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Querry-ice cream colours and flavours

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  • reachkeyur@yahoo.com
    Dear all, Could you please share with me what are the different tests that can be performed on ice cream colours and flavours? Also, please suggest some simple
    Message 1 of 4 , Jul 31, 2010
    • 0 Attachment
      Dear all,

      Could you please share with me what are the different tests that can be performed on ice cream colours and flavours?

      Also, please suggest some simple tests which can be performed at plant level to assess quality of colours and flavours being used in ice cream.

      Would be grateful to hear from you all.

      Thanks and regards,

      Keyur
      Sent from my BlackBerry® on Reliance Mobile, India's No. 1 Network. Go for it!
    • manimaran mani
      Ice Cream Flavours * Introduction * Vanilla * Chocolate and Cocoa * Fruit Ice Cream * Nuts in Ice Cream * Colour in Ice Cream IntroductionMost ice cream is
      Message 2 of 4 , Aug 2, 2010
      • 0 Attachment
        Ice Cream Flavours

        * Introduction
        * Vanilla
        * Chocolate and Cocoa
        * Fruit Ice Cream
        * Nuts in Ice Cream
        * Colour in Ice Cream
        IntroductionMost ice cream is purchased by the consumer on basis of flavour and
        ingredients. There are many different flavours of ice cream manufactured, and to
        some extent limited only by imagination. Vanilla accounts for 30% of the ice
        cream consumed. This is partly because it is used in so many products, like
        milkshakes, sundaes, banana splits, in addition to being consumed with pies,
        desserts, etc.
        It is the ice cream manufacturers responsibility to prepare an excellent mix,
        but often they put the responsibility of the flavours and ingredients on the
        supplier.
        US Ice Cream Consumption by Flavour, 2006 percentage of volume 1. Vanilla
        30.2 2. Chocolate 10.0 3. Chocolate Chip
        5.7 4. Butter Pecan 4.0 5. Strawberry
        3.7 6. Neapolitan 3.0 7. Cookies and
        cream 2.6 8. Rocky Road
        1.9 9. Cookie Dough 1.5 10. Cherry Vanilla
        0.9 11. Coffee 0.7 Source: Dairy
        Facts, 2007, International Dairy Foods Association


        Ingredients are added to ice cream in four ways during the manufacturing
        process:
        1. Mix Tank: for liquid flavours, colours, fruit purees, flavored syrup bases Ð
        anything that will be homogeneously distributed in the frozen ice cream.
        2. Variegating Pump: for ribbons, swirls, ripples, revels
        3. Ingredient Feeder: for particulates - fruits, nuts, candy pieces, cookies,
        etc., some complex flavours may utilize 2 feeders
        4. Shaker table: for large inclusionsGenerally, the delicate, mild flavours are
        easily blended and tend not to become objectionable at high concentrations,
        while harsh flavours are usually objectionable even in low concentrations.
        Therefore, delicate flavours are preferable to harsh flavours, but in any case a
        flavour should only be intense enough to be easily recognized. Flavouring
        materials may be:
        1. Natural
        2. Artificial or imitation
        3. Blends of the two
        ________________________________

