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Re: [foodees] QUIZ 132: STARTERS - BLOWING - CHEESE ?

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  • anant dave
    Hi Oscar, Ricotta cheese is a whey cheese prepared by coagulation of whey, However Paneer is an Indian variant of cheese. Instead of the starters and renetting
    Message 1 of 10 , Jun 2, 2008
    • 0 Attachment
      Hi Oscar,
      Ricotta cheese is a whey cheese prepared by coagulation of whey, However Paneer is an Indian variant of cheese. Instead of the starters and renetting of milk direct acidification of milk is done which neutralizes the charge on casien. Now since the net negative charge on casein which is responsible for the stability of the system, (keeping the casein miscels apart and not allowing them to aggregate as like charges repel) is not there, the result is an aggregate of casein. This is the mechanism of acid coagulation of milk.
       
      After formation of the curd the curd is pressed mechanically in a traditional process to allow whey expulsion at a faster rate. this is done typically for a period ranging from 4 hrs to over night.
      The pressed curd or the paneer is diced (cut in to small pieces) and then put in brine solution which enhances its shelf life and adds to taste. after this the product is packed for retail sale and kept frozen or refrigerated.
       
      I have a querey again...... is the coagulation of milk (both acid and enzyme process) depend on temperature?
       
      regards,
      Anant
      car Iguchi <oscar.iguchi@...> wrote:
      Let me ask you one doubt I have.
       
      Here in Brazil, some companys produce cheese and with the whey (sub-product of the chees manufacturing process) they produce ricotta, by acidification.
      I believe that the cheese is made with casein and brazilian ricotta is made with albumin precipitation.
       
      Which protein is coagulated in the manufacture of paneer?
       
      Regards,
       
      Oscar

      2008/5/29 dhanavel gokulrajan <dhana_fpe@yahoo. co.in>:
      Hi sakthi,
      well. This is a nice question, which also had had disturbed my mind. Still i'm trying for some nice answers but i can put up an answer (assuming !!!) based on my knowledge.
       
      First, cheese is prepared by renneting during which the aggregated paracaesin entraps the fat globules. The curd particles are cut to different sizes (small to large), which determines the fat content and the moisture content of the cheese, based on the syneresis. The presence of entrapped fat in the well structured network of protein melts on heating. On the otherside, the paneer is by acid coagulation of milk protein in a sudden process. Here the caesin micelles are taken to their Ip (isoelectric point) by adding H+ ions in means of acid. The coagulum is harder than the cheese and most of the Ca+ is leached out. The coagulum rich in protein may gets firmer through (heat) denaturation of protein.
       
      Secondly, the cheese is stabilised by the salt bridges formed between the caesin miscelles and the Ca. Since most of the calcium is leached by the acid and also the coagulum is at the Ip, the charges are at inactivated stage. The hydrophobic interaction takes it turn in panner.The protein coagulum stabilised by hydrophobic bonds are more stable than the salt bridges, since the bonds are endothermic.
       
      So, the increasing hydrophobic interaction on increased heating and denaturation of native protein on heating may contribute the non-melting behaviour of the panner.
       
      Those are my assumptions, the experts may light up this darkness.
       
      Regards,
      Dhanavel
       
      Masters scholar (FT - Product functionality) ,
      Wageningen University,
      The Netherlands
       
      B.Tech (FPE) - (2002-06),
      Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
      INDIA
       

      Sakthi Vijayakumar <shakthi.uv@gmail. com> wrote:
      That was a valuable input from both Mr.Dhanavel and Mr.Wang .. but i have a fiddling doubt..
      what is that makes the panir to become firmer while cheese to melt on cooking???


