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Re: [folkspraak] Some ecumenical words

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  • Aron Boström
    ... In SV dom is also ok, guess it s the same in the other scandy langs. ... +SV nunna SCY nonna
    Message 1 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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      fredag 5 november 2004 11:39 skreb parked71:
      > FS dom /do:m/ n. = cathedral, church with a dome
      > NL dom, DE Dom, DA domkirke, NO domkirke, SV domkyrke
      In SV dom is also ok, guess it's the same in the other scandy langs.

      > FS nonn /nOn/ n. = nun
      > EN nun, NL non, DE Nonne, DA nonne
      +SV nunna SCY nonna
    • wakuran_wakaran
      ... Not a big difference, but maybe kapel/kapell... Does the indicate that the stress is on the ka syllable? ... I would say biieden/bíeden(bi:@d) is offer,
      Message 2 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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        --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, "parked71" <parked@x> wrote:
        >
        > Umm... I think ecumenical means something to do with churches. Anyways
        > in acknowledgementalism of George W Bush Jr getting another 4 years,
        > here are being some religiousityistical wordings.
        >
        > Once again, an *asterisk denotes a word that might be controversial
        > unless unless if you are accepting words present in only
        > 2 out of 4 branches. OR you are using Interlingua (or another
        > non-Germlang) as a language of last resort. (which is what I'm doing)
        >
        > FS prester /"prEst@r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar
        > EN priest, NL priester, DE Priester, DA præst, SV präst, IL
        > prestre
        >
        > FS *paroch /pa"rOk/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
        > EN parish, DE Pfarrer, IL parocho
        >
        > FS pastor /pa"sto:r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
        > EN pastor, NL pastoor, DE Pastorat, SV pastor
        >
        > FS Brouder /"bru:d@r/n. = male member of a religious order, especially
        > as title, or term of address
        > EN brother, friar, NL broeder, DE Klosterbruder.
        >
        > FS Pater /"pa:t@r/ n. = male leader of a religious order, especially
        > as title, or term of address
        > EN Father, Padre, NL pater, SV fader
        >
        > FS kirk /kIrk/ n. = church
        > EN church, kirk, NL kerk, DE Kirche, DA kirke, NO kirke, SV kyrka
        >
        > kappel /"kap@l/ n. = small church, place of worship in primarily
        > secular building.
        > EN chapple, NL kapel, DE kapelle, DA kapel, SV kapell, IL capella

        Not a big difference, but maybe kapel/kapell... Does the " indicate
        that the stress is on the ka syllable?

        >
        > FS tempel /'tEmp@l/ n. = place of worship, especially non-christian.
        > EN temple, NL tempel, DE Tempel, DA tempel, SV tempel, IL templo
        >
        > FS *monaster /mo"nast@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
        > EN monastery, -minster, DE Münster, IL monasterio
        >
        > FS klouster /"klu:st@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
        > EN cloister, NL klooster, DE Kloster, DA kloster, SV kloster, IL
        > clausura
        >
        > FS dom /do:m/ n. = cathedral, church with a dome
        > NL dom, DE Dom, DA domkirke, NO domkirke, SV domkyrke
        >
        > FS katedral /kate"dra:l/ n. = cathedral
        > EN cathedral, NL kathedraal, DE Kathedrale, DA katedral,NO katedral,SV
        > katedral, IL cathedral
        >
        > FS monk /mONk/ n. = monk.
        > EN monk, NL monnik, DE Mönch, DA munk, SV munk, IL monacho
        >
        > FS nonn /nOn/ n. = nun
        > EN nun, NL non, DE Nonne, DA nonne
        >
        > FS biede /"bi:d@/ vi. to pray.
        > EN. bid, NL bidden, DE beten, SV be, bedja
        >
        > I'm not so sure about this verb. English seems to have merged two
        > different verbs into one. One is cognate with DE "bitte", the other
        > means pray.

        I would say biieden/bíeden(bi:@d) is offer,
        bidden/biden(bid) could be beg/pray... =S

        Also "abbot", someone posted info about an abbey... =S
        Well, I have to go away to the countryside for the holidays...
        Later!
      • parked71
        ... Yes on the first syllable. How romance borrowings get pronounced in many Germlangs seems to be determined by how recent a borrowing they are; How well
        Message 3 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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          > > kappel /"kap@l/ n. = small church, place of worship in primarily
          > > secular building.
          > > EN chapple, NL kapel, DE kapelle, DA kapel, SV kapell, IL capella
          >
          > Not a big difference, but maybe kapel/kapell... Does the " indicate
          > that the stress is on the ka syllable?

          Yes on the first syllable. How romance borrowings get pronounced in
          many Germlangs seems to be determined by how recent a borrowing they
          are; How well integrated into the language they are, in other words.

          Very old borrowings tend to have an Germanic stress pattern (stress on
          1st syllable). More recent borrowings seem to go for a more romantic
          stress on last syllable. EN chaple and NK kapel are probably quite old
          and stressed on first syllable. SV kapell and DE kapelle are stressed
          on the "ell". Well, German is, couldn't say for SV. So perhaps kapell
          /ka"pEl/ would also be the possible FS form for this word. The
          Germlangs are evenly split on the stress, so its a tricky one. For my
          pseudo-history of FS, I sort of assumed the word is fairly well
          integrated and has thus has several centuries of misuse and abuse to
          force it into a germanic stress pattern.
        • Aron Boström
          ... SV abbot Ok, I have gently accepted criticism, here comes some suggestions with brief research on DE and NL cognates. I finally bookmarked a SV-NL and a
          Message 4 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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            fredagen den 5 november 2004 11:56 skrev parked71:
            > Oops, while drinking a Belgium beer (mmmmm Leffe Bruin), I was
            > reminded that there is cognate to "Abbey" in Dutch (Well most
            > definitely in Flemish)
            >
            > So:
            >
            > FS *abbat /aba:t/ n. = monastery, residence of religious leader.
            > EN abbey, NL abdij IL abbatia.

            SV abbot


            Ok, I have gently accepted criticism, here comes some suggestions with brief
            "research" on DE and NL cognates. I finally bookmarked a SV-NL and a SV-DE
            dictionary. :-)

            FS rabbi
            SV rabbin DE Rabbi EN rabbi NL rabbi, rabijn

            FS?? imam ("muslim priest")
            SV imam EN ima[u]m (couldn't find any DE/NL cognate - have no sufficient
            dictionary)

            FS ????
            NL paus SV påve EN pope DE Papst

            FS kardinal
            SV kardinal EN cardinal DE Kardinal NL kardinaal

            FS patriark? (orthodox christian "bishop")
            SV patriark EN patriarch DE/NL ???