        VanillaVanilla is without exception the most popular flavour for Ice Cream in
        North America. The dairy industry uses half of the total imported vanilla to
        North America. It is a very important ice cream ingredient, not only in vanilla
        ice cream, but in many other flavours where it is used as a flavour enhancer,
        e.g. chocolate much improved by presence of vanilla.
        Vanilla comes from a plant belonging to the orchid family called Vanilla
        planifolia. There are several varieties of vanilla beans among which are
        Bourbon, Tahitian, Mexican. Bourbon beans are used to produce best vanilla
        extracts. Bourbons from Madagescar are the finest and account for over 60% of
        World production, Indonesia, 23% (UN FAO 2005).
        From each blossom of the vine that is successfully fertilized comes a pod which
        reaches 6-10 inches in length, picked at 6-9 months. It requires 26-29oC day and
        night throughout the season, and frequent rains with dry season near end for
        development of flavour.
        Pods are immersed in hot water to "kill them" (also increases enzyme activity),
        then fermented for 3-6 months by repeated wrapping in straw to "sweat" and then
        uncovered to sun dry. 5-6 kg green pods produce 1 kg. cured pods. Beans then
        aged 1-2 yrs. Enzymatic reactions produce many compounds - vanillin is the
        principal flavour compound. However, there is no free vanillin in the beans when
        they are harvested, it develops gradually during the curing period from
        glucosides, which break down during the fermentation and "sweating" of the
        beans. Extraction takes place as the beans are chopped (not ground) and placed
        in stainless steel percolator and warm alcohol (50oC, 50% solution) is pumped
        over and through the beans until all flavouring matter is extracted.
        Concentrated Extract
        Vacuum distillation takes place for a large part of the solvent. The desired
        concentration is specified as two fold, four fold, etc. Each multiple must be
        derived from an original 13.35 oz. beans.
        Vanilla can be and is produced synthetically to a large extent. By-product of
        pulp and paper industry (lignan) or petrochemical industry (guaiacol). Compound
        flavours are produced from combination of vanilla extract and vanillin. Vanillin
        maybe added at one ounce to the fold and labelled Vanilla-Vanillin Flavour.
        Number of folds plus number oz. of vanillin equal total strength, eg. 2 fold + 2
        oz. = 4 fold vanilla-vanillin. However,more than 1 oz to the fold is deamed
        imitation.
        Vanilla flavouring is available in liquid form as:
        * Natural Vanilla
        * Natural and artificial (reinforced Vanilla with Vanillin)
        * Artificial Vanilla (vanillin)Usage level in the mix is a function of purity
        and concentration, usually ~0.3%.
        Some vanillin actually improves flavour over pure vanilla extract but too much
        vanillin results in harsh flavours.
        The choicest of ice creams can be made only with the best of flavouring
        materials. A good vanilla enhances the flavour of good dairy products in ice
        cream. It does not mask it.
        Chocolate and CocoaThe cacao bean is the fruit of the tree Theobroma cacao,
        (Cacao, food of the gods) which grows in tropical regions such as Mexico,
        Central America, South America, West Indies, African West Coast. The word cocoa
        is a corruption of the native word cacao. The beans are embedded in pods on the
        tree, 20-30 beans per pod. When ripe, the pods are cut from the trees, and after
        drying, the beans are removed from the pods and allowed to ferment, 10 days
        (microbiological and enzymatic fermentation). Beans then are washed, dried,
        sorted, graded and shipped.
        At the processing plant, beans are roasted, seed coat removed - called the nib.
        The nib is ground, friction melts the fat and the nibs flow from the grinding as
        a liquid, known as chocolate liquor.
        Liquor:
        55% fat, 17% carbohydrate, 11% protein, 6% tannins and many other compounds
        (bitter chocolate - baking).
        Cocoa butter:
        fat removed from chocolate liquor, narrow melting range 30 to 36° C
        Cocoa:
        after the cocoa butter is pressed from the chocolate liquor, the remaining press
        cake is now material for cocoa manufactureThe amount of fat remaining determines
        the cocoa grade:
        * medium fat (Breakfast) cocoa 20-24% fat
        * low fat 10-12% fat