       
      On 5/29/08, Chicky Wang <chicky.wang@ gmail.com> wrote:
      Hi all,
       
      Nice info from Dhanavel. Some more words:
      Two principal types of culture are used in cheesemaking:
      – mesophilic cultures with a temperature optimum between 20 and 40°C
      – thermophilic cultures which develop at up to 45°C.
      The most frequently used cultures are mixed strain cultures, in which two or more strains of both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria exist in symbiosis,
      i.e. to their mutual benefit. These cultures not only produce lactic acid but also aroma components and CO2. Carbon dioxide is essential to creating
      the cavities in round-eyed and granular types of cheese. Examples are Gouda, Manchego and Tilsiter from mesophilic cultures and Emmenthal
      and Gruyère from thermophilic cultures.
      Single-strain cultures are mainly used where the object is to develop acid and contribute to protein degradation, e.g. in Cheddar and related types of cheese.
      Three characteristics of starter cultures are of primary importance in cheese making are:
      –         ability to produce lactic acid
      –         ability to break down the protein and
      –         ability to produce carbon dioxide (CO2).
      The main task of the culture is to develop acid in the curd.
      Development of acid lowers the pH, which is important in assisting syneresis. Furthermore, salts of calcium and phosphorus are released, which influence
      the consistency of the cheese and help to increase the firmness of the curd.
      Another important function performed by the acid-producing bacteria is to suppress surviving bacteria from pasteurisation or recontamination bacteria
      which need lactose or cannot tolerate lactic acid.
       
      Chicky Wang
      -----Original Message-----
      From: foodees@yahoogroups .com [mailto:foodees@yahoogroups .com] On Behalf Of dhanavel gokulrajan
      Sent:
      Thursday, May 29, 2008 3:04 AM
      To: foodees@yahoogroups .com
      Subject: Re: [foodees] QUIZ 132: STARTERS - BLOWING - CHEESE ?
       
      Hi foodees,
      The starter culture reduces the pH of  rennenting. At reduced pH, the affinity of the rennet enzyme increases and it breaks more peptide bonds (Phenylalanine- Methionine) in the kappa casein. The hairy structure is split off and the charge over the caesin particle (electrostatic repulsion) is reduced and the colloidal stability is lost. The presence of Ca either in milk or added, will shares it charge and helps in coagulation.
       
      Cooking or scalding is heating the curd-whey mixture to promote syneresis. It is prefered in low moisture cheese (italian hard cheese) since the syneresis brings out the whey.
       
      Blowing of cheese refers to the spoilage. Early blowing by E.coli and late blowing by clostridia, both produces gas in the cheese.
       
      Suggestion and corrections are most welcome!
       
      Regards,
      Dhanavel
       
      Masters Scholar (FT- Product Functionality) ,
      Wageningen University,
      The Netherlands

      B.Tech (FPE)- (2002-06),
      Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
      INDIA

      anant dave <swaraj177@yahoo. com> wrote:
      Dear Friends,
      Well Paneer is a product made by acid coagulation of milk. Traditionally it does not involve any microbial cultures. The Milk ids boiled in the begining and then cooled to 70 degree C and added with a coagulant at the same temperature.

      Coagulation occurs and a gel is formed. Thus it is a soft variety of cheese which is also classified as per the coagulant as Acid coagulated cheese.
       
      In other cheeses the role of starters is different and not restriced in acidity develpoement. Generally mesophilic cultures are used in cheddar cheese. The choice of cuiltures depend on the variety, end characterstics required and various other factors,
       
      For this week's quiz 132
      what is the role of starter cultures in cheese manufacture?
      what is cooking?
      what is late blowing and early blowing of cheeses?
      Participate and become the Foodee of the year with maximum points,
      Good Luck!
      regards,
      Anant
       
       



      --
      Sakthi V
      IV B.Tech (Food Process Engineering) ,
      AEC & RI,
      TNAU.



    • Bhanu Prakash
      Dear All, Thought to add a point, paneer is also called as cottage cheese. ... === message truncated === G. Bhanu Prakash B. Sc.(Agriculture)
      Message 2 of 10 , Jun 2, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        Dear All,
        Thought to add a point, paneer is also called as
        cottage cheese.
        --- anant dave <swaraj177@...> wrote:

