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How your brain answers 'Who am I?'

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  • Tony Lea
    How your brain answers Who am I? ANNE McILROY Saturday, May 12, 2001 Try to remember an embarrassing moment. The time you were caught making peanut-butter
    Message 1 of 11 , May 15, 2001
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      How your brain answers 'Who am I?'

      ANNE McILROY

      Saturday, May 12, 2001


      Try to remember an embarrassing moment. The time you were caught making peanut-butter balls at a party by chewing the ingredients. The dreadful job interview when the boss asked if he could help you off with your coat and you were wearing an inappropriate dress.

      If the right frontal lobe of your brain hasn't been damaged, embarrassing memories will bring a flush to your face, as you relive the emotion that accompanied the initial experience. Some scientists now believe these emotional components of memories are the key to our sense of self, which resides, at least in part, in the area of the brain behind the socket of the right eye.

      This week, California neurologist Bruce Miller reported the results of an intriguing experiment that provides the strongest link yet between that brain region and sense of self.

      "We think of our 'self' -- including our beliefs and values and even the way we dress -- as something we determine, not just an anatomical process," Miller, who works at the University of California at San Francisco, said in an interview. "But this research shows that one area of the brain controls much of our sense of self, and damage to that area can dramatically change who we are."

      The changes, according to a theory first developed by Canadian researchers including eminent psychologist Endel Tulving, come from losing the ability to re-experience the memories of events that shape identity. Patients might remember parents' lectures about sinning, but don't feel the guilt. They recall how their child once fell from the monkey bars when they weren't watching, but they don't feel remorse, and aren't any more cautious at the playground next time.

      In Miller's study, he looked at 75 patients with frontal-temporal dementia, the second-most-common form of dementia after Alzheimer's. He used brain-imaging techniques to assess what part of each patient's brain had been damaged. The seven patients whose most severe damage was to the right frontal or right temporal lobes had undergone radical and permanent shifts in personality after the onset of their illness. Two of the conversions were political, three sartorial and two professional.

      One 60-year-old woman converted from the Lutheran faith to Catholicism. "It was spur-of-the-moment, based on the fact she thought the priest was good-looking," Miller said in an interview. A 40-year-old prude shocked his daughters by bringing home copies of The Joy of Sex. And a conservative businesswoman joined Greenpeace. "She started to wear baggy sweatshirts and baggy socks."

      Patients with damage to the left side of their brains lost the ability to say the words people typically use to describe themselves, but the sense of self remained strong. "Even people who lose words like 'Catholic' or 'conservative' or 'liberal' maintained their political and ideological perspectives," Miller said. "It was people who had intact language skills, but who had degeneration of the right frontal lobe, who actually lost well-established behaviours."

      He credited a group of scientists in Toronto as the inspiration for his experiment, and said they have done the most work to explain why someone with damage to the right frontal lobe would suddenly switch religions because of a cute priest.

      In 1998, University of Toronto neuropsychologist Brian Levine and his colleagues at the Rotman Research Institute at the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care published the first paper making the link between damage to the right frontal lobe and the inability to "re-experience" memories.

      Levine and his colleagues studied the case of a salesman who was hit by a car when riding his bike. The brain damage was isolated to the right frontal lobe. M.L., as he was described in a groundbreaking paper, suffered amnesia and could not remember anything about his past. His wife and family members filled him in, but it was like he was reading a book about himself.

      He was able to retain memories of events after the accident, but not in the normal way. An experiment that compared him to control subjects found that he did not experience the emotional parts of his memories. He never regained his outgoing personality, felt distant and had trouble working or even looking after his children properly. "He has knowledge of things that happen to him, but he doesn't have the sense of self that says this is what it was like, that was me," Levine said.

      Since most healthy people do experience their memories, it can be difficult to understand what it would be like to recall events but not feelings. A good example might be when you recognize someone on the street, but can't remember how you know the person, Levine said.

      "Part of the problem of this area of research is that is difficult to measure re-experiencing because it is really a state of mind. We can only look at it indirectly, so we have to be very clever about ways of measuring it directly."

      Levine uses questionnaires, brain imaging and other tests on patients, and has examined some of Miller's test subjects.

