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Fwd: [Sartre] my English paper

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  • james tan
    a 15 year student s essay on existentialism... From: Benjamin Elizondo Reply-To: Sartre@yahoogroups.com To:
    Message 1 of 2 , Mar 1, 2002
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      a 15 year student's essay on existentialism...





      From: "Benjamin Elizondo" <imacreep@...>
      Reply-To: Sartre@yahoogroups.com
      To: <Sartre@yahoogroups.com>
      Subject: [Sartre] my English paper
      Date: Fri, 1 Mar 2002 19:12:12 -0600

      as some of you may know im a 15 year old freshman in high school. i recently
      did a researchn existentialism and Sartre. i was wondering if you could tell
      me what you think of it. be as hard on me as you wish, i dont really care.
      anyway its about three pages and i just turned it in. im waiting to get my
      grade. le me know what you think.


      Ben Ellison
      Jean Paul Sartre and Phenomenological Existentialism
      Or
      To Be or Not To Be
      Mrs. Quanta
      February 25, 2002

      ���ex��is��ten��tial��ism- A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and
      isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe,
      regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and
      responsibility for the consequences of one's acts (Webster���s
      Dictionary).���


      Existential philosophy is said to be as old as man. But it took one person
      to shape it, put a face on it and present it to the world. This man was Jean
      Paul Sartre. As the sculptor and founder of this philosophy, he took what
      was on the minds of every great philosopher to walk on this planet and made
      one concrete philosophy that was uniquely original. He put existence and the
      human experience into words. Life as many knew it, would never be the same.
      Jean Paul Sartre was born in Paris in 1905 (Sartre, 2). He studied at Ecole
      Normale Superieure from 1924 to 1929. He became a professor in 1931
      (Kaufman, 4). In 1932 he studied the philosophies of Edmund Husserl and
      Martin Heidegger in Berlin. All during the 1930���s he taught philosophy at
      La Havre and Paris. Captured by Nazis while serving as an Army
      meteorologist, Sartre became a prisoner of war for one year before returning
      to his teaching position. While a prisoner he participated in French
      resistance to German occupation until the liberation (Sartre, 124). Since
      the end of WWII Sartre was living as an independent writer. Sartre wrote
      novels as well as philosophical essays. In 1964 he declined the Nobel Prize
      for literature (Wesley, 73).
      Jean Paul Sartre came up with the idea of existentialism with the influence
      of Husserl���s idea of a free fully intentional consciousness and
      Heidegger���s existentialism. Sartre���s philosophy was explicitly atheistic
      and pessimistic: he declared that human beings require a rational basis for
      their lives but are unable to achieve one, and thus human life, he concluded
      is a useless struggle (Nelson, 124).
      His plays and novels also expressed the belief that freedom and personal
      acceptance of personal responsibilities are the main values in life, and
      that individuals must rely on their creative powers rather than social or
      religious authority. His philosophic views, which he related to life,
      literature, psychology and political action, stimulated so much popular
      interest that existentialism became a worldwide movement. Sartre gave the
      term existentialism general currency by using it for his own philosophy and
      by becoming the leading figure of a distinct movement in France that became
      internationally influenced after WWII.
      Sartre conceived humans as beings who create their own world by rebelling
      against authority and by accepting personal responsibility for their
      actions, unaided by society, traditional morality, or religious faith.
      Sartre argued that the influence of modern society over the individual is so
      great to produce serialization, by which he meant loss of self, that
      individual power and freedom can only be regained through group
      revolutionary action (Zaner, 97). His theory of existential psychoanalysis
      asserted the inescapable responsibility of all individuals for their own
      decisions and made the recognition of ones absolute freedom of choice the
      necessary condition for authentic human existence (Sartre, 44). Sartre
      insisted that his existentialism was a form of humanism and he strongly
      emphasized human freedom, choice and responsibility (Nelson, 174).