        Cocoa powder can also be alkalized, which reduces acidity/astringency and
        darkens the colour. Slightly alkalized cocoa is usually preferred in ice cream
        because it gives a deeper colour but the choice depends upon:
        * consumer preference
        * desired color (Blackshire cocoa may be used to darken color)
        * strength of flavour
        * fat contentThere are many types of chocolate that differ in the amounts of
        chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar, milk, other ingredients, and vanilla.
        Imitation chocolate
        replacing some or all of the cocoa fat with other vegetable fats. Improved
        coating properties, resistance to melting
        White chocolate
        cocoa butter, MSNF, sugar, no cocoa or liquorIn chocolate ice cream manufacture,
        cocoa is more concentrated for flavouring than chocolate liquor (55% fat)
        because cocoa butter has relatively low flavour. However, the cocoa fat adds
        texture to the ice cream. Acceptable mixes can be made using 3% cocoa powder,
        2.5% cocoa powder plus 1.5% chocolate liquor, or 5% chocolate liquor.
        A good chocolate ice cream will be made if the cocoa and/or chocolate liquor is
        added to the vat and homogenized with the rest of the mix. Chocolate mixes have
        a tendency to become excessively viscous so stabilizer content and homogenizing
        pressure need to be adjusted.
        One problem is called chocolate specking. It can occur in soft serve ice cream,
        when cocoa fibres become entrapped in the churned fat.
        Fruit Ice CreamFruit for Ice Cream is available in the following forms:
        1. Fresh Fruit
        2. Raw Frozen Fruit
        3. Open Kettle Processed Fruit
        4. Aseptically Processed FruitAdvantages of processed fruits:
        1. Purchasing year round supply: problems of procurement and storage
        transferred to fruit processor
        2. Availability: blending of sources from around the world in RTU form, no
        thawing, straining, etc.
        3. Quality control: processor adjusts for quality variations
        4. Ice Cream quality: fruit won't freeze in ice cream, usually free of debris,
        straw, pits.
        5. Microbial Safety
        6. ConvenienceFruit feeders are used with continuous freezers to add the fruit
        pieces, while any fruit juice is added directly to the mix. Fruit is usually
        added at about 15-25% by weight.
        Nuts in Ice CreamNuts are usually added at about 10% by wt. Commonly used
        are walnuts, pecans, filberts, almonds and pistachios. Brazil nuts and cashews
        have been tried without much success.
        Quality Control of Nutmeats for Ice Cream
        1. Extraneous and Foreign Material:
        Requires extensive cleaning, Colour Sorter, Destoner, X-rays, Aerator,
        Hand-Picking, Screening
        2. Microbiological Testing:
        Aflatoxin contamination can be a hazard with Peanuts, Pistachios, Brazils. All
        nutmeats should receive random testing for: Standard Plate Count, Coliform, E.
        Coli, Yeast and Mold, Salmonella.
        3. Bacteria Control:
        Nuts must be processed in a clean sanitary premise following good manufacturing
        practices. Nuts should be either oil roasted or heat treated to reduce any
        bacteria.
        4. Sizing:
        Some nutmeats require chopping to achieve a uniform size in order to fit through
        the fruit feeder, i.e.: Pecans, Almonds, Peanuts, Filberts
        5. Storage Nutmeats should be stored at 34-38° F to maintain freshness and
        reduce problems with rancidity.
        Colour in Ice CreamIce cream should have a delicate, attractive colour that
        suggests or is closely associated with its flavour. Almost all ice creams are
        slightly coloured to give them the shade of the natural product 15% fruit
        produces only a slight effect on colour. However, most suppliers, would include
        some colour in the fruit to save the processor time i.e. solid pack strawberries
        include colour. Most colours are of synthetic origin, must be approved,
        purchased in liquid or dry form. Solutions can easily become contaminated and
        therefore must be fresh.
        Colours are used in ice cream to create appeal. If used to excess they indicate
        cheapness. The choice of shade is dictated by flavour, i.e. red for strawberry,
        light green for mint, purple for grape, etc.


        ----- Original Message ----
        From: "reachkeyur@..." <reachkeyur@...>
        To: foodees@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Sat, 31 July, 2010 10:34:41 PM
        Subject: [foodees] Querry-ice cream colours and flavours

        Dear all,

        Could you please share with me what are the different tests that can be
        performed on ice cream colours and flavours?

        Also, please suggest some simple tests which can be performed at plant level to
        assess quality of colours and flavours being used in ice cream.

        Would be grateful to hear from you all.

        Thanks and regards,

        Keyur
        Sent from my BlackBerry® on Reliance Mobile, India's No. 1 Network. Go for it!

        ------------------------------------

        Yahoo! Groups Links
      • reachkeyur@yahoo.com
        Sir, I appreciate your detailed reply about my querry. Could you kindly throw light on what QC tests one can perform at manufacturing site lab for colours and
        Message 3 of 4 , Aug 3, 2010
        • 0 Attachment
          Sir,

          I appreciate your detailed reply about my querry. Could you kindly throw light on what QC tests one can perform at manufacturing site lab for colours and flavours apart from microbiological tests..

          Thanking You,

          Keyur


          Sent from my BlackBerry® on Reliance Mobile, India's No. 1 Network. Go for it!


          From: manimaran mani <confectionerymaran@...>
          Sender: foodees@yahoogroups.com
          Date: Mon, 2 Aug 2010 20:39:22 +0530 (IST)
          To: <foodees@yahoogroups.com>
          ReplyTo: foodees@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: Re: [foodees] Querry-ice cream colours and flavours

           

          Ice Cream Flavours

          * Introduction
          * Vanilla
          * Chocolate and Cocoa
          * Fruit Ice Cream
          * Nuts in Ice Cream
          * Colour in Ice Cream
          IntroductionMost ice cream is purchased by the consumer on basis of flavour and
          ingredients. There are many different flavours of ice cream manufactured, and to
          some extent limited only by imagination. Vanilla accounts for 30% of the ice
          cream consumed. This is partly because it is used in so many products, like
          milkshakes, sundaes, banana splits, in addition to being consumed with pies,
          desserts, etc.
          It is the ice cream manufacturers responsibility to prepare an excellent mix,
          but often they put the responsibility of the flavours and ingredients on the
          supplier.
          US Ice Cream Consumption by Flavour, 2006 percentage of volume 1. Vanilla
          30.2 2. Chocolate 10.0 3. Chocolate Chip
          5.7 4. Butter Pecan 4.0 5. Strawberry
          3.7 6. Neapolitan 3.0 7. Cookies and
          cream 2.6 8. Rocky Road
          1.9 9. Cookie Dough 1.5 10. Cherry Vanilla
          0.9 11. Coffee 0.7 Source: Dairy
          Facts, 2007, International Dairy Foods Association