      Children from a very young age seem to have a sense of self -- two-year-old girls refusing to wear dresses, for example -- but Levine said he considered this is an expression of temperament, which is likely genetic. Re-experiencing memory does not begin until the age of 4, he believes, and humans are the only animals who do it.

      "Most other species operate quite well on familiarity or factual knowledge. An animal knows where its den is or whatever, but we don't think they have a sense of self as humans do.

      "It is this unique ability to imagine oneself in the past and future that allows humans to engage in the most advanced social behaviours, including building civilizations."

      As long as we wear our bicycle helmets, that is.





      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • William Harris
      Message 2 of 11 , May 16, 2001
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        William Harris wrote:

        > Eduard, Thank you for your usual precision . We in the applied sciences need our rotors adjusted now and then. I am thinking of time as a measure of change, the movement of atoms in relation to each other and reactions with each other. The enormity of positional change and reactive change throughout the universe in just one of your Cesium secounds is so incomprehensibly lardge as to negate the possibility of a backward running of time or the repetition of a moment. What you think, boss?
        > Bill
        >
        > Tony Lea wrote:
        >
        > > How your brain answers 'Who am I?'
        > >
        > > ANNE McILROY
        > >
        > > Saturday, May 12, 2001
        > >
        > > Try to remember an embarrassing moment. The time you were caught making peanut-butter balls at a party by chewing the ingredients. The dreadful job interview when the boss asked if he could help you off with your coat and you were wearing an inappropriate dress.
        > >
        > > If the right frontal lobe of your brain hasn't been damaged, embarrassing memories will bring a flush to your face, as you relive the emotion that accompanied the initial experience. Some scientists now believe these emotional components of memories are the key to our sense of self, which resides, at least in part, in the area of the brain behind the socket of the right eye.
        > >
        > > This week, California neurologist Bruce Miller reported the results of an intriguing experiment that provides the strongest link yet between that brain region and sense of self.
        > >
        > > "We think of our 'self' -- including our beliefs and values and even the way we dress -- as something we determine, not just an anatomical process," Miller, who works at the University of California at San Francisco, said in an interview. "But this research shows that one area of the brain controls much of our sense of self, and damage to that area can dramatically change who we are."
        > >
        > > The changes, according to a theory first developed by Canadian researchers including eminent psychologist Endel Tulving, come from losing the ability to re-experience the memories of events that shape identity. Patients might remember parents' lectures about sinning, but don't feel the guilt. They recall how their child once fell from the monkey bars when they weren't watching, but they don't feel remorse, and aren't any more cautious at the playground next time.
        > >
        > > In Miller's study, he looked at 75 patients with frontal-temporal dementia, the second-most-common form of dementia after Alzheimer's. He used brain-imaging techniques to assess what part of each patient's brain had been damaged. The seven patients whose most severe damage was to the right frontal or right temporal lobes had undergone radical and permanent shifts in personality after the onset of their illness. Two of the conversions were political, three sartorial and two professional.
        > >
        > > One 60-year-old woman converted from the Lutheran faith to Catholicism. "It was spur-of-the-moment, based on the fact she thought the priest was good-looking," Miller said in an interview. A 40-year-old prude shocked his daughters by bringing home copies of The Joy of Sex. And a conservative businesswoman joined Greenpeace. "She started to wear baggy sweatshirts and baggy socks."
        > >
        > > Patients with damage to the left side of their brains lost the ability to say the words people typically use to describe themselves, but the sense of self remained strong. "Even people who lose words like 'Catholic' or 'conservative' or 'liberal' maintained their political and ideological perspectives," Miller said. "It was people who had intact language skills, but who had degeneration of the right frontal lobe, who actually lost well-established behaviours."
        > >
        > > He credited a group of scientists in Toronto as the inspiration for his experiment, and said they have done the most work to explain why someone with damage to the right frontal lobe would suddenly switch religions because of a cute priest.
        > >
        > > In 1998, University of Toronto neuropsychologist Brian Levine and his colleagues at the Rotman Research Institute at the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care published the first paper making the link between damage to the right frontal lobe and the inability to "re-experience" memories.
        > >
        > > Levine and his colleagues studied the case of a salesman who was hit by a car when riding his bike. The brain damage was isolated to the right frontal lobe. M.L., as he was described in a groundbreaking paper, suffered amnesia and could not remember anything about his past. His wife and family members filled him in, but it was like he was reading a book about himself.
        > >
        > > He was able to retain memories of events after the accident, but not in the normal way. An experiment that compared him to control subjects found that he did not experience the emotional parts of his memories. He never regained his outgoing personality, felt distant and had trouble working or even looking after his children properly. "He has knowledge of things that happen to him, but he doesn't have the sense of self that says this is what it was like, that was me," Levine said.
        > >
        > > Since most healthy people do experience their memories, it can be difficult to understand what it would be like to recall events but not feelings. A good example might be when you recognize someone on the street, but can't remember how you know the person, Levine said.
        > >
        > > "Part of the problem of this area of research is that is difficult to measure re-experiencing because it is really a state of mind. We can only look at it indirectly, so we have to be very clever about ways of measuring it directly."
        > >
        > > Levine uses questionnaires, brain imaging and other tests on patients, and has examined some of Miller's test subjects.
        > >
        > > Children from a very young age seem to have a sense of self -- two-year-old girls refusing to wear dresses, for example -- but Levine said he considered this is an expression of temperament, which is likely genetic. Re-experiencing memory does not begin until the age of 4, he believes, and humans are the only animals who do it.
        > >
        > > "Most other species operate quite well on familiarity or factual knowledge. An animal knows where its den is or whatever, but we don't think they have a sense of self as humans do.
        > >
        > > "It is this unique ability to imagine oneself in the past and future that allows humans to engage in the most advanced social behaviours, including building civilizations."
        > >
        > > As long as we wear our bicycle helmets, that is.
        > >
        > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        > >
        > > Our Home: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/existlist
        > > (Includes community book list, chat, and more.)
        > >
        > > TO UNSUBSCRIBE from this group, send an email to:
        > > existlist-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
        > >
        > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
      • Eduard Alf
        Bill, yes ... although time to measure change is not that much different in an atomic clock ... except it is not human orientated ... and as i mentioned, the
        Message 3 of 11 , May 16, 2001
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          Bill,

