also will be slightly
      less than 7c

      General equation is as follow:

      a = F(n ¨Cv2/nc2) / m (11)

      n is ratio betwen radius r and axis ax

      If the n should be to large or ¡Þ, the acceleration
      will be zero, because in that case the direction of
      action of accelerating force would be perpendicular to
      the line of particles movement.

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