            FS ??
            SV ortodox EN orthodox DE strenggläubig NL strenggelovig

            FS katholik
            SV katolik NL katholiek EN catholic DE katholisch

            FS protestant
            n. SV protestant DE Protestant EN protestant NL protestant

            FS evangelisk
            a. SV evangelisk DE evangelisch EN evangelical NL evangelisch

            FS baptist?
            n. SV baptist DE ? EN baptist NL ?

            FS ? (follwer of Martin Luther)
            n. SV lutheran DE ? EN ? NL ?

            FS calvinist
            n. SV kalvinist, reformert DE Kalvinist EN calvinist NL calvinist,
            gereformeerde

            FS anglikan
            n. SV anglikan DE Anglikaner/in EN Anglican NL anglicaan

            FS hugenott
            n. SV hugenott DE Hugenotte EN huguenot NL hugenoot


            FS bischop
            EN bishop DE Bischof NL bisschop SV biskop

            FS arkbischop ??
            EN archbishop DE Erzbischof NL aartsbisschop SV Ärkebiskop

            Interesting is the arch- prefix, it could be used in many words, arch enemy,
            arch angel, ...

            FS engel
            EN angel DE Engel SV Ängel NL engel
            Alos: DE Himmelsbewohner, Gottgesandte NL hemelgeest, godsgezant, godsbode

            FS apostel
            EN apostle SV apostel NL apostel DE Apostel

            FS discipel ("the twelve", christians)
            EN disciple NL discipel NO discipel?

            FS anhanger, folger (general religious follower, supporter)
            FS folger
            DE Anhänger, Nachfolger, Verfolger SV Anhängare NL volger, volgelinge,
            aanhanger, navolger EN follower (SV v. följa - to follow)

            FS Lerjunge (Apprentice)
            DE Lehrjunge NL Leerjongen SV Lärjunge
            (SV Lärjunge is mostly a disciple but also apprentice to some degree)

            FS gesell (meaning?)
            EN journeyman SV gesäll DE Geselle NL? gezellin

            FS pupil (someone beeing taught)
            EN pupil SV obsolete pupill NL pupil

            FS scholer (kid in schoolage)
            DE Schüler/Schülerin NL Scholier EN schoolboy/schoolgirl SV
            skolpojke/skolflicka

            FS lerling (apprentice)
            DE Lehrling NL leerling SV lärling

            FS student (someone studying at university/college)
            SV student EN student DE Student/Studentin NL student

            FS kursist (someone studying the same course)
            NL cursist DE kursist EN course member SV kursare, kurskamrat

            FS klasskamerad, klassfrend
            SV klasskamrat EN class mate (cognate comrade) DE Klassenkamerad NL klasgenoot

            FS Volontair (meaning?)
            SV volontär, NL volontair, DE Volontär, Volotair EN volontair
            (What does NL and DE volontär/volontair mean? They don't seem to mean the same
            as SV/EN)

            FS Freiwilliger (someone doing something out of free will, volontary)
            SV Frivillig EN free- DE Freiwilliger NL vrijwilliger

            FS praktikant (someone learning by doing, practising)
            SV praktikant DE praktikant (EN practise NL pratijk, praktiseren)



            SCAND elev and aspirant seem to lack cognates
            NL jongmaat and leerknecht seem to lack cognates
            EN apprentice and trainee seem to lack cognate
          • Aron Boström
            ... I probably shouldn t speak regarding pronounciation on SV as the stress often is different between SCY and SV, but at least in SCY ell is stressed, I would
            Message 5 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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              fredag 5 november 2004 13:03 skreb parked71:
              > Very old borrowings tend to have an Germanic stress pattern (stress on
              > 1st syllable). More recent borrowings seem to go for a more romantic
              > stress on last syllable. EN chaple and NK kapel are probably quite old
              > and stressed on first syllable. SV kapell and DE kapelle are stressed
              > on the "ell". Well, German is, couldn't say for SV.

              I probably shouldn't speak regarding pronounciation on SV as the stress often
              is different between SCY and SV, but at least in SCY ell is stressed, I would
              be really surpised if it is different in SV.

              Aron
            • tungol65
              ... Anyways ... doing) ... especially ... Isn t it chapel in English? So I d go with just one p in FS kapel ... christian. ... It seems only NL has a
              Message 6 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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                --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, "parked71" <parked@x> wrote:
                >
                > Umm... I think ecumenical means something to do with churches.
                Anyways
                > in acknowledgementalism of George W Bush Jr getting another 4 years,
                > here are being some religiousityistical wordings.
                >
                > Once again, an *asterisk denotes a word that might be controversial
                > unless unless if you are accepting words present in only
                > 2 out of 4 branches. OR you are using Interlingua (or another
                > non-Germlang) as a language of last resort. (which is what I'm
                doing)
                >
                > FS prester /"prEst@r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar
                > EN priest, NL priester, DE Priester, DA præst, SV präst, IL
                > prestre
                >
                > FS *paroch /pa"rOk/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                > EN parish, DE Pfarrer, IL parocho
                >
                > FS pastor /pa"sto:r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                > EN pastor, NL pastoor, DE Pastorat, SV pastor
                >
                > FS Brouder /"bru:d@r/n. = male member of a religious order,
                especially
                > as title, or term of address
                > EN brother, friar, NL broeder, DE Klosterbruder.
                >
                > FS Pater /"pa:t@r/ n. = male leader of a religious order, especially
                > as title, or term of address
                > EN Father, Padre, NL pater, SV fader
                >
                > FS kirk /kIrk/ n. = church
                > EN church, kirk, NL kerk, DE Kirche, DA kirke, NO kirke, SV kyrka
                >
                > kappel /"kap@l/ n. = small church, place of worship in primarily
                > secular building.
                > EN chapple, NL kapel, DE kapelle, DA kapel, SV kapell, IL capella

                Isn't it "chapel" in English? So I'd go with just one "p" in
                FS "kapel"

                > FS tempel /'tEmp@l/ n. = place of worship, especially non-
                christian.
                > EN temple, NL tempel, DE Tempel, DA tempel, SV tempel, IL templo
                >
                > FS *monaster /mo"nast@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                > EN monastery, -minster, DE Münster, IL monasterio
                >
                > FS klouster /"klu:st@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                > EN cloister, NL klooster, DE Kloster, DA kloster, SV kloster, IL
                > clausura

                It seems only NL has a long "o", I'd go with FS "kloster"

                > FS dom /do:m/ n. = cathedral, church with a dome
                > NL dom, DE Dom, DA domkirke, NO domkirke, SV domkyrke
                >
                > FS katedral /kate"dra:l/ n. = cathedral
                > EN cathedral, NL kathedraal, DE Kathedrale, DA katedral,NO
                katedral,SV
                > katedral, IL cathedral
                >
                > FS monk /mONk/ n. = monk.
                > EN monk, NL monnik, DE Mönch, DA munk, SV munk, IL monacho
                >
                > FS nonn /nOn/ n. = nun
                > EN nun, NL non, DE Nonne, DA nonne
                >
                > FS biede /"bi:d@/ vi. to pray.
                > EN. bid, NL bidden, DE beten, SV be, bedja

                FS "biede" works for me.

