"normal" feline heart echo values

Expand Messages
• Information about normal heart parameters are inconsistent and are not uniform in nomenclature. Some cats have larger measures based on their body size -
Message 1 of 1 , Feb 2, 2007
Information about normal heart parameters are
inconsistent and are not uniform in nomenclature.
Some cats have larger measures based on their body
size - larger cats tend to have larger measures,
smaller cats have smaller meaures - that said, below
are some data and the context in which it was
presented:
-----
http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8754/IV.html

Typical M-mode measurements include but are not
limited to :):

Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension = LVEDD
Left ventricular end-systolic dimension = LVESD
Interventricular septum end-diastolic = IVSED
Interventricular septum end-systolic = IVSES
Left ventricular wall end-diastolic = LVWED
Left ventricular wall end-systolic = LVWES
E-point to septal separation = EPSS
Aorta = AO
Left atrium = LA
LA/AO = Left atrium to aorta ratio

% Fractional Shortening =

LV end-diastolic dimension - LV end-systolic dimension
LV end-diastolic dimension

Table 13-1 NORMAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC VALUES IN CATS
(these are the measurements as reported by the various
authors in 6 separate papers, n=number of cats
involved in each study - a cm is 10 mm, not all
studies included all measures)

Moise and Dietz35
Pipers, et al. 32
Jacobs and Knight 31
Bonagura5
Fox et al.26
Soderberg et al.34

Measurement*
(n=11)
(n=25)
(n=30)
(N/A)**
(n=30)
(n=16)

LVEDD (cm)
1.5 ± 0.21 
1.48 ± 0.26
1.59 ± 0.19
1.10 - 1.60§
1.40 ± 0.13
0.28 ± 0.17 

LVESD (cm)
0.69 ± 0.22
0.88 ± 0.24
0.80 ± 0.14
0.60 - 1.00
0.81 ± 0.16
0.83 ± 0.15

Ao (cm)
0.95 ± 0.15
0.75 ± 0.18
0.95 ± 0.11
0.65 - 1.10
0.94 ± 0.11
0.94 ± 0.14

LA (cm)
1.21 ± 0.18
0.74 ± 0.17
1.23 ± 0.14
0.85 - 1.25
1.03 ± 0.14
0.98 ± 0.17

LA/Ao (cm)
1.29 ± 0.23
--
1.30 ± 0.17
0.80 - 1.30
1.10 ± 0.18
1.09 ± 0.27

IVSED (cm)
0.50 ± 0.07
0.45 ± 0.09
0.31 ± 0.04
0.25 - 0.50
0.36 ± 0.08
--

IVSES (cm)
0.76 ± 0.12
--
0.58 ± 0.06
0.50 - 0.90
--
--
LVWED (cm)
0.46 ± 0.05
0.37 ± 0.08
0.33 ± 0.06
0.25 - 0.50
0.35 ± 0.08
0.31 ± 0.11

LVWES (cm)
0.78 ± 0.10
--
0.68 ± 0.07
0.40 - 0.90
--
0.55 ± 0.88

RVED (cm)
0.54 ± 0.10
--
0.60 ± 0.15
--
0.50 ± 0.21
--
LVWA (cm)
0.50 ± 0.07
--
--
--
--
0.32 ± 0.11

EPSS (cm)
0.04 ± 0.07
--
0.02 ± 0.09
--
--
--

AA (cm)
0.36 ± 0.10
--
--
--
--
--

MVEFS (mm/sec)
54.4 ± 13.4
--
87.2 ± 25.9
--
--
83.78 ± 23.81

D (%)
55.0 ± 10.2
41.0 ± 7.3
49.8 ± 5.3
29 - 35
42.7 ± 8.1
34.5 ± 12.6

LVWT (%)
39.5 ± 7.6
--
--
--
--
--

IVST (%)
33.5 ± 8.2
--
--
--
--
--

HR (beats/min)
182 ± 22
167 ± 29
194 ± 23
--
255 ±36
--

*LVEDD = left ventricular end-diastolic dimension:
LVESD = left ventricular end-systolic dimension: Ao =
aorta: LA = left atrium: LA/Ao = left atrium to aorta
ratio: IVSED = interventricular semptum end-diastolic:
IVSES = interventricular septum end-systolic: LVWED =
left ventricular wall end-diastolic: LVWES = left
ventricular wall end-systolic: RVED = right
ventricular end-diastolic dimension: LVWA = left
ventricualr wall amplitude: EPSS = E-point to septal
separation: AA = aortic amplitude: MVEFS = mitral
valve E-F slope: D = left ventricular fractional
shortening: LVWT = left ventricular wall thickening:
IVST = interventricular septum thickening: HR = heart
rate.
**N/A = not available
Cats anesthetized with ketamine
Mean ± SD.
§Normal range.

----

http://maxshouse.com/arterial_thromboembolism.htm

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY. Echocardiography provides rapid,
noninvasive assessment of cardiac structure and
function, detects intracardiac thrombi when present,
,and thereby assists in formulating appropriate
therapy and prognosis. Multiple imaging planes are
required to detect small mural thrombi, particularly
in the left auricular appendage. Spontaneous echo
contrast ("smoke") may be present in the LA or LV. It
is associated with blood stasis and is considered a
harbinger and marker for increased thromboembolic
risk. The mechanism of smoke has been attributed to
erythrocyte aggregation at a low shear rate or
platelet aggregates. Left atrial enlargement (LAE) is
usually but not invariably present. In a retrospective
study of cats with saddle emboli, severe LAE (LA:Ao
ratio +/- 2.0) was recorded in 57 percent, moderate
LAE (LA:Ao 1.63 to 1.99) in 14 percent, mild LAE
(LA:Ao, 1.25 to 1.629) in 22 percent, and 5 percent of
cats had normal LA measurements (LA:Ao < 1.25).

____________________________________________________________________________________
No need to miss a message. Get email on-the-go
with Yahoo! Mail for Mobile. Get started.
http://mobile.yahoo.com/mail
Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.