## Electromagnetic wind high momentum and thrust, part 1

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• Part one on EM propelentless thrust: (also on http://www.l-s.org/EMWindPart1.html ) Calculation of the thrust produced by electromagnetic (EM) radiation shows
Message 1 of 1 , May 28, 2003
Part one on EM propelentless thrust:
(also on http://www.l-s.org/EMWindPart1.html )

Calculation of the thrust produced by electromagnetic (EM) radiation
shows that it is very low, according to some scientists, thus, they say,
we will never be able to use it for efficient thrust technology.
to any photons, whatever their wave length might be. Does it mean that will
never be able to achieve propelentless thrust production, and always have to
carry working medium inside the space craft? If yes, we won't go far away
from Earth, and if yes, it will be with speed that is always tightly linked
with speed of working medium, and that speed will never be high. But maybe
those scientists are wrong, maybe their formulas and calculations of thrust
produced by photons are wrong?

No, the calculation for thrust by electromagnetic (EM) radiation for photons
is correct, the momentum carried by electromagnetic radiation equals its
energy divided by the speed of light, with formula p=E/c. But these
scientists made mistake when they apply it to all other forms of
EM vibrations/flow in space.

It is like the problem with fur coat of white color, when people
try to figure out what is the animal the coat was made, and some
people think it is from bear because the fur looks like bears.
Then, somebody comes forward and say that it can not be made from
bears fur simply because all the bears that we know about are of
brown color. They say that all bears are of brown color, and period.
No white fur from bears, because all of them are brown in color, they say.
But then others will correctly note that white bears do exist and live
on North pole, so the fur was indeed made of white bear fur, even though
we usually don't see white bears where we live.

Similar to the above problem with EM vibrations thrust, if one
of the forms of EM vibrations has extremly low momentum/thrust,
it doesn't mean that all the forms of EM radiation are the same,
with low momentum. Some of them have very high momentum, thus
high thrust produced. Its just that we don't encounter them
very often, however they do exist.

It is known that EM oscilations are very similar to the mechanical
systems oscilations. And both of them are producing waves that
carry away very low momentum.
EM oscilations produce light, mechanical oscilations produce sound.
In case of mechanical systems vibrating in air, they produce "sound",
with various frequency, depending on vibrating frequency of the
mechanical system. Average human can detect (hear) sound with
frequency from around 15 herz to 15000 herz.
Sound with 15 herz frequency is low, deep sound, while 15000 herz
is very high-toned sound. The average human is most sensitive to
the middle between those two frequencies - around 3000-4000 herz.
The frequency of light cariers - photons - that average human can
detect is much higher - red light has a frequency near 5 THz,
(5 Terahertz, 5 x 10^12 Hz), blue near 7,5 THz. Similarly to the
sound detection, the average human is most sensitive to the light
frequency between those two end frequencies - to the yellow-green
light, whose photons with frequency near 5,8 THz is between
red and blue light photons frequency.

Sound is produced in medium such as air, by mechanical oscilators,
while EM light cariers are produced in ether, by EM oscilators.
Ether is gaseous body, as noted long time ago by Nikola Tesla,
Serbian-American scientist, who wrote in article "Pioneer radio
engineer gives views on power", published in New York Herald Tribune,
Sept. 11, 1932, [ 2, p.94 ]:
# "I showed that the universal medium is a gaseous body in which only
longitudinal pulses can be propagated, involving alternating
compressions and expansions similar to those produced by sound waves
in the air. Thus, a wireless transmitter does not produce hertz waves,
which are a myth, but sound waves in the ether, behaving in every
respect like those in the air, except that, owing to the great elastic
force and extremely small density of the medium, their speed is that
of light." #

Some examples of the simple mechanical oscilators are
steel ball with mass M on end of spring with elasticity K.
Simpliest EM oscilator is circuit with and inductor(L) with
inductivity L and capacitor(C) with capacitance power C.

Analogy between mechanical and electromagnetic oscilations
is even more evident after comparing some values and formulas
for both of them:

Cinetic energy of mechanical oscilator with steel ball on spring
which was mentioned above is:
MVx^2/2
while energy of magnetic field in EM oscilator is:
Li^2/2

Potential energy of mechanical oscilator is:
Kx^2/2
while energy of electrical field in EM oscilator is:
q^2/2C

Frequency of the oscilations of the ball on spring is:
Wo = (square root of) k/m
while frequency of the oscilation of the EM oscilator is:
Wo = (square root of) 1/LC

For both of the above formulas for mechanical and EM oscilations:

Mechanical value ..... equal to - ..... Electromagnetic value
---------------------------------------------------------------
M is mass of ball, equal to - inductivity L,
Vx is speed of the ball, equal to - current i,
K is elasticity of spring, equal to - capacitance 1/C,
x is coordinate of ball, equal to - charge q,
Ax (V'x) is acceleration of ball, equal to speed of current change: i'.