                > I'm not so sure about this verb. English seems to have merged two
                > different verbs into one. One is cognate with DE "bitte", the other
                > means pray.
              • tungol65
                ... perhaps ... German has Abtei , Danish abbedi , so perhaps FS abbedei ? ... Anyways ... years, ... controversial ... doing) ... especially ... especially
                Message 7 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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                  --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, "parked71" <parked@x> wrote:
                  >
                  > Oops, while drinking a Belgium beer (mmmmm Leffe Bruin), I was
                  > reminded that there is cognate to "Abbey" in Dutch (Well most
                  > definitely in Flemish)
                  >
                  > So:
                  >
                  > FS *abbat /aba:t/ n. = monastery, residence of religious leader.
                  > EN abbey, NL abdij IL abbatia.
                  >
                  > Not sure of what the FS form shape of this word should be...
                  > Alternatives might be abbatie, abbaats, abbaatsie, abacie. But
                  perhaps
                  > it shouldn't be there at all.

                  German has "Abtei", Danish "abbedi", so perhaps FS "abbedei"?

                  > --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, "parked71" <parked@x> wrote:
                  > >
                  > > Umm... I think ecumenical means something to do with churches.
                  Anyways
                  > > in acknowledgementalism of George W Bush Jr getting another 4
                  years,
                  > > here are being some religiousityistical wordings.
                  > >
                  > > Once again, an *asterisk denotes a word that might be
                  controversial
                  > > unless unless if you are accepting words present in only
                  > > 2 out of 4 branches. OR you are using Interlingua (or another
                  > > non-Germlang) as a language of last resort. (which is what I'm
                  doing)
                  > >
                  > > FS prester /"prEst@r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar
                  > > EN priest, NL priester, DE Priester, DA præst, SV präst, IL
                  > > prestre
                  > >
                  > > FS *paroch /pa"rOk/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                  > > EN parish, DE Pfarrer, IL parocho
                  > >
                  > > FS pastor /pa"sto:r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                  > > EN pastor, NL pastoor, DE Pastorat, SV pastor
                  > >
                  > > FS Brouder /"bru:d@r/n. = male member of a religious order,
                  especially
                  > > as title, or term of address
                  > > EN brother, friar, NL broeder, DE Klosterbruder.
                  > >
                  > > FS Pater /"pa:t@r/ n. = male leader of a religious order,
                  especially
                  > > as title, or term of address
                  > > EN Father, Padre, NL pater, SV fader
                  > >
                  > > FS kirk /kIrk/ n. = church
                  > > EN church, kirk, NL kerk, DE Kirche, DA kirke, NO kirke, SV kyrka
                  > >
                  > > kappel /"kap@l/ n. = small church, place of worship in primarily
                  > > secular building.
                  > > EN chapple, NL kapel, DE kapelle, DA kapel, SV kapell, IL capella
                  > >
                  > > FS tempel /'tEmp@l/ n. = place of worship, especially non-
                  christian.
                  > > EN temple, NL tempel, DE Tempel, DA tempel, SV tempel, IL templo
                  > >
                  > > FS *monaster /mo"nast@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                  > > EN monastery, -minster, DE Münster, IL monasterio
                  > >
                  > > FS klouster /"klu:st@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                  > > EN cloister, NL klooster, DE Kloster, DA kloster, SV kloster, IL
                  > > clausura
                  > >
                  > > FS dom /do:m/ n. = cathedral, church with a dome
                  > > NL dom, DE Dom, DA domkirke, NO domkirke, SV domkyrke
                  > >
                  > > FS katedral /kate"dra:l/ n. = cathedral
                  > > EN cathedral, NL kathedraal, DE Kathedrale, DA katedral,NO
                  katedral,SV
                  > > katedral, IL cathedral
                  > >
                  > > FS monk /mONk/ n. = monk.
                  > > EN monk, NL monnik, DE Mönch, DA munk, SV munk, IL monacho
                  > >
                  > > FS nonn /nOn/ n. = nun
                  > > EN nun, NL non, DE Nonne, DA nonne
                  > >
                  > > FS biede /"bi:d@/ vi. to pray.
                  > > EN. bid, NL bidden, DE beten, SV be, bedja
                  > >
                  > > I'm not so sure about this verb. English seems to have merged two
                  > > different verbs into one. One is cognate with DE "bitte", the
                  other
                  > > means pray.
                • Roly Sookias
                  My comments below... ... Seems good, although and /i:/ instead of the /E/ might make sense as in the 3 West Germanic (WG) tungs it s got that sound. ... Hm.
                  Message 8 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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                    My comments below...

                    parked71 wrote:

                    >Umm... I think ecumenical means something to do with churches. Anyways
                    >in acknowledgementalism of George W Bush Jr getting another 4 years,
                    >here are being some religiousityistical wordings.
                    >
                    >Once again, an *asterisk denotes a word that might be controversial
                    >unless unless if you are accepting words present in only
                    >2 out of 4 branches. OR you are using Interlingua (or another
                    >non-Germlang) as a language of last resort. (which is what I'm doing)
                    >
                    >FS prester /"prEst@r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar
                    >EN priest, NL priester, DE Priester, DA præst, SV präst, IL
                    >prestre
                    >
                    >
                    Seems good, although and /i:/ instead of the /E/ might make sense as in
                    the 3 West Germanic (WG) tungs it's got that sound.

                    >FS *paroch /pa"rOk/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                    >EN parish, DE Pfarrer, IL parocho
                    >
                    >
                    Hm. Not sure about this - all I can say is it should start with /par/!
                    :-) ...I'd have to know the dutch and scandy versions first.

                    >FS pastor /pa"sto:r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                    >EN pastor, NL pastoor, DE Pastorat, SV pastor
                    >
                    >
                    Looks good to me!