          Ingredients are added to ice cream in four ways during the manufacturing
          process:
          1. Mix Tank: for liquid flavours, colours, fruit purees, flavored syrup bases Ð
          anything that will be homogeneously distributed in the frozen ice cream.
          2. Variegating Pump: for ribbons, swirls, ripples, revels
          3. Ingredient Feeder: for particulates - fruits, nuts, candy pieces, cookies,
          etc., some complex flavours may utilize 2 feeders
          4. Shaker table: for large inclusionsGenerally, the delicate, mild flavours are
          easily blended and tend not to become objectionable at high concentrations,
          while harsh flavours are usually objectionable even in low concentrations.
          Therefore, delicate flavours are preferable to harsh flavours, but in any case a
          flavour should only be intense enough to be easily recognized. Flavouring
          materials may be:
          1. Natural
          2. Artificial or imitation
          3. Blends of the two
          ________________________________

          VanillaVanilla is without exception the most popular flavour for Ice Cream in
          North America. The dairy industry uses half of the total imported vanilla to
          North America. It is a very important ice cream ingredient, not only in vanilla
          ice cream, but in many other flavours where it is used as a flavour enhancer,
          e.g. chocolate much improved by presence of vanilla.
          Vanilla comes from a plant belonging to the orchid family called Vanilla
          planifolia. There are several varieties of vanilla beans among which are
          Bourbon, Tahitian, Mexican. Bourbon beans are used to produce best vanilla
          extracts. Bourbons from Madagescar are the finest and account for over 60% of
          World production, Indonesia, 23% (UN FAO 2005).
          From each blossom of the vine that is successfully fertilized comes a pod which
          reaches 6-10 inches in length, picked at 6-9 months. It requires 26-29oC day and
          night throughout the season, and frequent rains with dry season near end for
          development of flavour.
          Pods are immersed in hot water to "kill them" (also increases enzyme activity),
          then fermented for 3-6 months by repeated wrapping in straw to "sweat" and then
          uncovered to sun dry. 5-6 kg green pods produce 1 kg. cured pods. Beans then
          aged 1-2 yrs. Enzymatic reactions produce many compounds - vanillin is the
          principal flavour compound. However, there is no free vanillin in the beans when
          they are harvested, it develops gradually during the curing period from
          glucosides, which break down during the fermentation and "sweating" of the
          beans. Extraction takes place as the beans are chopped (not ground) and placed
          in stainless steel percolator and warm alcohol (50oC, 50% solution) is pumped
          over and through the beans until all flavouring matter is extracted.
          Concentrated Extract
          Vacuum distillation takes place for a large part of the solvent. The desired
          concentration is specified as two fold, four fold, etc. Each multiple must be
          derived from an original 13.35 oz. beans.
          Vanilla can be and is produced synthetically to a large extent. By-product of
          pulp and paper industry (lignan) or petrochemical industry (guaiacol). Compound
          flavours are produced from combination of vanilla extract and vanillin. Vanillin
          maybe added at one ounce to the fold and labelled Vanilla-Vanillin Flavour.
          Number of folds plus number oz. of vanillin equal total strength, eg. 2 fold + 2
          oz. = 4 fold vanilla-vanillin. However,more than 1 oz to the fold is deamed
          imitation.
          Vanilla flavouring is available in liquid form as:
          * Natural Vanilla
          * Natural and artificial (reinforced Vanilla with Vanillin)
          * Artificial Vanilla (vanillin)Usage level in the mix is a function of purity
          and concentration, usually ~0.3%.
          Some vanillin actually improves flavour over pure vanilla extract but too much
          vanillin results in harsh flavours.
          The choicest of ice creams can be made only with the best of flavouring
          materials. A good vanilla enhances the flavour of good dairy products in ice
          cream. It does not mask it.
          Chocolate and CocoaThe cacao bean is the fruit of the tree Theobroma cacao,
          (Cacao, food of the gods) which grows in tropical regions such as Mexico,
          Central America, South America, West Indies, African West Coast. The word cocoa
          is a corruption of the native word cacao. The beans are embedded in pods on the
          tree, 20-30 beans per pod. When ripe, the pods are cut from the trees, and after
          drying, the beans are removed from the pods and allowed to ferment, 10 days
          (microbiological and enzymatic fermentation). Beans then are washed, dried,
          sorted, graded and shipped.
          At the processing plant, beans are roasted, seed coat removed - called the nib.
          The nib is ground, friction melts the fat and the nibs flow from the grinding as
          a liquid, known as chocolate liquor.
          Liquor:
          55% fat, 17% carbohydrate, 11% protein, 6% tannins and many other compounds
          (bitter chocolate - baking).
          Cocoa butter:
          fat removed from chocolate liquor, narrow melting range 30 to 36° C
          Cocoa:
          after the cocoa butter is pressed from the chocolate liquor, the remaining press
          cake is now material for cocoa manufactureThe amount of fat remaining determines
          the cocoa grade:
          * medium fat (Breakfast) cocoa 20-24% fat
          * low fat 10-12% fat