          yes ... although time to measure change is not that much different in an
          atomic clock ... except it is not human orientated ... and as i mentioned,
          the atomic clock in Ottawa loses time on the weekends .. perhaps because the
          city is full of civil servants ... Washington should check their clock,
          although i think that NIST is located in Virginia ...

          anyway, the idea of time going backwards is something proposed for alternate
          universes ... there is nothing that says that time has to go forward
          elsewhere ... but it doesnt really matter, since this is something outside
          the scope of our experience ... although it is nice to consider and discuss,
          i dont think it will have any impact upon our lives ...

          eduard

          -----Original Message-----
          From: William Harris [mailto:bhvwd@...]
          Sent: Wednesday, May 16, 2001 11:43 AM
          To: existlist@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: Re: [existlist] How your brain answers 'Who am I?'

          > Eduard, Thank you for your usual precision . We in the applied sciences
          need our rotors adjusted now and then. I am thinking of time as a measure of
          change, the movement of atoms in relation to each other and reactions with
          each other. The enormity of positional change and reactive change throughout
          the universe in just one of your Cesium secounds is so incomprehensibly
          lardge as to negate the possibility of a backward running of time or the
          repetition of a moment. What you think, boss?
          > Bill
        • Tony Lea
          ... universe in just one of your Cesium secounds is so incomprehensibly lardge as to negate the possibility of a backward running of time or the repetition
          Message 4 of 11 , May 16, 2001
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            >The enormity of positional change and reactive change throughout the
            universe in just one of your >Cesium secounds is so incomprehensibly lardge
            as to negate the possibility of a backward running >of time or the
            repetition of a moment. What you think, boss?

            Especially if chaos theory is true. If one infinitesmal change in one
            location can cascade through the system to cause a monumental change in
            another, the entire chain of cause-and-effect for every event in the
            universe would have to be taken into account.


