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"normal" feline heart echo values

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  • nala nala
    Information about normal heart parameters are inconsistent and are not uniform in nomenclature. Some cats have larger measures based on their body size -
    Message 1 of 1 , Feb 2, 2007
      Information about normal heart parameters are
      inconsistent and are not uniform in nomenclature.
      Some cats have larger measures based on their body
      size - larger cats tend to have larger measures,
      smaller cats have smaller meaures - that said, below
      are some data and the context in which it was
      presented:
      -----
      http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8754/IV.html

      Typical M-mode measurements include but are not
      limited to :):

      Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension = LVEDD
      Left ventricular end-systolic dimension = LVESD
      Interventricular septum end-diastolic = IVSED
      Interventricular septum end-systolic = IVSES
      Left ventricular wall end-diastolic = LVWED
      Left ventricular wall end-systolic = LVWES
      E-point to septal separation = EPSS
      Aorta = AO
      Left atrium = LA
      LA/AO = Left atrium to aorta ratio

      % Fractional Shortening =

      LV end-diastolic dimension - LV end-systolic dimension
      LV end-diastolic dimension

      Table 13-1 NORMAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC VALUES IN CATS
      (these are the measurements as reported by the various
      authors in 6 separate papers, n=number of cats
      involved in each study - a cm is 10 mm, not all
      studies included all measures)


      Moise and Dietz35
      Pipers, et al. 32
      Jacobs and Knight 31
      Bonagura5
      Fox et al.26
      Soderberg et al.34

      Measurement*
      (n=11)
      (n=25)
      (n=30)
      (N/A)**
      (n=30)†
      (n=16)†

      LVEDD (cm)
      1.5 ± 0.21 ‡
      1.48 ± 0.26‡
      1.59 ± 0.19‡
      1.10 - 1.60§
      1.40 ± 0.13‡
      0.28 ± 0.17 ‡

      LVESD (cm)
      0.69 ± 0.22
      0.88 ± 0.24
      0.80 ± 0.14
      0.60 - 1.00
      0.81 ± 0.16
      0.83 ± 0.15

      Ao (cm)
      0.95 ± 0.15
      0.75 ± 0.18
      0.95 ± 0.11
      0.65 - 1.10
      0.94 ± 0.11
      0.94 ± 0.14

      LA (cm)
      1.21 ± 0.18
      0.74 ± 0.17
      1.23 ± 0.14
      0.85 - 1.25
      1.03 ± 0.14
      0.98 ± 0.17

      LA/Ao (cm)
      1.29 ± 0.23
      --
      1.30 ± 0.17
      0.80 - 1.30
      1.10 ± 0.18
      1.09 ± 0.27

      IVSED (cm)
      0.50 ± 0.07
      0.45 ± 0.09
      0.31 ± 0.04
      0.25 - 0.50
      0.36 ± 0.08
      --

      IVSES (cm)
      0.76 ± 0.12
      --
      0.58 ± 0.06
      0.50 - 0.90
      --
      --
      LVWED (cm)
      0.46 ± 0.05
      0.37 ± 0.08
      0.33 ± 0.06
      0.25 - 0.50
      0.35 ± 0.08
      0.31 ± 0.11

      LVWES (cm)
      0.78 ± 0.10
      --
      0.68 ± 0.07
      0.40 - 0.90
      --
      0.55 ± 0.88

      RVED (cm)
      0.54 ± 0.10
      --
      0.60 ± 0.15
      --
      0.50 ± 0.21
      --
      LVWA (cm)
      0.50 ± 0.07
      --
      --
      --
      --
      0.32 ± 0.11

      EPSS (cm)
      0.04 ± 0.07
      --
      0.02 ± 0.09
      --
      --
      --

      AA (cm)
      0.36 ± 0.10
      --
      --
      --
      --
      --

      MVEFS (mm/sec)
      54.4 ± 13.4
      --
      87.2 ± 25.9
      --
      --
      83.78 ± 23.81

      D (%)
      55.0 ± 10.2
      41.0 ± 7.3
      49.8 ± 5.3
      29 - 35
      42.7 ± 8.1
      34.5 ± 12.6

      LVWT (%)
      39.5 ± 7.6
      --
      --
      --
      --
      --

      IVST (%)
      33.5 ± 8.2
      --
      --
      --
      --
      --

      HR (beats/min)
      182 ± 22
      167 ± 29
      194 ± 23
      --
      255 ±36
      --

      *LVEDD = left ventricular end-diastolic dimension:
      LVESD = left ventricular end-systolic dimension: Ao =
      aorta: LA = left atrium: LA/Ao = left atrium to aorta
      ratio: IVSED = interventricular semptum end-diastolic:
      IVSES = interventricular septum end-systolic: LVWED =
      left ventricular wall end-diastolic: LVWES = left
      ventricular wall end-systolic: RVED = right
      ventricular end-diastolic dimension: LVWA = left
      ventricualr wall amplitude: EPSS = E-point to septal
      separation: AA = aortic amplitude: MVEFS = mitral
      valve E-F slope: D = left ventricular fractional
      shortening: LVWT = left ventricular wall thickening:
      IVST = interventricular septum thickening: HR = heart
      rate.
      **N/A = not available
      †Cats anesthetized with ketamine
      ‡Mean ± SD.
      §Normal range.

      ----


      http://maxshouse.com/arterial_thromboembolism.htm

      ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY. Echocardiography provides rapid,
      noninvasive assessment of cardiac structure and
      function, detects intracardiac thrombi when present,
      ,and thereby assists in formulating appropriate
      therapy and prognosis. Multiple imaging planes are
      required to detect small mural thrombi, particularly
      in the left auricular appendage. Spontaneous echo
      contrast ("smoke") may be present in the LA or LV. It
      is associated with blood stasis and is considered a
      harbinger and marker for increased thromboembolic
      risk. The mechanism of smoke has been attributed to
      erythrocyte aggregation at a low shear rate or
      platelet aggregates. Left atrial enlargement (LAE) is
      usually but not invariably present. In a retrospective
      study of cats with saddle emboli, severe LAE (LA:Ao
      ratio +/- 2.0) was recorded in 57 percent, moderate
      LAE (LA:Ao 1.63 to 1.99) in 14 percent, mild LAE
      (LA:Ao, 1.25 to 1.629) in 22 percent, and 5 percent of
      cats had normal LA measurements (LA:Ao < 1.25).



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