          Cocoa powder can also be alkalized, which reduces acidity/astringency and
          darkens the colour. Slightly alkalized cocoa is usually preferred in ice cream
          because it gives a deeper colour but the choice depends upon:
          * consumer preference
          * desired color (Blackshire cocoa may be used to darken color)
          * strength of flavour
          * fat contentThere are many types of chocolate that differ in the amounts of
          chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar, milk, other ingredients, and vanilla.
          Imitation chocolate
          replacing some or all of the cocoa fat with other vegetable fats. Improved
          coating properties, resistance to melting
          White chocolate
          cocoa butter, MSNF, sugar, no cocoa or liquorIn chocolate ice cream manufacture,
          cocoa is more concentrated for flavouring than chocolate liquor (55% fat)
          because cocoa butter has relatively low flavour. However, the cocoa fat adds
          texture to the ice cream. Acceptable mixes can be made using 3% cocoa powder,
          2.5% cocoa powder plus 1.5% chocolate liquor, or 5% chocolate liquor.
          A good chocolate ice cream will be made if the cocoa and/or chocolate liquor is
          added to the vat and homogenized with the rest of the mix. Chocolate mixes have
          a tendency to become excessively viscous so stabilizer content and homogenizing
          pressure need to be adjusted.
          One problem is called chocolate specking. It can occur in soft serve ice cream,
          when cocoa fibres become entrapped in the churned fat.
          Fruit Ice CreamFruit for Ice Cream is available in the following forms:
          1. Fresh Fruit
          2. Raw Frozen Fruit
          3. Open Kettle Processed Fruit
          4. Aseptically Processed FruitAdvantages of processed fruits:
          1. Purchasing year round supply: problems of procurement and storage
          transferred to fruit processor
          2. Availability: blending of sources from around the world in RTU form, no
          thawing, straining, etc.
          3. Quality control: processor adjusts for quality variations
          4. Ice Cream quality: fruit won't freeze in ice cream, usually free of debris,
          straw, pits.
          5. Microbial Safety
          6. ConvenienceFruit feeders are used with continuous freezers to add the fruit
          pieces, while any fruit juice is added directly to the mix. Fruit is usually
          added at about 15-25% by weight.
          Nuts in Ice CreamNuts are usually added at about 10% by wt. Commonly used
          are walnuts, pecans, filberts, almonds and pistachios. Brazil nuts and cashews
          have been tried without much success.
          Quality Control of Nutmeats for Ice Cream
          1. Extraneous and Foreign Material:
          Requires extensive cleaning, Colour Sorter, Destoner, X-rays, Aerator,
          Hand-Picking, Screening
          2. Microbiological Testing:
          Aflatoxin contamination can be a hazard with Peanuts, Pistachios, Brazils. All
          nutmeats should receive random testing for: Standard Plate Count, Coliform, E.
          Coli, Yeast and Mold, Salmonella.
          3. Bacteria Control:
          Nuts must be processed in a clean sanitary premise following good manufacturing
          practices. Nuts should be either oil roasted or heat treated to reduce any
          bacteria.
          4. Sizing:
          Some nutmeats require chopping to achieve a uniform size in order to fit through
          the fruit feeder, i.e.: Pecans, Almonds, Peanuts, Filberts
          5. Storage Nutmeats should be stored at 34-38° F to maintain freshness and
          reduce problems with rancidity.
          Colour in Ice CreamIce cream should have a delicate, attractive colour that
          suggests or is closely associated with its flavour. Almost all ice creams are
          slightly coloured to give them the shade of the natural product 15% fruit
          produces only a slight effect on colour. However, most suppliers, would include
          some colour in the fruit to save the processor time i.e. solid pack strawberries
          include colour. Most colours are of synthetic origin, must be approved,
          purchased in liquid or dry form. Solutions can easily become contaminated and
          therefore must be fresh.
          Colours are used in ice cream to create appeal. If used to excess they indicate
          cheapness. The choice of shade is dictated by flavour, i.e. red for strawberry,
          light green for mint, purple for grape, etc.