                    >FS Brouder /"bru:d@r/n. = male member of a religious order, especially
                    >as title, or term of address
                    >EN brother, friar, NL broeder, DE Klosterbruder.
                    >
                    >
                    Fine again ...although my orthography differs.

                    >FS Pater /"pa:t@r/ n. = male leader of a religious order, especially
                    >as title, or term of address
                    >EN Father, Padre, NL pater, SV fader
                    >
                    >
                    Why not just 'fader'?

                    >FS kirk /kIrk/ n. = church
                    >EN church, kirk, NL kerk, DE Kirche, DA kirke, NO kirke, SV kyrka
                    >
                    >
                    Looks good.

                    >kappel /"kap@l/ n. = small church, place of worship in primarily
                    >secular building.
                    >EN chapple, NL kapel, DE kapelle, DA kapel, SV kapell, IL capella
                    >
                    >
                    Seems fine, although maybe an /a:/ would be more appropriate?

                    >FS tempel /'tEmp@l/ n. = place of worship, especially non-christian.
                    >EN temple, NL tempel, DE Tempel, DA tempel, SV tempel, IL templo
                    >
                    >
                    Good again.

                    >FS *monaster /mo"nast@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                    >EN monastery, -minster, DE Münster, IL monasterio
                    >
                    >
                    I'd go for 'minster' or something personally, as the word does exist in
                    English and is like the German. If you wanna be really Latin, why not
                    'monasteria' or such?

                    >FS klouster /"klu:st@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                    >EN cloister, NL klooster, DE Kloster, DA kloster, SV kloster, IL
                    >clausura
                    >
                    >
                    Why the 'ou' (/u:/)? Wouldn't /o:/ or /o/ be better?

                    >FS dom /do:m/ n. = cathedral, church with a dome
                    >NL dom, DE Dom, DA domkirke, NO domkirke, SV domkyrke
                    >
                    >
                    I thoroughly approve.

                    >FS katedral /kate"dra:l/ n. = cathedral
                    >EN cathedral, NL kathedraal, DE Kathedrale, DA katedral,NO katedral,SV
                    >katedral, IL cathedral
                    >
                    >
                    I approve once more.

                    >FS monk /mONk/ n. = monk.
                    >EN monk, NL monnik, DE Mönch, DA munk, SV munk, IL monacho
                    >
                    >
                    Seems good ...although I spose /mUnk/ would be closer to English prono,
                    but then not to spelling!

                    >FS nonn /nOn/ n. = nun
                    >EN nun, NL non, DE Nonne, DA nonne
                    >
                    >
                    Luvly.

                    >FS biede /"bi:d@/ vi. to pray.
                    >EN. bid, NL bidden, DE beten, SV be, bedja
                    >
                    >
                    Hm. I spose it's OK, but why not EITHER 'e' or 'i'?

                    >I'm not so sure about this verb. English seems to have merged two
                    >different verbs into one. One is cognate with DE "bitte", the other
                    >means pray.
                    >
                    >
                    Ah, OK. Interesting. What verbs were they int olden days then?
                  • parked71
                    ... Anyways ... years, ... doing) ... as in ... You could be right. In English there is also a legendary figure known as Prester John . They are all from a
                    Message 9 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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                      --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, Roly Sookias <xipirho@r...> wrote:
                      > My comments below...
                      >
                      > parked71 wrote:
                      >
                      > >Umm... I think ecumenical means something to do with churches.
                      Anyways
                      > >in acknowledgementalism of George W Bush Jr getting another 4
                      years,
                      > >here are being some religiousityistical wordings.
                      > >
                      > >Once again, an *asterisk denotes a word that might be controversial
                      > >unless unless if you are accepting words present in only
                      > >2 out of 4 branches. OR you are using Interlingua (or another
                      > >non-Germlang) as a language of last resort. (which is what I'm
                      doing)
                      > >
                      > >FS prester /"prEst@r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar
                      > >EN priest, NL priester, DE Priester, DA præst, SV präst, IL
                      > >prestre
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Seems good, although and /i:/ instead of the /E/ might make sense
                      as in
                      > the 3 West Germanic (WG) tungs it's got that sound.
                      >

                      You could be right. In English there is also a legendary figure known
                      as "Prester John". They are all from a romanic/vulgar latin shortening
                      of "presbyter" found in EN "prebyterian"


                      > >FS *paroch /pa"rOk/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                      > >EN parish, DE Pfarrer, IL parocho
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Hm. Not sure about this - all I can say is it should start with
                      /par/!
                      > :-) ...I'd have to know the dutch and scandy versions first.
                      >

                      Yeah, if they have it at all....

                      > >FS pastor /pa"sto:r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                      > >EN pastor, NL pastoor, DE Pastorat, SV pastor
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Looks good to me!
                      >
                      > >FS Brouder /"bru:d@r/n. = male member of a religious order,
                      especially
                      > >as title, or term of address
                      > >EN brother, friar, NL broeder, DE Klosterbruder.
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Fine again ...although my orthography differs.
                      >
                      > >FS Pater /"pa:t@r/ n. = male leader of a religious order,
                      especially
                      > >as title, or term of address
                      > >EN Father, Padre, NL pater, SV fader
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Why not just 'fader'?

                      Well it's a romanicism in English and Dutch. And since the context is
                      one of Western Christian religion, I though a latin word would'nt be
                      out of place here.


                      >
                      > >FS kirk /kIrk/ n. = church
                      > >EN church, kirk, NL kerk, DE Kirche, DA kirke, NO kirke, SV kyrka
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Looks good.
                      >
                      > >kappel /"kap@l/ n. = small church, place of worship in primarily
                      > >secular building.
                      > >EN chapple, NL kapel, DE kapelle, DA kapel, SV kapell, IL capella
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Seems fine, although maybe an /a:/ would be more appropriate?

                      Perhaps kapel /"ka:p@l/ or even kapell /ka"pEl/?


                      > >FS tempel /'tEmp@l/ n. = place of worship, especially
                      non-christian.
                      > >EN temple, NL tempel, DE Tempel, DA tempel, SV tempel, IL templo
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Good again.
                      >
                      > >FS *monaster /mo"nast@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                      > >EN monastery, -minster, DE Münster, IL monasterio
                      > >
                      > >
                      > I'd go for 'minster' or something personally, as the word does
                      exist in
                      > English and is like the German. If you wanna be really Latin, why
                      not
                      > 'monasteria' or such?