      Jean Paul Sartre

      Man is condemned to be free, a freedom from all authority,
      which he may seek to evade, distort and deny but which he will have to face
      if he is to become a moral being. The meaning of mans life is not
      established before his existence. Once the terrible freedom is acknowledged,
      man has to make this meaning himself, has to commit to a role in this world,
      has to commit to his freedom and this attempt to make oneself is futile
      without the solidarity of others.

      Phenomenology was a movement dedicated to describing the structures of
      experience as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse to
      theory, deduction or assumptions from other disciplines such as the new
      sciences. What Husserl discovered when he contemplated the content of his
      mind were such acts as remembering, desiring, and perceiving and the
      abstract content of these acts, which Husserl called meanings. These
      meanings he claimed, enabled an act to be directed toward an object: and
      such directedness, called intentionality, he held to be the essence of
      consciousness (Husserl, 13).
      The existentialist conceptions of freedom and value arise from their view of
      the individual. Since we are all ultimately islands of subjectivity in an
      objective world we have absolute freedom over our internal nature, and the
      source of our value can only be internal. Existentialists say that to exist
      as a human being is inexplicable and wholly absurd. We are all thrown into
      this existence but why here? And why now? Anguish is said to be the dread of
      nothingness in human existence. Most existentialists believe that anguish is
      the underlying emotion of human existence.
      Existentialism is defined by the slogan existence precedes essence (Barnes,
      188). The explanation for this saying is this: we have no predetermined
      nature or essence that controls what we are, what we do, or what is valuable
      for us. We are radically free to act independently of determination by
      outside influences (Barnes, 89). We are thrown into existence first without
      a predetermined nature and only later do we construct our nature or essence
      through our actions. We create our human nature along with our values
      through free choices.
      Another reason for this existence without fate is that all attempts to put
      things into a logical order must fail. Reason = no human mind or all
      together could think of all possible facts, make sense of them all and put
      them into an order. If there were an order it would mean that everything is
      predetermined and we would have a fated existence, like the one of a plant
      or a simple animal. The basic outline for a human existence can be seen in
      the following statement. Humans are thrown into existence at no specific
      time and no choice about this. Time is limited. People make decisions based
      on the facts available to them. Facts themselves are a matter of choice.
      Individuals select the criteria by which they decide the course of their
      lives or particular undertakings.
      We exist able to think about are existence. We make choices and the choices
      make the future we project ourselves into. Existentialism says that you are
      nothing more than your own conscious existence.

      T Z Lavine

      If this is indeed the human condition, if this is a true picture of the
      world in which the human subject absurdly finds himself, how is it possible
      to go on living? Is there no exit from this anxiety and despair, this
      nothingness and absurdity, this fixation upon alienation, this hovering over
      the edge of the abyss? Is there any existentialist who can tell us how to
      live in such an absurd and hopeless world? Is there an existentialist
      ethics, a moral philosophy to tell us what is good, what can be said to be
      right or wrong, in such a meaningless world?Get more from the Web. FREE MSN
      Explorer download : http://explorer.msn.com


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]









      _________________________________________________________________
      Join the world�s largest e-mail service with MSN Hotmail.
      http://www.hotmail.com
    • Bill Harris
      That was a good overlook of exist history. More modern branchings of the philosophy are harder to define. Since the originators turned each of us loose to find
      Message 2 of 2 , Mar 4, 2002
      • 0 Attachment
        That was a good overlook of exist history. More modern branchings of the
        philosophy are harder to define. Since the originators turned each of us
        loose to find our own way , we have been busy scattering all over the map.
        I think an exist outlook leads to a personal philosophy. That set of ideas
        comes not just from what you have read, but what you have experienced. Most
        fifteen year olds have had little defining personal experience. The society
        seems much more lockstep than it was in my younger years. I do not know how
        a young person might best shove off into an individual world of
        experiences. Much of what is different is now just too dangerous to deal
        with. The wild situational swings I experienced no longer exist. A cookie
        cutter existance is about all that is available. How one builds a personal
        philosophy from such scraps of experience escapes me. I recollect a theory
        called "just noticable differences" . Threshold stimuli may be all that are
        available to the modern philosophic adventurer. Bill
        ----- Original Message -----
        From: "james tan" <tyjfk@...>
        Sent: Friday, March 01, 2002 8:54 PM
        Subject: [existlist] Fwd: [Sartre] my English paper