        > Hi Oscar,
        > Ricotta cheese is a whey cheese prepared by
        > coagulation of whey, However Paneer is an Indian
        > variant of cheese. Instead of the starters and
        > renetting of milk direct acidification of milk is
        > done which neutralizes the charge on casien. Now
        > since the net negative charge on casein which is
        > responsible for the stability of the system,
        > (keeping the casein miscels apart and not allowing
        > them to aggregate as like charges repel) is not
        > there, the result is an aggregate of casein. This is
        > the mechanism of acid coagulation of milk.
        >
        > After formation of the curd the curd is pressed
        > mechanically in a traditional process to allow whey
        > expulsion at a faster rate. this is done typically
        > for a period ranging from 4 hrs to over night.
        >
        > The pressed curd or the paneer is diced (cut in to
        > small pieces) and then put in brine solution which
        > enhances its shelf life and adds to taste. after
        > this the product is packed for retail sale and kept
        > frozen or refrigerated.
        >
        > I have a querey again...... is the coagulation of
        > milk (both acid and enzyme process) depend on
        > temperature?
        >
        > regards,
        > Anant
        > car Iguchi <oscar.iguchi@...> wrote:
        > Let me ask you one doubt I have.
        >
        > Here in Brazil, some companys produce cheese and
        > with the whey (sub-product of the chees
        > manufacturing process) they produce ricotta, by
        > acidification.
        > I believe that the cheese is made with casein and
        > brazilian ricotta is made with albumin
        > precipitation.
        >
        > Which protein is coagulated in the manufacture
        > of paneer?
        >
        > Regards,
        >
        > Oscar
        >
        >
        >
        > 2008/5/29 dhanavel gokulrajan
        > <dhana_fpe@...>:
        > Hi sakthi,
        > well. This is a nice question, which also had had
        > disturbed my mind. Still i'm trying for some nice
        > answers but i can put up an answer (assuming !!!)
        > based on my knowledge.
        >
        > First, cheese is prepared by renneting during
        > which the aggregated paracaesin entraps the fat
        > globules. The curd particles are cut to different
        > sizes (small to large), which determines the fat
        > content and the moisture content of the cheese,
        > based on the syneresis. The presence of entrapped
        > fat in the well structured network of protein melts
        > on heating. On the otherside, the paneer is by acid
        > coagulation of milk protein in a sudden process.
        > Here the caesin micelles are taken to their Ip
        > (isoelectric point) by adding H+ ions in means of
        > acid. The coagulum is harder than the cheese and
        > most of the Ca+ is leached out. The coagulum rich in
        > protein may gets firmer through (heat) denaturation
        > of protein.
        >
        > Secondly, the cheese is stabilised by the salt
        > bridges formed between the caesin miscelles and the
        > Ca. Since most of the calcium is leached by the acid
        > and also the coagulum is at the Ip, the charges are
        > at inactivated stage. The hydrophobic interaction
        > takes it turn in panner.The protein coagulum
        > stabilised by hydrophobic bonds are more stable than
        > the salt bridges, since the bonds are endothermic.
        >
        > So, the increasing hydrophobic interaction on
        > increased heating and denaturation of native protein
        > on heating may contribute the non-melting behaviour
        > of the panner.
        >
        > Those are my assumptions, the experts may light up
        > this darkness.
        >
        > Regards,
        > Dhanavel
        >
        > Masters scholar (FT - Product functionality),
        > Wageningen University,
        > The Netherlands
        >
        > B.Tech (FPE) - (2002-06),
        > Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
        > INDIA
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Sakthi Vijayakumar <shakthi.uv@...> wrote:
        > That was a valuable input from both
        > Mr.Dhanavel and Mr.Wang .. but i have a fiddling
        > doubt..
        > what is that makes the panir to become firmer
        > while cheese to melt on cooking???
        >
        >
        >
        > On 5/29/08, Chicky Wang <chicky.wang@...>
        > wrote: Hi all,
        >
        > Nice info from Dhanavel. Some more words:
        > Two principal types of culture are used in
        > cheesemaking:
        > – mesophilic cultures with a temperature optimum
        > between 20 and 40°C
        > – thermophilic cultures which develop at up to
        > 45°C.
        > The most frequently used cultures are mixed strain
        > cultures, in which two or more strains of both
        > mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria exist in
        > symbiosis,
        > i.e. to their mutual benefit. These cultures not
        > only produce lactic acid but also aroma components
        > and CO2. Carbon dioxide is essential to creating
        > the cavities in round-eyed and granular types of
        > cheese. Examples are Gouda, Manchego and Tilsiter
        > from mesophilic cultures and Emmenthal
        > and Gruyère from thermophilic cultures.
        > Single-strain cultures are mainly used where the
        > object is to develop acid and contribute to protein
        > degradation, e.g. in Cheddar and related types of
        > cheese.
        > Three characteristics of starter cultures are of
        > primary importance in cheese making are:
        > – ability to produce lactic acid
        > – ability to break down the protein and
        > – ability to produce carbon dioxide (CO2).
        > The main task of the culture is to develop acid in
        > the curd.
        > Development of acid lowers the pH, which is
        > important in assisting syneresis. Furthermore, salts
        > of calcium and phosphorus are released, which
        > influence
        > the consistency of the cheese and help to increase
        > the firmness of the curd.
        > Another important function performed by the
        > acid-producing bacteria is to suppress surviving
        > bacteria from pasteurisation or recontamination
        > bacteria
        > which need lactose or cannot tolerate lactic acid.
        >
        > Chicky Wang
        >
        > -----Original Message-----
        > From: foodees@yahoogroups.com
        > [mailto:foodees@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
        > dhanavel gokulrajan
        > Sent: Thursday, May 29, 2008 3:04 AM
        > To: foodees@yahoogroups.com
        > Subject: Re: [foodees] QUIZ 132: STARTERS - BLOWING
        > - CHEESE ?
        >
        > Hi foodees,
        >
        > The starter culture reduces the pH of
        > rennenting. At reduced pH, the affinity of the
        > rennet enzyme increases and it breaks more peptide
        > bonds (Phenylalanine-Methionine) in the kappa
        > casein. The hairy structure is split off and the
        > charge over the caesin particle (electrostatic
        > repulsion) is reduced and the colloidal stability is
        > lost. The presence of Ca either in milk or added,
        > will shares it charge and helps in coagulation.
        >
        >
        >
        > Cooking or scalding is heating the curd-whey
        > mixture to promote syneresis. It is prefered in low
        > moisture cheese (italian hard cheese) since the
        > syneresis brings out the whey.
        >
        >
        >
        > Blowing of cheese refers to the spoilage. Early
        > blowing by E.coli and late blowing by clostridia,
        > both produces gas in the cheese.
        >
        >
        >
        > Suggestion and corrections are most welcome!
        >
        >
        >
        > Regards,
        >
        === message truncated ===