                      I wanted to reveal a bit of the latin root of this word. Perhaps
                      "monster" would be an acceptable compromise. Unless FS already has a
                      word "monster" meaning a horrifying animal/creature. Of course it's a
                      redundant word since we could always use klouster/klooster

                      >
                      > >FS klouster /"klu:st@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                      > >EN cloister, NL klooster, DE Kloster, DA kloster, SV kloster, IL
                      > >clausura
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Why the 'ou' (/u:/)? Wouldn't /o:/ or /o/ be better?

                      My dictionary says the "o" in DE Kloster is long. The EN word uses a
                      dipthong (lots of english speakers conside dipthogs as long vowels eg
                      they conside /aI/ to be the long version of /I/) . The NL word has
                      long o. The original romanic word had a dipthong or long vowel. I
                      think the vowel should be long. But I'm not so sure whether it should
                      be klouster /"klu:st@r/ or klooster /"klo:st@r/

                      >
                      > >FS dom /do:m/ n. = cathedral, church with a dome
                      > >NL dom, DE Dom, DA domkirke, NO domkirke, SV domkyrke
                      > >
                      > >
                      > I thoroughly approve.
                      >
                      > >FS katedral /kate"dra:l/ n. = cathedral
                      > >EN cathedral, NL kathedraal, DE Kathedrale, DA katedral,NO
                      katedral,SV
                      > >katedral, IL cathedral
                      > >
                      > >
                      > I approve once more.
                      >
                      > >FS monk /mONk/ n. = monk.
                      > >EN monk, NL monnik, DE Mönch, DA munk, SV munk, IL monacho
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Seems good ...although I spose /mUnk/ would be closer to English
                      prono,
                      > but then not to spelling!
                      >
                      > >FS nonn /nOn/ n. = nun
                      > >EN nun, NL non, DE Nonne, DA nonne
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Luvly.
                      >
                      > >FS biede /"bi:d@/ vi. to pray.
                      > >EN. bid, NL bidden, DE beten, SV be, bedja
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Hm. I spose it's OK, but why not EITHER 'e' or 'i'?
                      >
                      > >I'm not so sure about this verb. English seems to have merged two
                      > >different verbs into one. One is cognate with DE "bitte", the other
                      > >means pray.
                      > >
                      > >
                      > Ah, OK. Interesting. What verbs were they int olden days then?

                      My SOED is FAR too confusing...

                      "OE. [Combining two vbs: (i) OE biddan (pa. t. bæd, bæ^don, pa.
                      pple
                      beden) ask, entreat, demand = OFris. bidda, bidia, OS biddian, MDu.
                      bidden, OHG, G bitten, ON biðja, Goth. bidjan f. Gmc, f. base
                      repr. by
                      OE gebed prayer, BEAD n.; (ii) OE be^odan (pa. t. be^ad, budon, pa.
                      pple boden) offer, proclaim, announce, command, decree = OFris. biada,
                      OS biodan, (M)Du. bieden, OHG biotan (G bieten), ON bjóða, Goth.
                      biudan f. IE.]"
                    • Aron Boström
                      ... SV socken (or församling in modern meaning) Aron
                      Message 10 of 17 , Nov 5, 2004
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                        fredag 5 november 2004 20:37 skreb Roly Sookias:
                        > >FS *paroch /pa"rOk/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                        > >EN parish, DE Pfarrer, IL parocho
                        >
                        > Hm. Not sure about this - all I can say is it should start with /par/!

                        SV socken (or "församling" in modern meaning)

                        Aron
                      • wakuran_wakaran
                        ... stress often ... stressed, I would ... Xipirho, how do you denote the different stress in your spelling? Maybe you told us already, but I forgot... =S
                        Message 11 of 17 , Nov 7, 2004
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                          --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, Aron Boström <aron@l...> wrote:
                          > fredag 5 november 2004 13:03 skreb parked71:
                          > > Very old borrowings tend to have an Germanic stress pattern (stress on
                          > > 1st syllable). More recent borrowings seem to go for a more romantic
                          > > stress on last syllable. EN chaple and NK kapel are probably quite old
                          > > and stressed on first syllable. SV kapell and DE kapelle are stressed
                          > > on the "ell". Well, German is, couldn't say for SV.
                          >
                          > I probably shouldn't speak regarding pronounciation on SV as the
                          stress often
                          > is different between SCY and SV, but at least in SCY ell is
                          stressed, I would
                          > be really surpised if it is different in SV.
                          >
                          > Aron

                          Xipirho, how do you denote the different stress in your spelling?
                          Maybe you told us already, but I forgot... =S
                        • wakuran_wakaran
                          ... with brief ... SV-DE ... sufficient ... Hmmm, streng-gelófig maybe (strict believer) ... arch enemy, ... godsbode ... gezant=sent(?) bode=messenger ...
                          Message 12 of 17 , Nov 7, 2004
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                            --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, Aron Boström <aron@l...> wrote:
                            > fredagen den 5 november 2004 11:56 skrev parked71:
                            > > Oops, while drinking a Belgium beer (mmmmm Leffe Bruin), I was
                            > > reminded that there is cognate to "Abbey" in Dutch (Well most
                            > > definitely in Flemish)
                            > >
                            > > So:
                            > >
                            > > FS *abbat /aba:t/ n. = monastery, residence of religious leader.
                            > > EN abbey, NL abdij IL abbatia.
                            >
                            > SV abbot
                            >
                            >
                            > Ok, I have gently accepted criticism, here comes some suggestions
                            with brief
                            > "research" on DE and NL cognates. I finally bookmarked a SV-NL and a
                            SV-DE
                            > dictionary. :-)
                            >
                            > FS rabbi
                            > SV rabbin DE Rabbi EN rabbi NL rabbi, rabijn
                            >
                            > FS?? imam ("muslim priest")
                            > SV imam EN ima[u]m (couldn't find any DE/NL cognate - have no
                            sufficient
                            > dictionary)
                            >
                            > FS ????
                            > NL paus SV påve EN pope DE Papst
                            >
                            > FS kardinal
                            > SV kardinal EN cardinal DE Kardinal NL kardinaal
                            >
                            > FS patriark? (orthodox christian "bishop")
                            > SV patriark EN patriarch DE/NL ???
                            >
                            > FS ??
                            > SV ortodox EN orthodox DE strenggläubig NL strenggelovig
                            >
                            Hmmm, streng-gelófig maybe (strict believer)