            Tony
          • William Harris
            Tony, Can you elaborate on chos theory, you have charged my interest. BILL
            Message 5 of 11 , May 17, 2001
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              Tony, Can you elaborate on chos theory, you have charged my interest. BILL

              Tony Lea wrote:

              > >The enormity of positional change and reactive change throughout the
              > universe in just one of your >Cesium secounds is so incomprehensibly lardge
              > as to negate the possibility of a backward running >of time or the
              > repetition of a moment. What you think, boss?
              >
              > Especially if chaos theory is true. If one infinitesmal change in one
              > location can cascade through the system to cause a monumental change in
              > another, the entire chain of cause-and-effect for every event in the
              > universe would have to be taken into account.
              >
              > Tony
              >
              > Our Home: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/existlist
              > (Includes community book list, chat, and more.)
              >
              > TO UNSUBSCRIBE from this group, send an email to:
              > existlist-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
              >
              > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
            • William Harris
              Diane, The previous discussion concerning emotion and mood would be impacted by this most recent piece of research. Letter to nature: LESIONS OF THE HUMAN
              Message 6 of 11 , May 17, 2001
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                Diane, The previous discussion concerning emotion and mood would be impacted by
                this most recent piece of research.
                Letter to nature:
                LESIONS OF THE HUMAN AMYGDALA IMPAIR ENHANCED PERCEPTION OF EMOTIONALLY SALIENT
                EVENTS (NATURE 17 MAY 2001) Bill
                Adam K. Anderson and Elizabeth A. Phelps

                Commensurate with the importance of rapidly and efficiently evaluating
                motivationally significant stimuli, humans are probably endowed with distinct
                faculties and maintain specialized neural structures to enhance their
                detection. Here we consider that a critical function of the human amygdala is
                to enhance the perception of stimuli that have emotional significance. Under
                conditions of limited attention for normal perceptual awareness--that is, the
                attentional blink--we show that healthy observers demonstrate robust benefits
                for the perception of verbal stimuli of aversive content compared with stimuli
                of neutral content. In contrast, a patient with bilateral amygdala damage has
                no enhanced perception for such aversive stimulus events. Examination of
                patients with either left or right amygdala resections shows that the enhanced
                perception of aversive words depends specifically on the left amygdala
                lesions. Our results reveal a neural substrate for affective influences on
                perception, indicating that similar neural mechanisms may underlie the
                affective modulation of both recollective and perceptual experience.

                Tony Lea wrote:

                > >The enormity of positional change and reactive change throughout the
                > universe in just one of your >Cesium secounds is so incomprehensibly lardge
                > as to negate the possibility of a backward running >of time or the
                > repetition of a moment. What you think, boss?
                >
                > Especially if chaos theory is true. If one infinitesmal change in one
                > location can cascade through the system to cause a monumental change in
                > another, the entire chain of cause-and-effect for every event in the
                > universe would have to be taken into account.
                >
                > Tony
                >
                > Our Home: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/existlist
                > (Includes community book list, chat, and more.)
                >
                > TO UNSUBSCRIBE from this group, send an email to:
                > existlist-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                >
                > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/


                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Eduard Alf
                Bill, the following is provided in britannica:
                Message 7 of 11 , May 17, 2001
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                  Bill,

                  the following is provided in britannica:

                  << According to Kellert (1993), "chaos theory is the qualitative study of
                  unstable aperiodic behavior in deterministic nonlinear dynamical systems"
                  (italics in the original). A dynamical system is one that changes over time,
                  so chaos theory looks at how things evolve. >> etc... you will find the rest
                  in http://www.britannica.com/magazine?ebsco_id=48672

                  what i like about chaos theory is that it can be applied to a range of
                  environmental sizes ... i have the feeling that there is a break in this
                  range which is at the sizes which are ... shall i say ... human size ...

                  for example if you pull back far enough (in a helicopter) the forest looks
                  like some kind of green mold and it has a certain pattern in the way that it
                  grows over the earth ... if you then land and are down to the human, there
                  appears to be no real logic or pattern to which the forest grows ... it is
                  just there ... but if you then could reduce yourself so as to draw towards
                  the microscopic, you will see a reemergence of patterns ... it is almost as
                  if we have been allocated a position in which we cant see the pattern of
                  living things unless we make the effort ....

                  have fun ...

                  eduard



                  -----Original Message-----
                  From: William Harris [mailto:bhvwd@...]
                  Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2001 11:04 AM
                  To: existlist@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Re: [existlist] How your brain answers 'Who am I?'