        G. Bhanu Prakash
        B. Sc.(Agriculture) 1997-2001.TNAU,Coimbatore
        M. Sc. (Food Technology) 2001-2003. CFTRI, Mysore
      • Bhanu Prakash
        Dear All, Thought to add a point, paneer is also called as cottage cheese. ... === message truncated === G. Bhanu Prakash B. Sc.(Agriculture)
        Message 3 of 10 , Jun 2, 2008
        • 0 Attachment
          Dear All,
          Thought to add a point, paneer is also called as
          cottage cheese.
          --- anant dave <swaraj177@...> wrote:

          > Hi Oscar,
          > Ricotta cheese is a whey cheese prepared by
          > coagulation of whey, However Paneer is an Indian
          > variant of cheese. Instead of the starters and
          > renetting of milk direct acidification of milk is
          > done which neutralizes the charge on casien. Now
          > since the net negative charge on casein which is
          > responsible for the stability of the system,
          > (keeping the casein miscels apart and not allowing
          > them to aggregate as like charges repel) is not
          > there, the result is an aggregate of casein. This is
          > the mechanism of acid coagulation of milk.
          >
          > After formation of the curd the curd is pressed
          > mechanically in a traditional process to allow whey
          > expulsion at a faster rate. this is done typically
          > for a period ranging from 4 hrs to over night.
          >
          > The pressed curd or the paneer is diced (cut in to
          > small pieces) and then put in brine solution which
          > enhances its shelf life and adds to taste. after
          > this the product is packed for retail sale and kept
          > frozen or refrigerated.
          >
          > I have a querey again...... is the coagulation of
          > milk (both acid and enzyme process) depend on
          > temperature?
          >
          > regards,
          > Anant
          > car Iguchi <oscar.iguchi@...> wrote:
          > Let me ask you one doubt I have.
          >
          > Here in Brazil, some companys produce cheese and
          > with the whey (sub-product of the chees
          > manufacturing process) they produce ricotta, by
          > acidification.
          > I believe that the cheese is made with casein and
          > brazilian ricotta is made with albumin
          > precipitation.
          >
          > Which protein is coagulated in the manufacture
          > of paneer?
          >
          > Regards,
          >
          > Oscar
          >
          >
          >
          > 2008/5/29 dhanavel gokulrajan
          > <dhana_fpe@...>:
          > Hi sakthi,
          > well. This is a nice question, which also had had
          > disturbed my mind. Still i'm trying for some nice
          > answers but i can put up an answer (assuming !!!)
          > based on my knowledge.
          >
          > First, cheese is prepared by renneting during
          > which the aggregated paracaesin entraps the fat
          > globules. The curd particles are cut to different
          > sizes (small to large), which determines the fat
          > content and the moisture content of the cheese,
          > based on the syneresis. The presence of entrapped
          > fat in the well structured network of protein melts
          > on heating. On the otherside, the paneer is by acid
          > coagulation of milk protein in a sudden process.
          > Here the caesin micelles are taken to their Ip
          > (isoelectric point) by adding H+ ions in means of
          > acid. The coagulum is harder than the cheese and
          > most of the Ca+ is leached out. The coagulum rich in
          > protein may gets firmer through (heat) denaturation
          > of protein.
          >
          > Secondly, the cheese is stabilised by the salt
          > bridges formed between the caesin miscelles and the
          > Ca. Since most of the calcium is leached by the acid
          > and also the coagulum is at the Ip, the charges are
          > at inactivated stage. The hydrophobic interaction
          > takes it turn in panner.The protein coagulum
          > stabilised by hydrophobic bonds are more stable than
          > the salt bridges, since the bonds are endothermic.
          >
          > So, the increasing hydrophobic interaction on
          > increased heating and denaturation of native protein
          > on heating may contribute the non-melting behaviour
          > of the panner.
          >
