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encodingof geometric data by the theropod Poecile + genus revision

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  • stephanpickering@cs.com
    Emily R. Batty, Laurie L. Bloomfield, Marcia L. Spetch, C.B. Sturdy, 2009. Comparing black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadees (Poecile
    Message 1 of 1 , Jun 30, 2009
      Emily R. Batty, Laurie L. Bloomfield, Marcia L. Spetch, C.B. Sturdy, 2009. Comparing black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli): use of geometric and featural information in a spatial orientation task. Animal Cognition 12(4):633-641. ABSTRACT. Since Cheng (Cognition 23:149–178, 1986) first proposed the “geometric module” in rats, a great deal of research has focused on how other species use geometric information and how geometric encoding may differ across species. Here, hand-reared and wild-caught black-capped chickadees and wild-caught mountain chickadees searched for food hidden in one corner in a rectangular environment. Previous research has shown that mountain chickadees do not spontaneously encode geometric information when a salient feature is present near the goal location. Using a slightly different training and testing procedure, we found that both hand-reared and wild-caught black-capped chickadees encoded geometric information, even in the presence of a salient landmark. Some, but not all, mountain chickadees also encoded geometric information. Overall, our results suggest that use of geometric information may be a less preferred strategy for mountain chickadees than for either wild-caught or hand-reared black-capped chickadees. To our knowledge, this is the first direct interspecies comparison of use of geometric information in a spatial orientation task.
      cf. Hans Gadow, 1883. Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum : Paridae 8:34-37, 44-53

      Edmond de Selys-Longchamps, 1884. Considerations sur le genre mesange (Parus). Bulletin de la Societie zoologiques de France 9(1/2):32-78

      Joseph Grinnell, 1904. The origin and distribution of the chestnut-backed chickadee. Auk 21(3):364-382

      Robert Ridgway, 1904. The birds of North & Middle America. Bull. USNM 50(3):1-801

      Joseph Grinnell, 1918. The subspecies of the mountain chickadee. University of California Publications in Zoology 17(17):505-515

      Erwin Stresemann & H. Sachtleben, 1920. Uber die europaischen Mattkopfmeisen (Gruppe Parus atricapillus). Verhandlungen der Ornithologischen Gesellschaft in Bayern 14:228-269

      C.E. Hellmayr, 1934. Catalogue of the birds of the Americas & the adjacent islands. FMNH Zoological Series 13(7):1-531

      Henri Jouard, 1936. Revision systematique des formes eurasiatiques et specialement alpestres du Parus atricapillus. Aluda 8(3-4):342-471

      E.P. Odum, 1941. Annual cycle of the black-capped chickadee. Auk 58(3):314-333

      E.P. Odum, 1941. Annual cycle of the black-capped chickadee--2. Auk 58(4):518=535

      E.P. Odum, 1942. Annual cycle of the black-capped chickadee--3. Auk 59(4):499-531

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      W.A. Lunk, 1952. Notes on variation in the Carolina chickadee. Wilson Bulletin 64(1):7-21

      W.H. Behle, 1956. A systematic review of the mountain chickadee. Condor 58(1):51-70

      Charles Vaurie, 1957. Systematic notes on Palearctic birds. No. 27 Paridae: the genera Parus and Sylviparus. With supplementary notes by David Snow [pp. 36-43]. American Museum Novitates 1852:1-43

      Ernst Kniprath, 1967. Untersuchungen zur Variation der Rueckenfaerbung der bieden Meisen Parus montanus und Parus palustris. Jour. Ornithology 108(1):1-46

      D.W. Snow, 1967. Family Paridae. Check-list of the birds of the world 12:70-88, 117-119

      Susan T. Smith, 1972. Communication and other social behavior in Parus carolinensis. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club 11:1-125

      Marie Anne Crock, 1975. Competition and chickadee vocalizations: displacement and convergence. M.Sci. thesis, University of Pittsburgh

      Siegfried Eck, 1976. Taxonomische Studien an palaearktischen Weidenmeisen (Parus atricapillus) und anderen Graumeisen. Ornithologische Jahresberichte Baende 1(1):33-50