        >
        > a 15 year student's essay on existentialism...
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > From: "Benjamin Elizondo" <imacreep@...>
        > Reply-To: Sartre@yahoogroups.com
        > To: <Sartre@yahoogroups.com>
        > Subject: [Sartre] my English paper
        > Date: Fri, 1 Mar 2002 19:12:12 -0600
        >
        > as some of you may know im a 15 year old freshman in high school. i
        recently
        > did a researchn existentialism and Sartre. i was wondering if you could
        tell
        > me what you think of it. be as hard on me as you wish, i dont really care.
        > anyway its about three pages and i just turned it in. im waiting to get my
        > grade. le me know what you think.
        >
        >
        > Ben Ellison
        > Jean Paul Sartre and Phenomenological Existentialism
        > Or
        > To Be or Not To Be
        > Mrs. Quanta
        > February 25, 2002
        >
        > â?oex·is·ten·tial·ism- A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and
        > isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent
        universe,
        > regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice
        and
        > responsibility for the consequences of one's acts (Websterâ?Ts
        > Dictionary).�
        >
        >
        > Existential philosophy is said to be as old as man. But it took one person
        > to shape it, put a face on it and present it to the world. This man was
        Jean
        > Paul Sartre. As the sculptor and founder of this philosophy, he took what
        > was on the minds of every great philosopher to walk on this planet and
        made
        > one concrete philosophy that was uniquely original. He put existence and
        the
        > human experience into words. Life as many knew it, would never be the
        same.
        > Jean Paul Sartre was born in Paris in 1905 (Sartre, 2). He studied at
        Ecole
        > Normale Superieure from 1924 to 1929. He became a professor in 1931
        > (Kaufman, 4). In 1932 he studied the philosophies of Edmund Husserl and
        > Martin Heidegger in Berlin. All during the 1930â?Ts he taught philosophy
        at
        > La Havre and Paris. Captured by Nazis while serving as an Army
        > meteorologist, Sartre became a prisoner of war for one year before
        returning
        > to his teaching position. While a prisoner he participated in French
        > resistance to German occupation until the liberation (Sartre, 124). Since
        > the end of WWII Sartre was living as an independent writer. Sartre wrote
        > novels as well as philosophical essays. In 1964 he declined the Nobel
        Prize
        > for literature (Wesley, 73).
        > Jean Paul Sartre came up with the idea of existentialism with the
        influence
        > of Husserlâ?Ts idea of a free fully intentional consciousness and
        > Heideggerâ?Ts existentialism. Sartreâ?Ts philosophy was explicitly
        atheistic
        > and pessimistic: he declared that human beings require a rational basis
        for
        > their lives but are unable to achieve one, and thus human life, he
        concluded
        > is a useless struggle (Nelson, 124).
        > His plays and novels also expressed the belief that freedom and personal
        > acceptance of personal responsibilities are the main values in life, and
        > that individuals must rely on their creative powers rather than social or
        > religious authority. His philosophic views, which he related to life,
        > literature, psychology and political action, stimulated so much popular
        > interest that existentialism became a worldwide movement. Sartre gave the
        > term existentialism general currency by using it for his own philosophy
        and
        > by becoming the leading figure of a distinct movement in France that
        became
        > internationally influenced after WWII.
        > Sartre conceived humans as beings who create their own world by rebelling
        > against authority and by accepting personal responsibility for their
        > actions, unaided by society, traditional morality, or religious faith.
        > Sartre argued that the influence of modern society over the individual is
        so
        > great to produce serialization, by which he meant loss of self, that
        > individual power and freedom can only be regained through group
        > revolutionary action (Zaner, 97). His theory of existential psychoanalysis
        > asserted the inescapable responsibility of all individuals for their own
        > decisions and made the recognition of ones absolute freedom of choice the
        > necessary condition for authentic human existence (Sartre, 44). Sartre