          > Those are my assumptions, the experts may light up
          > this darkness.
          >
          > Regards,
          > Dhanavel
          >
          > Masters scholar (FT - Product functionality),
          > Wageningen University,
          > The Netherlands
          >
          > B.Tech (FPE) - (2002-06),
          > Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
          > INDIA
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > Sakthi Vijayakumar <shakthi.uv@...> wrote:
          > That was a valuable input from both
          > Mr.Dhanavel and Mr.Wang .. but i have a fiddling
          > doubt..
          > what is that makes the panir to become firmer
          > while cheese to melt on cooking???
          >
          >
          >
          > On 5/29/08, Chicky Wang <chicky.wang@...>
          > wrote: Hi all,
          >
          > Nice info from Dhanavel. Some more words:
          > Two principal types of culture are used in
          > cheesemaking:
          > – mesophilic cultures with a temperature optimum
          > between 20 and 40°C
          > – thermophilic cultures which develop at up to
          > 45°C.
          > The most frequently used cultures are mixed strain
          > cultures, in which two or more strains of both
          > mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria exist in
          > symbiosis,
          > i.e. to their mutual benefit. These cultures not
          > only produce lactic acid but also aroma components
          > and CO2. Carbon dioxide is essential to creating
          > the cavities in round-eyed and granular types of
          > cheese. Examples are Gouda, Manchego and Tilsiter
          > from mesophilic cultures and Emmenthal
          > and Gruyère from thermophilic cultures.
          > Single-strain cultures are mainly used where the
          > object is to develop acid and contribute to protein
          > degradation, e.g. in Cheddar and related types of
          > cheese.
          > Three characteristics of starter cultures are of
          > primary importance in cheese making are:
          > – ability to produce lactic acid
          > – ability to break down the protein and
          > – ability to produce carbon dioxide (CO2).
          > The main task of the culture is to develop acid in
          > the curd.
          > Development of acid lowers the pH, which is
          > important in assisting syneresis. Furthermore, salts
          > of calcium and phosphorus are released, which
          > influence
          > the consistency of the cheese and help to increase
          > the firmness of the curd.
          > Another important function performed by the
          > acid-producing bacteria is to suppress surviving
          > bacteria from pasteurisation or recontamination
          > bacteria
          > which need lactose or cannot tolerate lactic acid.
          >
          > Chicky Wang
          >
          > -----Original Message-----
          > From: foodees@yahoogroups.com
          > [mailto:foodees@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
          > dhanavel gokulrajan
          > Sent: Thursday, May 29, 2008 3:04 AM
          > To: foodees@yahoogroups.com
          > Subject: Re: [foodees] QUIZ 132: STARTERS - BLOWING
          > - CHEESE ?
          >
          > Hi foodees,
          >
          > The starter culture reduces the pH of
          > rennenting. At reduced pH, the affinity of the
          > rennet enzyme increases and it breaks more peptide
          > bonds (Phenylalanine-Methionine) in the kappa
          > casein. The hairy structure is split off and the
          > charge over the caesin particle (electrostatic
          > repulsion) is reduced and the colloidal stability is
          > lost. The presence of Ca either in milk or added,
          > will shares it charge and helps in coagulation.
          >
          >
          >
          > Cooking or scalding is heating the curd-whey
          > mixture to promote syneresis. It is prefered in low
          > moisture cheese (italian hard cheese) since the
          > syneresis brings out the whey.
          >
          >
          >
          > Blowing of cheese refers to the spoilage. Early
          > blowing by E.coli and late blowing by clostridia,
          > both produces gas in the cheese.
          >
          >
          >
          > Suggestion and corrections are most welcome!
          >
          >
          >
          > Regards,
          >
          === message truncated ===