      Siegfried Eck, 1980. Intraspecifische Evolution bei Graumeisen (Aves, Paridae: Parus, Subgenus Poecile). Zoologische Abhandlungen (Staatlischen Museum Tierkunde Dresden) 36(9):135-219

      Patricia Lynn Sawaya, 1990. A detailed analysis of the genetic interaction at a hybrid zone between the chickadees Parus atricapillus and P. carolinensis as revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length variation. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1 55pp

      Susan M. Smith, 1991. The black-capped chickadee: behavioral ecology & natural history (Comstock Publishing Associates), 362pp

      Nicola S. Clayton, 1992. The ontogeny of food-storing and retrieval in marsh tits. Behaviour 122(1-2):11-25
      Mellicent S. Ficken & Jorge Nocedal, 1992. Mexican chickadee (Parus sclateri). The birds of North America (AOU/ANSP) # 8:1-12

      Jochen Martens & A.A. Nazarenko, 1993. Microevolution of eastern palaearctic grey tits as indicated by their vocalizations (Parus [Poecile]: Paridae, Aves) I. Parus montanus. Zeitschrift fuer Zoologische Systematik & Evolutionsforschung 31(2):127-143

      Susan M. Smith, 1993. Black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). The birds of North America (AOU/ANSP) # 39:1-20

      J.P. Hailman & Svein Haftorn, 1995. Siberian tit (Parus cinctus). The birds of North America (AOU/ANSP) # 196:1-24

      Jochen Martens, Stephan Ernst, Bernd Petri, 1995. Reviergesaenge ostasiatischer Weidenmeisen Parus montanus und ihre mikroevolutive Ableitung. Jour. Ornithology 136(4):367-388

      Millicent S. Ficken, Margaret A. McLaren, J.P. Hailman, 1996. Boreal chickadee (Parus hudsonicus). The birds of North America (AOU/ANSP) # 254:1-24

      Simon Harrap & David Quinn, 1996. Chickadees, tits, nuthatches, & treecreepers (Princeton University Press), 464pp

      J.P. Hailman & Millicent S. Ficken, 1996. Comparative analysis of vocal repertoires, with referenc e to chickadees, pp. 136-159 in: D.E. Kroodsma & E.H. Miller, eds., 1996. Ecology & evolution of acoustic communication in birds (Comstock Publishing Associates), 587pp + Errata Slip

      Laura Kvist, Minna Ruokonen, Marrku Orell, Jaakko Lumme, 1996. Evolutionary patterns and phylogeny of tits and chickadees (genus Parus) based on the sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Ornis Fennica 73(4):145-156

      E.D. Sattler, 1996. The dynamics of vocal, morphological, and molecular interaction between hybridizing black-capped and Carolina chickadees. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 330pp

      Beth Slikas, F.H. Sheldon, F.B. Gill, 1996. Phylogeny of titmice (Paridae): I. Estimate of relationships among subgenera based on DNA-DNA hybridization. Jour. Avian Biology 27(1):70-82

      Susan M. Smith, 1997. Black-capped chickadee (Stackpole Books), 90pp

      D.E. Kroodsma, B.E. Byers, Sylvia L. Halkin, Christopher Hill, Dolly Minis, J.R. Bolsinger, Jo-Anne Dawson, Elizabeth Donelan, Jeffrey Farrington, F.B. Gill, Peter Houlihan, Doug Innes, Geoff Keller, Linda Mccaulay, C.A. Marantz, Jan Ortiz, P.K. Stoddard, Krista Wilda, 1999. Geographic variation in black-capped chickadee songs and singing behavior. Auk 116(2):387-402

      A.D. McCallum, Ralph Grundel, D.L. Dahlstein, 1999. Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli). The birds of North America (AOU/ANSP) # 453:1-28

      Laura Kvist, 2000. Phylogeny and phylogeography of European parids. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oulu, 51pp

      E.C. Dickinson, Hiroyuki Morioka, Michael Walters, 2001. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 19. Type material from Japan in The Natural History Museum, Tring, U.K. Zoologische Verhandelingen 335(10):215-227

      Laura Kvist, Jochen Martens, Arttu Ahola, Markku Orell, 2001. Phylogeography of a Palaearctic sedentary passerine, the willow tit (Parus montanus). Jour. Evolutionary Biology 14(6):930-941

