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Re: [existlist] Fwd: [Sartre] my English paper

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  • Bill Harris
    That was a good overlook of exist history. More modern branchings of the philosophy are harder to define. Since the originators turned each of us loose to find
    Message 1 of 2 , Mar 4, 2002
      That was a good overlook of exist history. More modern branchings of the
      philosophy are harder to define. Since the originators turned each of us
      loose to find our own way , we have been busy scattering all over the map.
      I think an exist outlook leads to a personal philosophy. That set of ideas
      comes not just from what you have read, but what you have experienced. Most
      fifteen year olds have had little defining personal experience. The society
      seems much more lockstep than it was in my younger years. I do not know how
      a young person might best shove off into an individual world of
      experiences. Much of what is different is now just too dangerous to deal
      with. The wild situational swings I experienced no longer exist. A cookie
      cutter existance is about all that is available. How one builds a personal
      philosophy from such scraps of experience escapes me. I recollect a theory
      called "just noticable differences" . Threshold stimuli may be all that are
      available to the modern philosophic adventurer. Bill
      ----- Original Message -----
      From: "james tan" <tyjfk@...>
      Sent: Friday, March 01, 2002 8:54 PM
      Subject: [existlist] Fwd: [Sartre] my English paper

      > a 15 year student's essay on existentialism...
      > From: "Benjamin Elizondo" <imacreep@...>
      > Reply-To: Sartre@yahoogroups.com
      > To: <Sartre@yahoogroups.com>
      > Subject: [Sartre] my English paper
      > Date: Fri, 1 Mar 2002 19:12:12 -0600
      > as some of you may know im a 15 year old freshman in high school. i
      > did a researchn existentialism and Sartre. i was wondering if you could
      > me what you think of it. be as hard on me as you wish, i dont really care.
      > anyway its about three pages and i just turned it in. im waiting to get my
      > grade. le me know what you think.
      > Ben Ellison
      > Jean Paul Sartre and Phenomenological Existentialism
      > Or
      > To Be or Not To Be
      > Mrs. Quanta
      > February 25, 2002
      > â?oex·is·ten·tial·ism- A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and
      > isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent
      > regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice
      > responsibility for the consequences of one's acts (Websterâ?Ts
      > Dictionary).�
      > Existential philosophy is said to be as old as man. But it took one person
      > to shape it, put a face on it and present it to the world. This man was
      > Paul Sartre. As the sculptor and founder of this philosophy, he took what
      > was on the minds of every great philosopher to walk on this planet and
      > one concrete philosophy that was uniquely original. He put existence and
      > human experience into words. Life as many knew it, would never be the
      > Jean Paul Sartre was born in Paris in 1905 (Sartre, 2). He studied at
      > Normale Superieure from 1924 to 1929. He became a professor in 1931
      > (Kaufman, 4). In 1932 he studied the philosophies of Edmund Husserl and
      > Martin Heidegger in Berlin. All during the 1930â?Ts he taught philosophy
      > La Havre and Paris. Captured by Nazis while serving as an Army
      > meteorologist, Sartre became a prisoner of war for one year before
      > to his teaching position. While a prisoner he participated in French
      > resistance to German occupation until the liberation (Sartre, 124). Since
      > the end of WWII Sartre was living as an independent writer. Sartre wrote
      > novels as well as philosophical essays. In 1964 he declined the Nobel
      > for literature (Wesley, 73).
      > Jean Paul Sartre came up with the idea of existentialism with the
      > of Husserlâ?Ts idea of a free fully intentional consciousness and
      > Heideggerâ?Ts existentialism. Sartreâ?Ts philosophy was explicitly
      > and pessimistic: he declared that human beings require a rational basis
      > their lives but are unable to achieve one, and thus human life, he
      > is a useless struggle (Nelson, 124).
      > His plays and novels also expressed the belief that freedom and personal
      > acceptance of personal responsibilities are the main values in life, and
      > that individuals must rely on their creative powers rather than social or
      > religious authority. His philosophic views, which he related to life,
      > literature, psychology and political action, stimulated so much popular
      > interest that existentialism became a worldwide movement. Sartre gave the
      > term existentialism general currency by using it for his own philosophy
      > by becoming the leading figure of a distinct movement in France that
      > internationally influenced after WWII.