          ----- Original Message ----
          From: "reachkeyur@..." <reachkeyur@...>
          To: foodees@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Sat, 31 July, 2010 10:34:41 PM
          Subject: [foodees] Querry-ice cream colours and flavours

          Dear all,

          Could you please share with me what are the different tests that can be
          performed on ice cream colours and flavours?

          Also, please suggest some simple tests which can be performed at plant level to
          assess quality of colours and flavours being used in ice cream.

          Would be grateful to hear from you all.

          Thanks and regards,

          Keyur
          Sent from my BlackBerry® on Reliance Mobile, India's No. 1 Network. Go for it!

          ------------------------------------

          Yahoo! Groups Links

        • manimaran mani
          ________________________________ From: reachkeyur@yahoo.com To: foodees@yahoogroups.com Sent: Wed, 4 August, 2010 8:15:06 AM Subject:
          Message 4 of 4 , Aug 4, 2010
          • 0 Attachment
            No Abstract


            From: "reachkeyur@..." <reachkeyur@...>
            To: foodees@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Wed, 4 August, 2010 8:15:06 AM
            Subject: Re: [foodees] Querry-ice cream colours and flavours

             

            Sir,

            I appreciate your detailed reply about my querry. Could you kindly throw light on what QC tests one can perform at manufacturing site lab for colours and flavours apart from microbiological tests..

            Thanking You,

            Keyur


            Sent from my BlackBerry® on Reliance Mobile, India's No. 1 Network. Go for it!


            From: manimaran mani <confectionerymaran@ yahoo.co. in>
            Sender: foodees@yahoogroups .com
            Date: Mon, 2 Aug 2010 20:39:22 +0530 (IST)
            To: <foodees@yahoogroups .com>
            ReplyTo: foodees@yahoogroups .com
            Subject: Re: [foodees] Querry-ice cream colours and flavours

             

            Ice Cream Flavours

            * Introduction
            * Vanilla
            * Chocolate and Cocoa
            * Fruit Ice Cream
            * Nuts in Ice Cream
            * Colour in Ice Cream
            IntroductionMost ice cream is purchased by the consumer on basis of flavour and
            ingredients. There are many different flavours of ice cream manufactured, and to
            some extent limited only by imagination. Vanilla accounts for 30% of the ice
            cream consumed. This is partly because it is used in so many products, like
            milkshakes, sundaes, banana splits, in addition to being consumed with pies,
            desserts, etc.
            It is the ice cream manufacturers responsibility to prepare an excellent mix,
            but often they put the responsibility of the flavours and ingredients on the
            supplier.
            US Ice Cream Consumption by Flavour, 2006 percentage of volume 1. Vanilla
            30.2 2. Chocolate 10.0 3. Chocolate Chip
            5.7 4. Butter Pecan 4.0 5. Strawberry
            3.7 6. Neapolitan 3.0 7. Cookies and
            cream 2.6 8. Rocky Road
            1.9 9. Cookie Dough 1.5 10. Cherry Vanilla
            0.9 11. Coffee 0.7 Source: Dairy
            Facts, 2007, International Dairy Foods Association

            Ingredients are added to ice cream in four ways during the manufacturing
            process:
            1. Mix Tank: for liquid flavours, colours, fruit purees, flavored syrup bases Ð
            anything that will be homogeneously distributed in the frozen ice cream.
            2. Variegating Pump: for ribbons, swirls, ripples, revels
            3. Ingredient Feeder: for particulates - fruits, nuts, candy pieces, cookies,
            etc., some complex flavours may utilize 2 feeders
            4. Shaker table: for large inclusionsGenerally , the delicate, mild flavours are
            easily blended and tend not to become objectionable at high concentrations,
            while harsh flavours are usually objectionable even in low concentrations.
            Therefore, delicate flavours are preferable to harsh flavours, but in any case a
            flavour should only be intense enough to be easily recognized. Flavouring
            materials may be:
            1. Natural
            2. Artificial or imitation
            3. Blends of the two
            ____________ _________ _________ __