      Alison M. Mostrom, R.L. Cury, Bernard Lohr, 2002. Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis). The birds of North America (AOU/ANSP) # 636:1-28

      D.L. Dahlsten, L.A. Brennan, D.A. McAllum, Sandra L. Gaunt, 2002. Chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens). The birds of North America (AOU/ANSP) # 689:1-20

      Lindsay Marie Rossano, 2002. Vocal patterns of black-capped and Carolina chickadees hybridizing in southeastern Pennsylvania. M.Sci. thesis, Villanova University

      Walter Salzburger, Jochen Martens, A.A. Nazarenko, Yua-Hue Sun, Reinhard Dallinger, Christian Sturmbauer, 2002. Phylogeography of the Eurasian willow tit (Parus montanus) based on DNA sequences of the cytochrome-b gene. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 24(1):26-34

      Leena Uimaniemi, Markku Orell, Laura Kvist, Jukka Jokimaki, Jaakko Lumme, 2003. Genetic variation of the Siberan tit Parus cinctus populations at the regional level: a mitochondrial sequence analysis. Ecography 26(1):98-106

      F.B. Gill, Beth Slikas, F.H. Sheldon, 2005. Phylogeny of titmice (Paridae):20II. Species relationships based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Auk 122(1):121-143

      Noriyuki Yamaguchi, 2005. Cheek-patch coloration varies greatly within a subspecies of the varied tit Parus varius. Ibis 147(4):836-840

      Siegfried Eck, 2006. The Palaearctic titmouse species (Aves: Paridae: Parus sensu lato)--a current survey. Zootaxa # 1325:7-54

      Siegfried Eck & Jochen Martens, 2006. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 49. A preliminary review of the Aegithalidae, Remizidae, and Paridae. Zoologische Mededlingen 80(5):1-63

      E.C. Dickinson, V.M. Loskot, Hiroyuki Morioka, Soekarja Somadikarta, Renate van den Elzen, M.V. Kalyakin, Claire & Jean-Francois Voisin, 2006. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 50. Types of the Aegithalidae, Remizidae, and Paridae. Zoologische Mededlingen 80(5):65-111

      T.M. Freeberg, 2006. Social complexity can drive vocal complexity: group size influences vocal information in Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis). Psychological Science 17(7):557-561

      Alexandra Pavlova, Sievert Rohwer, S.V. Drovetski, R.M. Zink, 2006. Different post-Pleistocene histories of Eurasian parids. Jour. Heredity 97(4):389-402

      G.M. Siriwardena, 2006. Avian nest predation, competition, and the decline of British marsh tits Parus palustris. Ibis 148(2):255-265

      R.L. Curry, Lindsay M. Rossano, M.W. Reudink, 2007. Behavioral aspects of chickadee hybridization, pp. 95-110 in: K.A. Otter, ed., 2007. The ecology & b ehavior of chickadees & titmice: an integrated approach (Oxford University Press), 319pp

      Jeffrey R. Lucas & T.M. Freeberg, 2007. "Information" and the chick-a-dee call: communicating with a complex vocal system, pp. 199-213 in K.A. Otter 2007

      Martin Paeckert, Jochen Martens, D.T. Tietze, Christian Dietzen, Michael Wink, Laura Kvist, 2007. Calibration of a molecular clock in tits (Paridae)--do nucleotide substitution rates of mitochondrial genes deviate from the 2% rule? Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 44(1):1-14

      M.W. Reudink, S.G. Mech, S.P. Mullen, R.L. Curry, 2007. Structure and dynamics of the hybrid zone between black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina chickadee (P. carolinensis) in southeastern Pennsylvania. Auk 124(2):463-478

      T.M. Freeberg, 2008. Complexity in the chick-a-dee call of Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis): associations of context and signaler behavior to call structure. Auk 125(4):896-907

      T.M. Freeberg & Ellen M. Harvey, 2008. Group size and social interactions are associated with calling behavior in Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. Jour. Comparative Psychology 122(3):312-318

      J.J. Nocera, P.D. Taylor, L.M. Ratcliffe, 2008. Inspection of mob-calls as sources of predator information: response of migrant and resident birds in the Neotropics. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 62(11):1769-1777