                            > FS katholik
                            > SV katolik NL katholiek EN catholic DE katholisch
                            >
                            > FS protestant
                            > n. SV protestant DE Protestant EN protestant NL protestant
                            >
                            > FS evangelisk
                            > a. SV evangelisk DE evangelisch EN evangelical NL evangelisch
                            >
                            > FS baptist?
                            > n. SV baptist DE ? EN baptist NL ?
                            >
                            > FS ? (follwer of Martin Luther)
                            > n. SV lutheran DE ? EN ? NL ?
                            >
                            > FS calvinist
                            > n. SV kalvinist, reformert DE Kalvinist EN calvinist NL calvinist,
                            > gereformeerde
                            >
                            > FS anglikan
                            > n. SV anglikan DE Anglikaner/in EN Anglican NL anglicaan
                            >
                            > FS hugenott
                            > n. SV hugenott DE Hugenotte EN huguenot NL hugenoot
                            >
                            >
                            > FS bischop
                            > EN bishop DE Bischof NL bisschop SV biskop
                            >
                            > FS arkbischop ??
                            > EN archbishop DE Erzbischof NL aartsbisschop SV Ärkebiskop
                            >
                            > Interesting is the arch- prefix, it could be used in many words,
                            arch enemy,
                            > arch angel, ...
                            >
                            > FS engel
                            > EN angel DE Engel SV Ängel NL engel
                            > Alos: DE Himmelsbewohner, Gottgesandte NL hemelgeest, godsgezant,
                            godsbode
                            >
                            gezant=sent(?)
                            bode=messenger

                            > FS apostel
                            > EN apostle SV apostel NL apostel DE Apostel
                            >
                            > FS discipel ("the twelve", christians)
                            > EN disciple NL discipel NO discipel?
                            >
                            > FS anhanger, folger (general religious follower, supporter)
                            > FS folger
                            > DE Anhänger, Nachfolger, Verfolger SV Anhängare NL volger, volgelinge,
                            > aanhanger, navolger EN follower (SV v. följa - to follow)
                            >
                            > FS Lerjunge (Apprentice)
                            > DE Lehrjunge NL Leerjongen SV Lärjunge
                            > (SV Lärjunge is mostly a disciple but also apprentice to some degree)
                            >
                            > FS gesell (meaning?)
                            > EN journeyman SV gesäll DE Geselle NL? gezellin
                            >
                            > FS pupil (someone beeing taught)
                            > EN pupil SV obsolete pupill NL pupil
                            >
                            > FS scholer (kid in schoolage)
                            > DE Schüler/Schülerin NL Scholier EN schoolboy/schoolgirl SV
                            > skolpojke/skolflicka
                            >
                            > FS lerling (apprentice)
                            > DE Lehrling NL leerling SV lärling
                            >
                            > FS student (someone studying at university/college)
                            > SV student EN student DE Student/Studentin NL student
                            >
                            > FS kursist (someone studying the same course)
                            > NL cursist DE kursist EN course member SV kursare, kurskamrat
                            >
                            > FS klasskamerad, klassfrend
                            > SV klasskamrat EN class mate (cognate comrade) DE Klassenkamerad NL
                            klasgenoot
                            >
                            > FS Volontair (meaning?)
                            > SV volontär, NL volontair, DE Volontär, Volotair EN volontair
                            > (What does NL and DE volontär/volontair mean? They don't seem to
                            mean the same
                            > as SV/EN)
                            >
                            > FS Freiwilliger (someone doing something out of free will, volontary)
                            > SV Frivillig EN free- DE Freiwilliger NL vrijwilliger

                            I thought that "volont(ae)r" and "frí-wilig" were synonyms... =S
                            >
                            > FS praktikant (someone learning by doing, practising)
                            > SV praktikant DE praktikant (EN practise NL pratijk, praktiseren)
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > SCAND elev and aspirant seem to lack cognates
                            > NL jongmaat and leerknecht seem to lack cognates
                            > EN apprentice and trainee seem to lack cognate