            VanillaVanilla is without exception the most popular flavour for Ice Cream in
            North America. The dairy industry uses half of the total imported vanilla to
            North America. It is a very important ice cream ingredient, not only in vanilla
            ice cream, but in many other flavours where it is used as a flavour enhancer,
            e.g. chocolate much improved by presence of vanilla.
            Vanilla comes from a plant belonging to the orchid family called Vanilla
            planifolia. There are several varieties of vanilla beans among which are
            Bourbon, Tahitian, Mexican. Bourbon beans are used to produce best vanilla
            extracts. Bourbons from Madagescar are the finest and account for over 60% of
            World production, Indonesia, 23% (UN FAO 2005).
            From each blossom of the vine that is successfully fertilized comes a pod which
            reaches 6-10 inches in length, picked at 6-9 months. It requires 26-29oC day and
            night throughout the season, and frequent rains with dry season near end for
            development of flavour.
            Pods are immersed in hot water to "kill them" (also increases enzyme activity),
            then fermented for 3-6 months by repeated wrapping in straw to "sweat" and then
            uncovered to sun dry. 5-6 kg green pods produce 1 kg. cured pods. Beans then
            aged 1-2 yrs. Enzymatic reactions produce many compounds - vanillin is the
            principal flavour compound. However, there is no free vanillin in the beans when
            they are harvested, it develops gradually during the curing period from
            glucosides, which break down during the fermentation and "sweating" of the
            beans. Extraction takes place as the beans are chopped (not ground) and placed
            in stainless steel percolator and warm alcohol (50oC, 50% solution) is pumped
            over and through the beans until all flavouring matter is extracted.
            Concentrated Extract
            Vacuum distillation takes place for a large part of the solvent. The desired
            concentration is specified as two fold, four fold, etc. Each multiple must be
            derived from an original 13.35 oz. beans.
            Vanilla can be and is produced synthetically to a large extent. By-product of
            pulp and paper industry (lignan) or petrochemical industry (guaiacol). Compound
            flavours are produced from combination of vanilla extract and vanillin. Vanillin
            maybe added at one ounce to the fold and labelled Vanilla-Vanillin Flavour.
            Number of folds plus number oz. of vanillin equal total strength, eg. 2 fold + 2
            oz. = 4 fold vanilla-vanillin. However,more than 1 oz to the fold is deamed
            imitation.
            Vanilla flavouring is available in liquid form as:
            * Natural Vanilla
            * Natural and artificial (reinforced Vanilla with Vanillin)
            * Artificial Vanilla (vanillin)Usage level in the mix is a function of purity
            and concentration, usually ~0.3%.
            Some vanillin actually improves flavour over pure vanilla extract but too much
            vanillin results in harsh flavours.
            The choicest of ice creams can be made only with the best of flavouring
            materials. A good vanilla enhances the flavour of good dairy products in ice
            cream. It does not mask it.
            Chocolate and CocoaThe cacao bean is the fruit of the tree Theobroma cacao,
            (Cacao, food of the gods) which grows in tropical regions such as Mexico,
            Central America, South America, West Indies, African West Coast. The word cocoa
            is a corruption of the native word cacao. The beans are embedded in pods on the
            tree, 20-30 beans per pod. When ripe, the pods are cut from the trees, and after
            drying, the beans are removed from the pods and allowed to ferment, 10 days
            (microbiological and enzymatic fermentation) . Beans then are washed, dried,
            sorted, graded and shipped.
            At the processing plant, beans are roasted, seed coat removed - called the nib.
            The nib is ground, friction melts the fat and the nibs flow from the grinding as
            a liquid, known as chocolate liquor.
            Liquor:
            55% fat, 17% carbohydrate, 11% protein, 6% tannins and many other compounds
            (bitter chocolate - baking).
            Cocoa butter:
            fat removed from chocolate liquor, narrow melting range 30 to 36° C
            Cocoa:
            after the cocoa butter is pressed from the chocolate liquor, the remaining press
            cake is now material for cocoa manufactureThe amount of fat remaining determines
            the cocoa grade:
            * medium fat (Breakfast) cocoa 20-24% fat
            * low fat 10-12% fat