Both of mechanical oscilators with spring and ball, and simple
electromagnetic circuit with capacitor and inductor, make harmonic
oscilations, and produce sine waves. And both produce waves in
surrounding medium, like air or ether, that have extremely low momentum,
since acceleration of ball, or current change, is changing with time
during one oscilating period, and even becoming negative for one half of
the time needed for one oscialation period.

Thus, using of waves in air, sound, or EM waves in ether, light,
is not appropriate method for thrust production. To make 1 ton craft
levitate with sound will require such high level of energy that
in area with circle of 1000 km (600 miles) all living beings will die
due to huge air-presure changes, and in the whole planet Earth
everybody will be deaf after even short flight of such craft, closer
to source of such sound, the more demage to the living beings.
Similarly, the craft powered with light, so called "photon rocket"
will have to produce such much photons that it will completly burn
the huge area behind it, whole countries, or even continents, have it
been on surface of the Earth before flight, so some scientists made
proposal to take such craft far away from Earth, as far as Moon
and only then to start its engines. So, the "photon rocket" is wrong
way of thrust production, as is with using air waves, sound, for
thrust production of aircraft.

The solution for using energy of air oscilations with mechanical systems
is in the fact that their simple uniform harmonic motion is intimately
related to uniform circular motion. In other words, harmonic motion
of spring with ball is related to rotating system like wheel with ball.
The difference is that rotating system will have permanent speed and
permanent acceleration, thus being able to produce high momentum motion
in surrounding area like air or water.

Such circular, rotating mechanical systems are now widely used in
thrust technology, starting few centuries ago with steam ships with wheel
behind or on the side of the ship, then with propeler, then with first
airplane with propeler, and now days with helicopters. The thrust produced
with propeler is high, since there is high coefficient of power
transfered from engine to the medium like air or water, with propeler
converting it to the thrust. The fluctuations in medium are different then
those produced by uniform harmonic motion systems. In circular motion
mechanical systems, the fluctuations of medium are unidirectional, with
permanent speed and presure, creating "wind" in air, or flow in water,
while in uniform harmonic motion systems like spring with ball oscilation
are with variable and even negative speed and presure, creating "sound"
vibrations in surrounding medium. Circular mechanical motion systems can
and do produce sound vibrations, but those are just co-product and not
related to the thrust production. In other words, helicopters make a lot of
noise, but their thrust comes from wind, not from that noise.

The similar circular, or rotating systems, is used to simulate
permanent speed of current change in EM systems. Rotating EM systems
produce permanently, never ending accelerating EM field, thus creating
flow in ether that can be named as "Electromagnetic wind" (EM wind).
EM wind is not the same as EM oscilations known as photons, and one of
the diferences is that EM wind carries high momentum, so the high thrust
and speed of such craft is easy to achieve. To the surrounding medium -
- ether, the rotating EM system looks like if its current is permanently
accelerating, and that acceleration is being transfered to ether with
high coefficient. Circular EM systems, as circular mechanical systems do,
also produce oscilating vibrations in medium, in ether, known as "photons"
or light, but it not related to the thrust production, as sound is not
related to the thrust production in circular mechanical systems.
Such light will change its original wave length depending on which side
of rotating system it will go out of it. If it leaves from the bottom,
where exit of EM wind is supposed to be located under normal circumstances,
then EM wind will add some amount of energy to that light, thus shifting
its frequency to the higher, because frequency of photon is proportional to
its energy, and on opposite, if light leaves from the top of that system,
where EM wind/flow is comming inside that rotating system then EM wind will
decrease some amount of energy from those photons, thus shifting their
frequency to the lower. The higher energy of EM wind or higher frequency
of rotation, the bigger shifting it will make to both lower and top exiting
light. The green light thus turns to red at the top, and to blue at the
bottom, when rotating frequency and power of EM wind is at the high level,
and is going back to the original frequency - green, when rotating frequency
is decreasing, like in case when craft stops. The higher difference in light
on the bottom and on the top reflects higher assymetry in EM energy and
pressure levels, and thus higher thrust production. The movement of such
craft is from bottom to the top, which is opposite to the movement of EM wind
which flows from the top to the bottom of the craft. The flow of EM wind is
directed through special canals/tubes, in order to better direct them and
also to prevent craft's personal from harmfull high energy radiation.
In order to prevent build-up of electrical charges, the surface of that craft
is as smooth as possible.

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