                            Trainee has recently been borrowed into swedish, anyway... =S
                            Elev comes from french, I think... =S
                          • wakuran_wakaran
                            ... As we say in Swedish, Clear as sausage juice : ^^ (i) OE biddan (pa. t. bæd, bæ^don, pa. ... (Cf DE gebet , NL gebed ) NL Bidden, DE Bitten(ask),
                            Message 13 of 17 , Nov 7, 2004
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                              --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, "parked71" <parked@x> wrote:
                              >
                              > --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, Roly Sookias <xipirho@r...> wrote:
                              > > My comments below...
                              > >
                              > > parked71 wrote:
                              > >
                              > > >Umm... I think ecumenical means something to do with churches.
                              > Anyways
                              > > >in acknowledgementalism of George W Bush Jr getting another 4
                              > years,
                              > > >here are being some religiousityistical wordings.
                              > > >
                              > > >Once again, an *asterisk denotes a word that might be controversial
                              > > >unless unless if you are accepting words present in only
                              > > >2 out of 4 branches. OR you are using Interlingua (or another
                              > > >non-Germlang) as a language of last resort. (which is what I'm
                              > doing)
                              > > >
                              > > >FS prester /"prEst@r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar
                              > > >EN priest, NL priester, DE Priester, DA præst, SV präst, IL
                              > > >prestre
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Seems good, although and /i:/ instead of the /E/ might make sense
                              > as in
                              > > the 3 West Germanic (WG) tungs it's got that sound.
                              > >
                              >
                              > You could be right. In English there is also a legendary figure known
                              > as "Prester John". They are all from a romanic/vulgar latin shortening
                              > of "presbyter" found in EN "prebyterian"
                              >
                              >
                              > > >FS *paroch /pa"rOk/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                              > > >EN parish, DE Pfarrer, IL parocho
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Hm. Not sure about this - all I can say is it should start with
                              > /par/!
                              > > :-) ...I'd have to know the dutch and scandy versions first.
                              > >
                              >
                              > Yeah, if they have it at all....
                              >
                              > > >FS pastor /pa"sto:r/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                              > > >EN pastor, NL pastoor, DE Pastorat, SV pastor
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Looks good to me!
                              > >
                              > > >FS Brouder /"bru:d@r/n. = male member of a religious order,
                              > especially
                              > > >as title, or term of address
                              > > >EN brother, friar, NL broeder, DE Klosterbruder.
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Fine again ...although my orthography differs.
                              > >
                              > > >FS Pater /"pa:t@r/ n. = male leader of a religious order,
                              > especially
                              > > >as title, or term of address
                              > > >EN Father, Padre, NL pater, SV fader
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Why not just 'fader'?
                              >
                              > Well it's a romanicism in English and Dutch. And since the context is
                              > one of Western Christian religion, I though a latin word would'nt be
                              > out of place here.
                              >
                              >
                              > >
                              > > >FS kirk /kIrk/ n. = church
                              > > >EN church, kirk, NL kerk, DE Kirche, DA kirke, NO kirke, SV kyrka
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Looks good.
                              > >
                              > > >kappel /"kap@l/ n. = small church, place of worship in primarily
                              > > >secular building.
                              > > >EN chapple, NL kapel, DE kapelle, DA kapel, SV kapell, IL capella
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Seems fine, although maybe an /a:/ would be more appropriate?
                              >
                              > Perhaps kapel /"ka:p@l/ or even kapell /ka"pEl/?
                              >
                              >
                              > > >FS tempel /'tEmp@l/ n. = place of worship, especially
                              > non-christian.
                              > > >EN temple, NL tempel, DE Tempel, DA tempel, SV tempel, IL templo
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Good again.
                              > >
                              > > >FS *monaster /mo"nast@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                              > > >EN monastery, -minster, DE Münster, IL monasterio
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > I'd go for 'minster' or something personally, as the word does
                              > exist in
                              > > English and is like the German. If you wanna be really Latin, why
                              > not
                              > > 'monasteria' or such?
                              >
                              > I wanted to reveal a bit of the latin root of this word. Perhaps
                              > "monster" would be an acceptable compromise. Unless FS already has a
                              > word "monster" meaning a horrifying animal/creature. Of course it's a
                              > redundant word since we could always use klouster/klooster
                              >
                              > >
                              > > >FS klouster /"klu:st@r/ n. = monastery, cloister, nunnery
                              > > >EN cloister, NL klooster, DE Kloster, DA kloster, SV kloster, IL
                              > > >clausura
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Why the 'ou' (/u:/)? Wouldn't /o:/ or /o/ be better?
                              >
                              > My dictionary says the "o" in DE Kloster is long. The EN word uses a
                              > dipthong (lots of english speakers conside dipthogs as long vowels eg
                              > they conside /aI/ to be the long version of /I/) . The NL word has
                              > long o. The original romanic word had a dipthong or long vowel. I
                              > think the vowel should be long. But I'm not so sure whether it should
                              > be klouster /"klu:st@r/ or klooster /"klo:st@r/
                              >
                              > >
                              > > >FS dom /do:m/ n. = cathedral, church with a dome
                              > > >NL dom, DE Dom, DA domkirke, NO domkirke, SV domkyrke
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > I thoroughly approve.
                              > >
                              > > >FS katedral /kate"dra:l/ n. = cathedral
                              > > >EN cathedral, NL kathedraal, DE Kathedrale, DA katedral,NO
                              > katedral,SV
                              > > >katedral, IL cathedral
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > I approve once more.
                              > >
                              > > >FS monk /mONk/ n. = monk.
                              > > >EN monk, NL monnik, DE Mönch, DA munk, SV munk, IL monacho
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Seems good ...although I spose /mUnk/ would be closer to English
                              > prono,
                              > > but then not to spelling!
                              > >
                              > > >FS nonn /nOn/ n. = nun
                              > > >EN nun, NL non, DE Nonne, DA nonne
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Luvly.
                              > >
                              > > >FS biede /"bi:d@/ vi. to pray.
                              > > >EN. bid, NL bidden, DE beten, SV be, bedja
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Hm. I spose it's OK, but why not EITHER 'e' or 'i'?
                              > >
                              > > >I'm not so sure about this verb. English seems to have merged two
                              > > >different verbs into one. One is cognate with DE "bitte", the other
                              > > >means pray.
                              > > >
                              > > >
                              > > Ah, OK. Interesting. What verbs were they int olden days then?
                              >
                              > My SOED is FAR too confusing...
                              >
                              > "OE. [Combining two vbs: (i) OE biddan (pa. t. bæd, bæ^don, pa.
                              > pple
                              > beden) ask, entreat, demand = OFris. bidda, bidia, OS biddian, MDu.
                              > bidden, OHG, G bitten, ON biðja, Goth. bidjan f. Gmc, f. base
                              > repr. by
                              > OE gebed prayer, BEAD n.; (ii) OE be^odan (pa. t. be^ad, budon, pa.
                              > pple boden) offer, proclaim, announce, command, decree = OFris. biada,
                              > OS biodan, (M)Du. bieden, OHG biotan (G bieten), ON bjóða, Goth.
                              > biudan f. IE.]"

                              As we say in Swedish, "Clear as sausage juice": ^^

                              (i) OE biddan (pa. t. bæd, bæ^don, pa.
                              > pple
                              > beden) ask, entreat, demand = OFris. bidda, bidia, OS biddian, MDu.
                              > bidden, OHG, G bitten, ON biðja, Goth. bidjan f. Gmc, f. base
                              > repr. by
                              > OE gebed prayer, BEAD n.;

                              (Cf DE "gebet", NL "gebed")

                              NL Bidden, DE Bitten(ask), Beten(Pray) SE Bedja

                              (ii) OE be^odan (pa. t. be^ad, budon, pa.
                              > pple boden) offer, proclaim, announce, command, decree = OFris. biada,
                              > OS biodan, (M)Du. bieden, OHG biotan (G bieten), ON bjóða, Goth.
                              > biudan f. IE.]"
                              NL bieden, SE bjuda NO by
                            • wakuran_wakaran
                              ... Same word as english soken/soke... =S Hmmm, maybe kirk-gebíed (church-region) De:gebiet, Nl:gebied
                              Message 14 of 17 , Nov 7, 2004
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                                --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, Aron Boström <aron@l...> wrote:
                                > fredag 5 november 2004 20:37 skreb Roly Sookias:
                                > > >FS *paroch /pa"rOk/ n. = priest, pastor, vicar.
                                > > >EN parish, DE Pfarrer, IL parocho
                                > >
                                > > Hm. Not sure about this - all I can say is it should start with /par/!
                                >
                                > SV socken (or "församling" in modern meaning)
                                >
                                Same word as english soken/soke... =S