            Cocoa powder can also be alkalized, which reduces acidity/astringency and
            darkens the colour. Slightly alkalized cocoa is usually preferred in ice cream
            because it gives a deeper colour but the choice depends upon:
            * consumer preference
            * desired color (Blackshire cocoa may be used to darken color)
            * strength of flavour
            * fat contentThere are many types of chocolate that differ in the amounts of
            chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar, milk, other ingredients, and vanilla.
            Imitation chocolate
            replacing some or all of the cocoa fat with other vegetable fats. Improved
            coating properties, resistance to melting
            White chocolate
            cocoa butter, MSNF, sugar, no cocoa or liquorIn chocolate ice cream manufacture,
            cocoa is more concentrated for flavouring than chocolate liquor (55% fat)
            because cocoa butter has relatively low flavour. However, the cocoa fat adds
            texture to the ice cream. Acceptable mixes can be made using 3% cocoa powder,
            2.5% cocoa powder plus 1.5% chocolate liquor, or 5% chocolate liquor.
            A good chocolate ice cream will be made if the cocoa and/or chocolate liquor is
            added to the vat and homogenized with the rest of the mix. Chocolate mixes have
            a tendency to become excessively viscous so stabilizer content and homogenizing
            pressure need to be adjusted.
            One problem is called chocolate specking. It can occur in soft serve ice cream,
            when cocoa fibres become entrapped in the churned fat.
            Fruit Ice CreamFruit for Ice Cream is available in the following forms:
            1. Fresh Fruit
            2. Raw Frozen Fruit
            3. Open Kettle Processed Fruit
            4. Aseptically Processed FruitAdvantages of processed fruits:
            1. Purchasing year round supply: problems of procurement and storage
            transferred to fruit processor
            2. Availability: blending of sources from around the world in RTU form, no
            thawing, straining, etc.
            3. Quality control: processor adjusts for quality variations
            4. Ice Cream quality: fruit won't freeze in ice cream, usually free of debris,
            straw, pits.
            5. Microbial Safety
            6. ConvenienceFruit feeders are used with continuous freezers to add the fruit
            pieces, while any fruit juice is added directly to the mix. Fruit is usually
            added at about 15-25% by weight.
            Nuts in Ice CreamNuts are usually added at about 10% by wt. Commonly used
            are walnuts, pecans, filberts, almonds and pistachios. Brazil nuts and cashews
            have been tried without much success.
            Quality Control of Nutmeats for Ice Cream
            1. Extraneous and Foreign Material:
            Requires extensive cleaning, Colour Sorter, Destoner, X-rays, Aerator,
            Hand-Picking, Screening
            2. Microbiological Testing:
            Aflatoxin contamination can be a hazard with Peanuts, Pistachios, Brazils. All
            nutmeats should receive random testing for: Standard Plate Count, Coliform, E.
            Coli, Yeast and Mold, Salmonella.
            3. Bacteria Control:
            Nuts must be processed in a clean sanitary premise following good manufacturing
            practices. Nuts should be either oil roasted or heat treated to reduce any
            bacteria.
            4. Sizing:
            Some nutmeats require chopping to achieve a uniform size in order to fit through
            the fruit feeder, i.e.: Pecans, Almonds, Peanuts, Filberts
            5. Storage Nutmeats should be stored at 34-38° F to maintain freshness and
            reduce problems with rancidity.
            Colour in Ice CreamIce cream should have a delicate, attractive colour that
            suggests or is closely associated with its flavour. Almost all ice creams are
            slightly coloured to give them the shade of the natural product 15% fruit
            produces only a slight effect on colour. However, most suppliers, would include
            some colour in the fruit to save the processor time i.e. solid pack strawberries
            include colour. Most colours are of synthetic origin, must be approved,
            purchased in liquid or dry form. Solutions can easily become contaminated and
            therefore must be fresh.
            Colours are used in ice cream to create appeal. If used to excess they indicate
            cheapness. The choice of shade is dictated by flavour, i.e. red for strawberry,
            light green for mint, purple for grape, etc.

            ----- Original Message ----
            From: "reachkeyur@yahoo. com" <reachkeyur@yahoo. com>
            To: foodees@yahoogroups .com
            Sent: Sat, 31 July, 2010 10:34:41 PM
            Subject: [foodees] Querry-ice cream colours and flavours

            Dear all,

            Could you please share with me what are the different tests that can be
            performed on ice cream colours and flavours?

            Also, please suggest some simple tests which can be performed at plant level to
            assess quality of colours and flavours being used in ice cream.

            Would be grateful to hear from you all.

            Thanks and regards,

            Keyur
            Sent from my BlackBerry® on Reliance Mobile, India's No. 1 Network. Go for it!

            ------------ --------- --------- ------

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