          G. Bhanu Prakash
          B. Sc.(Agriculture) 1997-2001.TNAU,Coimbatore
          M. Sc. (Food Technology) 2001-2003. CFTRI, Mysore
        • Oscar Iguchi
          Oh! Cottage cheese! Now I see that I have already eaten paneer and I didn´t know it was a Paneer!! Thanks for your answers, Bhanu and Anant! Talking about
          Message 4 of 10 , Jun 2, 2008
          • 0 Attachment
            Oh! Cottage cheese!
            Now I see that I have already eaten paneer and I didn´t know it was a Paneer!!

            Thanks for your answers, Bhanu and Anant!

            Talking about temperature, I believe that the enzyme process depends on the temperature, because each enzyme has an optimum temperature, in what they work faster.
            About the acid process, I believe that a higher temperature combined with acidification would denaturate the casein quicker, but I don´t know if it would result in a good cheese.
            But I´m only guessing...

            Regards,

            Oscar
            .




            2008/6/2 Bhanu Prakash <gidigebanu@...>:

            Dear All,
            Thought to add a point, paneer is also called as
            cottage cheese.
            --- anant dave <swaraj177@...> wrote:

            > Hi Oscar,
            > Ricotta cheese is a whey cheese prepared by
            > coagulation of whey, However Paneer is an Indian
            > variant of cheese. Instead of the starters and
            > renetting of milk direct acidification of milk is
            > done which neutralizes the charge on casien. Now
            > since the net negative charge on casein which is
            > responsible for the stability of the system,
            > (keeping the casein miscels apart and not allowing
            > them to aggregate as like charges repel) is not
            > there, the result is an aggregate of casein. This is
            > the mechanism of acid coagulation of milk.
            >
            > After formation of the curd the curd is pressed
            > mechanically in a traditional process to allow whey
            > expulsion at a faster rate. this is done typically
            > for a period ranging from 4 hrs to over night.
            >
            > The pressed curd or the paneer is diced (cut in to
            > small pieces) and then put in brine solution which
            > enhances its shelf life and adds to taste. after
            > this the product is packed for retail sale and kept
            > frozen or refrigerated.
            >
            > I have a querey again...... is the coagulation of
            > milk (both acid and enzyme process) depend on
            > temperature?
            >
            > regards,
            > Anant
            > car Iguchi <oscar.iguchi@...> wrote:
            > Let me ask you one doubt I have.
            >
            > Here in Brazil, some companys produce cheese and
            > with the whey (sub-product of the chees
            > manufacturing process) they produce ricotta, by
            > acidification.
            > I believe that the cheese is made with casein and
            > brazilian ricotta is made with albumin
            > precipitation.
            >
            > Which protein is coagulated in the manufacture
            > of paneer?
            >
            > Regards,
            >
            > Oscar
            >
            >
            >
            > 2008/5/29 dhanavel gokulrajan
            > <dhana_fpe@...>:
            > Hi sakthi,
            > well. This is a nice question, which also had had
            > disturbed my mind. Still i'm trying for some nice
            > answers but i can put up an answer (assuming !!!)
            > based on my knowledge.
            >
            > First, cheese is prepared by renneting during
            > which the aggregated paracaesin entraps the fat
            > globules. The curd particles are cut to different
            > sizes (small to large), which determines the fat
            > content and the moisture content of the cheese,
            > based on the syneresis. The presence of entrapped
            > fat in the well structured network of protein melts
            > on heating. On the otherside, the paneer is by acid
            > coagulation of milk protein in a sudden process.
            > Here the caesin micelles are taken to their Ip
            > (isoelectric point) by adding H+ ions in means of
            > acid. The coagulum is harder than the cheese and
            > most of the Ca+ is leached out. The coagulum rich in
            > protein may gets firmer through (heat) denaturation
            > of protein.
            >
            > Secondly, the cheese is stabilised by the salt
            > bridges formed between the caesin miscelles and the
            > Ca. Since most of the calcium is leached by the acid
            > and also the coagulum is at the Ip, the charges are
            > at inactivated stage. The hydrophobic interaction
            > takes it turn in panner.The protein coagulum
            > stabilised by hydrophobic bonds are more stable than
            > the salt bridges, since the bonds are endothermic.
            >