        > insisted that his existentialism was a form of humanism and he strongly
        > emphasized human freedom, choice and responsibility (Nelson, 174).
        >
        > Jean Paul Sartre
        >
        > Man is condemned to be free, a freedom from all authority,
        > which he may seek to evade, distort and deny but which he will have to
        face
        > if he is to become a moral being. The meaning of mans life is not
        > established before his existence. Once the terrible freedom is
        acknowledged,
        > man has to make this meaning himself, has to commit to a role in this
        world,
        > has to commit to his freedom and this attempt to make oneself is futile
        > without the solidarity of others.
        >
        > Phenomenology was a movement dedicated to describing the structures of
        > experience as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse
        to
        > theory, deduction or assumptions from other disciplines such as the new
        > sciences. What Husserl discovered when he contemplated the content of his
        > mind were such acts as remembering, desiring, and perceiving and the
        > abstract content of these acts, which Husserl called meanings. These
        > meanings he claimed, enabled an act to be directed toward an object: and
        > such directedness, called intentionality, he held to be the essence of
        > consciousness (Husserl, 13).
        > The existentialist conceptions of freedom and value arise from their view
        of
        > the individual. Since we are all ultimately islands of subjectivity in an
        > objective world we have absolute freedom over our internal nature, and the
        > source of our value can only be internal. Existentialists say that to
        exist
        > as a human being is inexplicable and wholly absurd. We are all thrown into
        > this existence but why here? And why now? Anguish is said to be the dread
        of
        > nothingness in human existence. Most existentialists believe that anguish
        is
        > the underlying emotion of human existence.
        > Existentialism is defined by the slogan existence precedes essence
        (Barnes,
        > 188). The explanation for this saying is this: we have no predetermined
        > nature or essence that controls what we are, what we do, or what is
        valuable
        > for us. We are radically free to act independently of determination by
        > outside influences (Barnes, 89). We are thrown into existence first
        without
        > a predetermined nature and only later do we construct our nature or
        essence
        > through our actions. We create our human nature along with our values
        > through free choices.
        > Another reason for this existence without fate is that all attempts to put
        > things into a logical order must fail. Reason = no human mind or all
        > together could think of all possible facts, make sense of them all and put
        > them into an order. If there were an order it would mean that everything
        is
        > predetermined and we would have a fated existence, like the one of a plant
        > or a simple animal. The basic outline for a human existence can be seen in
        > the following statement. Humans are thrown into existence at no specific
        > time and no choice about this. Time is limited. People make decisions
        based
        > on the facts available to them. Facts themselves are a matter of choice.
        > Individuals select the criteria by which they decide the course of their
        > lives or particular undertakings.
        > We exist able to think about are existence. We make choices and the
        choices
        > make the future we project ourselves into. Existentialism says that you
        are
        > nothing more than your own conscious existence.
        >
        > T Z Lavine
        >
        > If this is indeed the human condition, if this is a true picture of the
        > world in which the human subject absurdly finds himself, how is it
        possible
        > to go on living? Is there no exit from this anxiety and despair, this
        > nothingness and absurdity, this fixation upon alienation, this hovering
        over
        > the edge of the abyss? Is there any existentialist who can tell us how to
        > live in such an absurd and hopeless world? Is there an existentialist
        > ethics, a moral philosophy to tell us what is good, what can be said to be
        > right or wrong, in such a meaningless world?Get more from the Web. FREE
        MSN
        > Explorer download : http://explorer.msn.com
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > _________________________________________________________________
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