                  Tony, Can you elaborate on chos theory, you have charged my interest. BILL
                • Eduard Alf
                  Bill, although this is a bit beyond me, it would seem to correspond with what we were saying before ... that the left brain has verbal functions ... perhaps it
                  Message 8 of 11 , May 17, 2001
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                    Bill,

                    although this is a bit beyond me, it would seem to correspond with what we
                    were saying before ... that the left brain has verbal functions ... perhaps
                    it is the amygdala which provides the "tags" which are the emotional content
                    of neural signals ... i would think that a "mood" is simply a repeated
                    cycling of these signals (with emotional tags) that characterise our
                    response to the world ....

                    regards

                    eduard

                    -----Original Message-----
                    From: William Harris [mailto:bhvwd@...]
                    Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2001 12:29 PM
                    To: existlist@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: Re: [existlist] How your brain answers 'Who am I?'

                    Diane, The previous discussion concerning emotion and mood would be impacted
                    by
                    this most recent piece of research.
                    Letter to nature:
                    LESIONS OF THE HUMAN AMYGDALA IMPAIR ENHANCED PERCEPTION OF EMOTIONALLY
                    SALIENT
                    EVENTS (NATURE 17 MAY 2001) Bill
                    Adam K. Anderson and Elizabeth A. Phelps

                    Commensurate with the importance of rapidly and efficiently evaluating
                    motivationally significant stimuli, humans are probably endowed with
                    distinct
                    faculties and maintain specialized neural structures to enhance their
                    detection. Here we consider that a critical function of the human amygdala
                    is
                    to enhance the perception of stimuli that have emotional significance. Under
                    conditions of limited attention for normal perceptual awareness--that is,
                    the
                    attentional blink--we show that healthy observers demonstrate robust
                    benefits
                    for the perception of verbal stimuli of aversive content compared with
                    stimuli
                    of neutral content. In contrast, a patient with bilateral amygdala damage
                    has
                    no enhanced perception for such aversive stimulus events. Examination of
                    patients with either left or right amygdala resections shows that the
                    enhanced
                    perception of aversive words depends specifically on the left amygdala
                    lesions. Our results reveal a neural substrate for affective influences on
                    perception, indicating that similar neural mechanisms may underlie the
                    affective modulation of both recollective and perceptual experience.
                  • William Harris
                    Eduard, beautiful , is it not Eienstiens classic position of the observer that makes all the difference? Yet it is the mind that transports us from the cosmic,
                    Message 9 of 11 , May 21, 2001
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                      Eduard, beautiful , is it not Eienstiens classic position of the observer that
                      makes all the difference? Yet it is the mind that transports us from the cosmic,
                      to the geologic , to the biologic, indeed into the mind itself. All of it real
                      and operating under its own transparency of rules that blend through size and
                      situation. Only the broad, philosophic mind sees it all. Bill

                      Eduard Alf wrote:

                      > Bill,
                      >
                      > the following is provided in britannica:
                      >
                      > << According to Kellert (1993), "chaos theory is the qualitative study of
                      > unstable aperiodic behavior in deterministic nonlinear dynamical systems"
                      > (italics in the original). A dynamical system is one that changes over time,
                      > so chaos theory looks at how things evolve. >> etc... you will find the rest
                      > in http://www.britannica.com/magazine?ebsco_id=48672
                      >
                      > what i like about chaos theory is that it can be applied to a range of
                      > environmental sizes ... i have the feeling that there is a break in this
                      > range which is at the sizes which are ... shall i say ... human size ...
                      >
                      > for example if you pull back far enough (in a helicopter) the forest looks
                      > like some kind of green mold and it has a certain pattern in the way that it
                      > grows over the earth ... if you then land and are down to the human, there
                      > appears to be no real logic or pattern to which the forest grows ... it is
                      > just there ... but if you then could reduce yourself so as to draw towards
                      > the microscopic, you will see a reemergence of patterns ... it is almost as
                      > if we have been allocated a position in which we cant see the pattern of
                      > living things unless we make the effort ....
                      >
                      > have fun ...
                      >
                      > eduard
                      >
                      > -----Original Message-----
                      > From: William Harris [mailto:bhvwd@...]
                      > Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2001 11:04 AM
                      > To: existlist@yahoogroups.com
                      > Subject: Re: [existlist] How your brain answers 'Who am I?'
                      >
                      > Tony, Can you elaborate on chos theory, you have charged my interest. BILL
                      >
                      > Our Home: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/existlist
                      > (Includes community book list, chat, and more.)
                      >
                      > TO UNSUBSCRIBE from this group, send an email to:
                      > existlist-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                      >
                      > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                    • William Harris
                      Eduard, I think this piece of research is very significant because it links the long demonized emotional brain function to a real time survival trait. When
                      Message 10 of 11 , May 21, 2001
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                        Eduard, I think this piece of research is very significant because it links the
                        long demonized emotional brain function to a real time survival trait. When
                        the hair stands up on the back of your neck at the sound of a voice you have
                        never heard before your amygdala holds a memory of something similar that was
                        not your friend. Kinda like Tims exposition affects yours truly. Bill