            > So, the increasing hydrophobic interaction on
            > increased heating and denaturation of native protein
            > on heating may contribute the non-melting behaviour
            > of the panner.
            >
            > Those are my assumptions, the experts may light up
            > this darkness.
            >
            > Regards,
            > Dhanavel
            >
            > Masters scholar (FT - Product functionality),
            > Wageningen University,
            > The Netherlands
            >
            > B.Tech (FPE) - (2002-06),
            > Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
            > INDIA
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > Sakthi Vijayakumar <shakthi.uv@...> wrote:
            > That was a valuable input from both
            > Mr.Dhanavel and Mr.Wang .. but i have a fiddling
            > doubt..
            > what is that makes the panir to become firmer
            > while cheese to melt on cooking???
            >
            >
            >
            > On 5/29/08, Chicky Wang <chicky.wang@...>
            > wrote: Hi all,
            >
            > Nice info from Dhanavel. Some more words:
            > Two principal types of culture are used in
            > cheesemaking:
            > – mesophilic cultures with a temperature optimum
            > between 20 and 40°C
            > – thermophilic cultures which develop at up to
            > 45°C.
            > The most frequently used cultures are mixed strain
            > cultures, in which two or more strains of both
            > mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria exist in
            > symbiosis,
            > i.e. to their mutual benefit. These cultures not
            > only produce lactic acid but also aroma components
            > and CO2. Carbon dioxide is essential to creating
            > the cavities in round-eyed and granular types of
            > cheese. Examples are Gouda, Manchego and Tilsiter
            > from mesophilic cultures and Emmenthal
            > and Gruyère from thermophilic cultures.
            > Single-strain cultures are mainly used where the
            > object is to develop acid and contribute to protein
            > degradation, e.g. in Cheddar and related types of
            > cheese.
            > Three characteristics of starter cultures are of
            > primary importance in cheese making are:
            > – ability to produce lactic acid
            > – ability to break down the protein and
            > – ability to produce carbon dioxide (CO2).
            > The main task of the culture is to develop acid in
            > the curd.
            > Development of acid lowers the pH, which is
            > important in assisting syneresis. Furthermore, salts
            > of calcium and phosphorus are released, which
            > influence
            > the consistency of the cheese and help to increase
            > the firmness of the curd.
            > Another important function performed by the
            > acid-producing bacteria is to suppress surviving
            > bacteria from pasteurisation or recontamination
            > bacteria
            > which need lactose or cannot tolerate lactic acid.
            >
            > Chicky Wang
            >
            > -----Original Message-----
            > From: foodees@yahoogroups.com
            > [mailto:foodees@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
            > dhanavel gokulrajan
            > Sent: Thursday, May 29, 2008 3:04 AM
            > To: foodees@yahoogroups.com
            > Subject: Re: [foodees] QUIZ 132: STARTERS - BLOWING
            > - CHEESE ?
            >
            > Hi foodees,
            >
            > The starter culture reduces the pH of
            > rennenting. At reduced pH, the affinity of the
            > rennet enzyme increases and it breaks more peptide
            > bonds (Phenylalanine-Methionine) in the kappa
            > casein. The hairy structure is split off and the
            > charge over the caesin particle (electrostatic
            > repulsion) is reduced and the colloidal stability is
            > lost. The presence of Ca either in milk or added,
            > will shares it charge and helps in coagulation.
            >
            >
            >
            > Cooking or scalding is heating the curd-whey
            > mixture to promote syneresis. It is prefered in low
            > moisture cheese (italian hard cheese) since the
            > syneresis brings out the whey.
            >
            >
            >
            > Blowing of cheese refers to the spoilage. Early
            > blowing by E.coli and late blowing by clostridia,
            > both produces gas in the cheese.
            >
            >
            >
            > Suggestion and corrections are most welcome!
            >
            >
            >
            > Regards,
            >
            === message truncated ===

            G. Bhanu Prakash
            B. Sc.(Agriculture) 1997-2001.TNAU,Coimbatore
            M. Sc. (Food Technology) 2001-2003. CFTRI, Mysore


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