      > Sartre conceived humans as beings who create their own world by rebelling
      > against authority and by accepting personal responsibility for their
      > actions, unaided by society, traditional morality, or religious faith.
      > Sartre argued that the influence of modern society over the individual is
      > great to produce serialization, by which he meant loss of self, that
      > individual power and freedom can only be regained through group
      > revolutionary action (Zaner, 97). His theory of existential psychoanalysis
      > asserted the inescapable responsibility of all individuals for their own
      > decisions and made the recognition of ones absolute freedom of choice the
      > necessary condition for authentic human existence (Sartre, 44). Sartre
      > insisted that his existentialism was a form of humanism and he strongly
      > emphasized human freedom, choice and responsibility (Nelson, 174).
      > Jean Paul Sartre
      > Man is condemned to be free, a freedom from all authority,
      > which he may seek to evade, distort and deny but which he will have to
      > if he is to become a moral being. The meaning of mans life is not
      > established before his existence. Once the terrible freedom is
      > man has to make this meaning himself, has to commit to a role in this
      > has to commit to his freedom and this attempt to make oneself is futile
      > without the solidarity of others.
      > Phenomenology was a movement dedicated to describing the structures of
      > experience as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse
      > theory, deduction or assumptions from other disciplines such as the new
      > sciences. What Husserl discovered when he contemplated the content of his
      > mind were such acts as remembering, desiring, and perceiving and the
      > abstract content of these acts, which Husserl called meanings. These
      > meanings he claimed, enabled an act to be directed toward an object: and
      > such directedness, called intentionality, he held to be the essence of
      > consciousness (Husserl, 13).
      > The existentialist conceptions of freedom and value arise from their view
      > the individual. Since we are all ultimately islands of subjectivity in an
      > objective world we have absolute freedom over our internal nature, and the
      > source of our value can only be internal. Existentialists say that to
      > as a human being is inexplicable and wholly absurd. We are all thrown into
      > this existence but why here? And why now? Anguish is said to be the dread
      > nothingness in human existence. Most existentialists believe that anguish
      > the underlying emotion of human existence.
      > Existentialism is defined by the slogan existence precedes essence
      > 188). The explanation for this saying is this: we have no predetermined
      > nature or essence that controls what we are, what we do, or what is
      > for us. We are radically free to act independently of determination by
      > outside influences (Barnes, 89). We are thrown into existence first
      > a predetermined nature and only later do we construct our nature or
      > through our actions. We create our human nature along with our values
      > through free choices.
      > Another reason for this existence without fate is that all attempts to put
      > things into a logical order must fail. Reason = no human mind or all
      > together could think of all possible facts, make sense of them all and put
      > them into an order. If there were an order it would mean that everything
      > predetermined and we would have a fated existence, like the one of a plant
      > or a simple animal. The basic outline for a human existence can be seen in
      > the following statement. Humans are thrown into existence at no specific
      > time and no choice about this. Time is limited. People make decisions
      > on the facts available to them. Facts themselves are a matter of choice.
      > Individuals select the criteria by which they decide the course of their
      > lives or particular undertakings.
      > We exist able to think about are existence. We make choices and the
      > make the future we project ourselves into. Existentialism says that you
      > nothing more than your own conscious existence.
      > T Z Lavine
      > If this is indeed the human condition, if this is a true picture of the
      > world in which the human subject absurdly finds himself, how is it
      > to go on living? Is there no exit from this anxiety and despair, this
      > nothingness and absurdity, this fixation upon alienation, this hovering
      > the edge of the abyss? Is there any existentialist who can tell us how to
      > live in such an absurd and hopeless world? Is there an existentialist
      > ethics, a moral philosophy to tell us what is good, what can be said to be
      > right or wrong, in such a meaningless world?Get more from the Web. FREE
      > Explorer download : http://explorer.msn.com
      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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