      Ellen J. Mahurin & T.M. Freeberg, 2009. Chick-a-dee call variation in Carolin a chickadees and recruiting flockmates to food. Behavioral Ecology 20(1):111-115

      Panaves Gauthier & de Queiroz 2001
      Dinosauria Owen 1842
      Saurischia Seeley 1887
      Theropoda Marsh 1881
      Coelurosauria von Huene 1914
      Maniraptora Gauthier 1984
      Avifilopluma Gauthier & de Queiroz 2001
      Avialae Gauthier 1984
      Aves Linnaeus 1758 (Converted Clade Name)

      Neornithes Gadow 1893
      Neognathae Pycraft 1900
      Neoaves Sibley, Ahlquist, Monroe 1988

      Passeriformes Garrod 1874



      Paridae Vigors 1825

      Poecile Kaup 1829
      = Poecila [emendation] G.R. Gray 1848
      = Penthestes Reichenbach 1850 nomen nudum
      = Paecila [emendation] Bonaparte 1854
      = Poikilis [emendation] J.H. Blasius 1862
      = Poecilia [emendation] Taczanowski 1872/Schrank 1802
      = Paecilia [emendation] Dybowski 1883/Bloch-Schneider 1801
      = Sittiparus Selys-Longchamps 1884
      = Phaeopharus Madarasz 1900
      = Poeciloides Bianchi 1902

      Poecile lugubris (Temminck 1820)
      = Parus lugubris 'Natterer' Temminck 1820
      = Penthestes Reichenbach 1850 nomen nudum [plate caption]
      = Parus lugens C.L. Brehm 1855 nomen20dubium
      = Poecila melanocephala C.L. Brehm 1855 nomen dubium
      = Poecila lugubris persica Prazak 1895 nomen dubium
      = Parus lugubris dubius Hellmayr 1901 nomen dubium [new name for Poecile lugubris persica 1895, assuming Parus Linnaeus 1758 = Poecile Kaup 1829]
      = Parus lugubris anatoliae E. Hartert 1905 nomen dubium
      = Poecile lugubris hyrcanus Zarudny & Loudon 1905 nomen dubium
      = Parus lugubris splendens Gengler 1920 nomen dubium
      = Parus lugubris kirmanensis Koelz 1950 nomen dubium

      Poecile varius (Temminck & Schlegel 1848) nomen protectum
      = Parus varius Temminck & Schlegel 1848
      = Parus castaneoventris J. Gould 1862 nomen dubium
      = Sittiparus varius (Temminck & Schlegel 1848) Selys-Longchamps 1884
      = Parus sieboldi Seebohm 1890 nomen rejectum [new name for P. varius, mistakenly believing Parus varius 1848/Parus varius Bartram 1791]
      = Parus owstoni Ijima 1893 nomen dubium
      = Parus various namiyei Kuroda 1918 nomen dubium
      = Parus varius hakodatensis Momiyama 1918 nomen dubium
      = Parus varius sunsunpi Kuroda 1919 nomen dubium
      = Parus varius yakushimensis Kuroda 1919 nomen dubium
      = Parus varius utsurioensis Kuroda & Mori 1920 nomen dubium
      = Parus varius saisiuensis Kuroda & Mori 1920 nomen dubium
      3D Sittiparus varius ijimae Kuroda 1922 nomen dubium
      = Sittiparus varius amamii Kuroda 1922 nomen dubium
      = Sittiparus varius olivaceus Kuroda 1923 nomen dubium
      = Sittiparus varius orii Kuroda 1923 nomen dubium
      = Parus varius koreensis Kuroda & Mori 1924 nomen dubium
      = Parus rubidus masaakii Momiyama 1940 nomen dubium
      = Parus varius sataensis Kuroda 1953 nomen dubium

      Poecile superciliosa Przewalski 1876
      = Poeciloides superciliosa (Przewalski 1876) Bianchi 1902
      Poecile davidi Berezowski & Bianchi 1891