                                Hmmm, maybe kirk-gebíed (church-region) De:gebiet, Nl:gebied

                                > Aron
                              • Aron Boström
                                ... Still, I don t think most swedish speakers recognise the meaning of trainee . I don t. I can t seem to remeber having heard that word in swedish five
                                Message 15 of 17 , Nov 7, 2004
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                                  måndagen den 8 november 2004 00:23 skrev wakuran_wakaran:
                                  > --- In folkspraak@yahoogroups.com, Aron Boström <aron@l...> wrote:
                                  > > fredagen den 5 november 2004 11:56 skrev parked71:
                                  > > > Oops, while drinking a Belgium beer (mmmmm Leffe Bruin), I was
                                  > > > reminded that there is cognate to "Abbey" in Dutch (Well most
                                  > > > definitely in Flemish)
                                  > > >
                                  > > > So:
                                  > > >
                                  > > > FS *abbat /aba:t/ n. = monastery, residence of religious leader.
                                  > > > EN abbey, NL abdij IL abbatia.
                                  > >
                                  > > SV abbot
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > > Ok, I have gently accepted criticism, here comes some suggestions
                                  >
                                  > with brief
                                  >
                                  > > "research" on DE and NL cognates. I finally bookmarked a SV-NL and a
                                  >
                                  > SV-DE
                                  >
                                  > > dictionary. :-)
                                  > >
                                  > > FS rabbi
                                  > > SV rabbin DE Rabbi EN rabbi NL rabbi, rabijn
                                  > >
                                  > > FS?? imam ("muslim priest")
                                  > > SV imam EN ima[u]m (couldn't find any DE/NL cognate - have no
                                  >
                                  > sufficient
                                  >
                                  > > dictionary)
                                  > >
                                  > > FS ????
                                  > > NL paus SV påve EN pope DE Papst
                                  > >
                                  > > FS kardinal
                                  > > SV kardinal EN cardinal DE Kardinal NL kardinaal
                                  > >
                                  > > FS patriark? (orthodox christian "bishop")
                                  > > SV patriark EN patriarch DE/NL ???
                                  > >
                                  > > FS ??
                                  > > SV ortodox EN orthodox DE strenggläubig NL strenggelovig
                                  >
                                  > Hmmm, streng-gelófig maybe (strict believer)
                                  >
                                  > > FS katholik
                                  > > SV katolik NL katholiek EN catholic DE katholisch
                                  > >
                                  > > FS protestant
                                  > > n. SV protestant DE Protestant EN protestant NL protestant
                                  > >
                                  > > FS evangelisk
                                  > > a. SV evangelisk DE evangelisch EN evangelical NL evangelisch
                                  > >
                                  > > FS baptist?
                                  > > n. SV baptist DE ? EN baptist NL ?
                                  > >
                                  > > FS ? (follwer of Martin Luther)
                                  > > n. SV lutheran DE ? EN ? NL ?
                                  > >
                                  > > FS calvinist
                                  > > n. SV kalvinist, reformert DE Kalvinist EN calvinist NL calvinist,
                                  > > gereformeerde
                                  > >
                                  > > FS anglikan
                                  > > n. SV anglikan DE Anglikaner/in EN Anglican NL anglicaan
                                  > >
                                  > > FS hugenott
                                  > > n. SV hugenott DE Hugenotte EN huguenot NL hugenoot
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > > FS bischop
                                  > > EN bishop DE Bischof NL bisschop SV biskop
                                  > >
                                  > > FS arkbischop ??
                                  > > EN archbishop DE Erzbischof NL aartsbisschop SV Ärkebiskop
                                  > >
                                  > > Interesting is the arch- prefix, it could be used in many words,
                                  >
                                  > arch enemy,
                                  >
                                  > > arch angel, ...
                                  > >
                                  > > FS engel
                                  > > EN angel DE Engel SV Ängel NL engel
                                  > > Alos: DE Himmelsbewohner, Gottgesandte NL hemelgeest, godsgezant,
                                  >
                                  > godsbode
                                  >
                                  > gezant=sent(?)
                                  > bode=messenger
                                  >
                                  > > FS apostel
                                  > > EN apostle SV apostel NL apostel DE Apostel
                                  > >
                                  > > FS discipel ("the twelve", christians)
                                  > > EN disciple NL discipel NO discipel?
                                  > >
                                  > > FS anhanger, folger (general religious follower, supporter)
                                  > > FS folger
                                  > > DE Anhänger, Nachfolger, Verfolger SV Anhängare NL volger, volgelinge,
                                  > > aanhanger, navolger EN follower (SV v. följa - to follow)
                                  > >
                                  > > FS Lerjunge (Apprentice)
                                  > > DE Lehrjunge NL Leerjongen SV Lärjunge
                                  > > (SV Lärjunge is mostly a disciple but also apprentice to some degree)
                                  > >
                                  > > FS gesell (meaning?)
                                  > > EN journeyman SV gesäll DE Geselle NL? gezellin
                                  > >
                                  > > FS pupil (someone beeing taught)
                                  > > EN pupil SV obsolete pupill NL pupil
                                  > >
                                  > > FS scholer (kid in schoolage)
                                  > > DE Schüler/Schülerin NL Scholier EN schoolboy/schoolgirl SV
                                  > > skolpojke/skolflicka
                                  > >
                                  > > FS lerling (apprentice)
                                  > > DE Lehrling NL leerling SV lärling
                                  > >
                                  > > FS student (someone studying at university/college)
                                  > > SV student EN student DE Student/Studentin NL student
                                  > >
                                  > > FS kursist (someone studying the same course)
                                  > > NL cursist DE kursist EN course member SV kursare, kurskamrat
                                  > >
                                  > > FS klasskamerad, klassfrend
                                  > > SV klasskamrat EN class mate (cognate comrade) DE Klassenkamerad NL
                                  >
                                  > klasgenoot
                                  >
                                  > > FS Volontair (meaning?)
                                  > > SV volontär, NL volontair, DE Volontär, Volotair EN volontair
                                  > > (What does NL and DE volontär/volontair mean? They don't seem to
                                  >
                                  > mean the same
                                  >
                                  > > as SV/EN)
                                  > >
                                  > > FS Freiwilliger (someone doing something out of free will, volontary)
                                  > > SV Frivillig EN free- DE Freiwilliger NL vrijwilliger
                                  >
                                  > I thought that "volont(ae)r" and "frí-wilig" were synonyms... =S
                                  >
                                  > > FS praktikant (someone learning by doing, practising)
                                  > > SV praktikant DE praktikant (EN practise NL pratijk, praktiseren)
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > > SCAND elev and aspirant seem to lack cognates
                                  > > NL jongmaat and leerknecht seem to lack cognates
                                  > > EN apprentice and trainee seem to lack cognate
                                  >
                                  > Trainee has recently been borrowed into swedish, anyway... =S
                                  > Elev comes from french, I think... =S

                                  Still, I don't think most swedish speakers recognise the meaning of "trainee".
                                  I don't. I can't seem to remeber having heard that word in swedish five years
                                  ago (although now it's quite common, maybe I'm just lazy at learning new
                                  words).

                                  Aron
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