                        Eduard Alf wrote:

                        > Bill,
                        >
                        > although this is a bit beyond me, it would seem to correspond with what we
                        > were saying before ... that the left brain has verbal functions ... perhaps
                        > it is the amygdala which provides the "tags" which are the emotional content
                        > of neural signals ... i would think that a "mood" is simply a repeated
                        > cycling of these signals (with emotional tags) that characterise our
                        > response to the world ....
                        >
                        > regards
                        >
                        > eduard
                        >
                        > -----Original Message-----
                        > From: William Harris [mailto:bhvwd@...]
                        > Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2001 12:29 PM
                        > To: existlist@yahoogroups.com
                        > Subject: Re: [existlist] How your brain answers 'Who am I?'
                        >
                        > Diane, The previous discussion concerning emotion and mood would be impacted
                        > by
                        > this most recent piece of research.
                        > Letter to nature:
                        > LESIONS OF THE HUMAN AMYGDALA IMPAIR ENHANCED PERCEPTION OF EMOTIONALLY
                        > SALIENT
                        > EVENTS (NATURE 17 MAY 2001) Bill
                        > Adam K. Anderson and Elizabeth A. Phelps
                        >
                        > Commensurate with the importance of rapidly and efficiently evaluating
                        > motivationally significant stimuli, humans are probably endowed with
                        > distinct
                        > faculties and maintain specialized neural structures to enhance their
                        > detection. Here we consider that a critical function of the human amygdala
                        > is
                        > to enhance the perception of stimuli that have emotional significance. Under
                        > conditions of limited attention for normal perceptual awareness--that is,
                        > the
                        > attentional blink--we show that healthy observers demonstrate robust
                        > benefits
                        > for the perception of verbal stimuli of aversive content compared with
                        > stimuli
                        > of neutral content. In contrast, a patient with bilateral amygdala damage
                        > has
                        > no enhanced perception for such aversive stimulus events. Examination of
                        > patients with either left or right amygdala resections shows that the
                        > enhanced
                        > perception of aversive words depends specifically on the left amygdala
                        > lesions. Our results reveal a neural substrate for affective influences on
                        > perception, indicating that similar neural mechanisms may underlie the
                        > affective modulation of both recollective and perceptual experience.
                        >
                        > Our Home: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/existlist
                        > (Includes community book list, chat, and more.)
                        >
                        > TO UNSUBSCRIBE from this group, send an email to:
                        > existlist-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                        >
                        > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                      • Eduard Alf
                        Bill, there is some very good stuff out now, on the brain and its functions ... my interest is primarily in visual perceptions ... eduard ... From: William
                        Message 11 of 11 , May 22, 2001
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                          Bill,

                          there is some very good stuff out now, on the brain and its functions ... my
                          interest is primarily in visual perceptions ...

                          eduard

                          -----Original Message-----
                          From: William Harris [mailto:bhvwd@...]
                          Sent: Monday, May 21, 2001 1:46 PM
                          To: existlist@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: Re: [existlist] How your brain answers 'Who am I?'


                          Eduard, I think this piece of research is very significant because it links
                          the
                          long demonized emotional brain function to a real time survival trait.
                          When
                          the hair stands up on the back of your neck at the sound of a voice you have
                          never heard before your amygdala holds a memory of something similar that
                          was
                          not your friend. Kinda like Tims exposition affects yours truly. Bill
                        Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.