      Poecile montanus (Conrad von Baldenstein 1827)
      = Parus cinereus montanus Conrad von Baldenstein 1827
      = Parus salicarius C.L. Brehm 1828 nomen nudum
      = Parus salicarius C.L. Brehm 1831 nomen dubium
      = Parus borealis Selys-Longchamps 1843 nomen dubium
      = Poecila kamtschatkensis Bonaparte 1850 nomen dubium
      = Parus alpestris Bailly 1851 nomen dubium
      = Parus fruticeti Wallengreen 1854 nomen dubium
      = Parus assimilis C.L. Brehm 1855 nomen dubium
      = Parus accedens C.L. Brehm 1855 nomen dubium
      = Parus murinus C.L. Brehm 1855 nomen dubium
      = Parus baldensteinii De Salis 1861 nomen dubium
      = Poecile baicalensis Swinhoe 1871 nomen dubium
      = Parus palustris, subsp. japonicus Seebohm 1 879 nomen dubium/Parus japonicus Stephens 1817
      = Parus wiemuthi 'Dybowski' Stejneger 1885 nomen nudum
      = Poecilia palustris macroura Taczanowski 1891 nomen dubium
      = Parus montanus kleinschmidti Hellmayr 1900 nomen dubium
      = Parus borealis restrictus Hellmayr 1900 nomen dubium
      = Parus rhenanus O. Kleinschmidt 1900 nomen dubium
      = Poecile salicaris neglecta Zarudny & Haerms 1900 nomen dubium/Parus rufescens neglectus Ridgway 1879
      = Poecile salicaria bianchii Zarudy & Haerms 1900 nomen dubium [new name for P.s. neglecta 1900]
      = Parus atricapillus sachalinensis Loennberg 1808 nomen dubium
      = Poecile tunkanensis Madarasz 1909 nomen dubium
      = Poecile baicelensis suschkini Hachlov 1912 nomen dubium
      = Parus salicarius submontanus O. Kleinschmidt & Tschusi 1913 nomen dubium
      = Parus salicarius subrhenanus O. Kleinschmidt & Jordans 1916 nomen dubium
      = Parus salicarius natorpi O. Kleinschmidt 1917 nomen dubium
      = Parus borealis tischleri O. Kleinschmidt 1917 nomen dubium
      = Parus salicarius supermontanus O. Kleinschmidt 1921 nomen dubium
      = Parus salicarius transsylvanicus O. Kleinschmidt 1921 nomen dubium
      = Poecile atricapillus elenae Lowe 1921 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus relictus Troller 1922 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus alpinus Ghidini &=2 0von Burg 1924 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus festae von Burg 1925 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus jouardi von Burg 1925 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus arrigonii von Burg 1825 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus loennbergi Zedlitz 1925 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus rossicus Feduischin 1927 nomen dubium/Parus russicus C.L. Brehm 1855
      = Parus atricapillus changaicus Feduischin 1927 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus uralensis Grote 1927 nomen dubium [new name for P.a. rossicus 1927]
      = Parus atricapillus anadyrensis Belopolski 1932 nomen dubium
      = Parus salicarius styriacus O. Kleinschmidt 1937 nomen dubium
      = Parus salicarius schiebeli O. Kleinschmidt 1937 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus rhodopeus Harrison & Pateff 1937 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes montanus shulpini Portenko 1954 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus abei T. Mishima 1961 nomen dubium

      Poecile weigoldicus (O. Kleinschmidt 1921)
      = Parus salicarius weigoldi O. Kleinschmidt 1921 nomen oblitum
      = Parus weigoldicus O. Kleinschmidt 1921 [proposed for P.s. weigoldi on grounds on Parus cristatus weigoldi Tratz 1914]

      Poecile palustris (Linnaeus 1758)
      = Parus palustris Linnaeus 1758
      = Parus cinereus communis Conrad von Baldenstein 1827 nomen dubium
      = Poecile p alustris (Linnaeus 1758) Kaup 1829
      = Parus stagnatilis C.L. Brehm 1855 nomen dubium
      = Poecilia brevirostris Taczanowski 1872 nomen dubium
      = [?] Poecile brandtii Bogdanov 1879 nomen vanum
      = Poecilia palustris crassirostris Taczanowski 1885 nomen dubium
      = Parus communis jeholicus O. Kleinschmidt & Weigold 1885 nomen dubium
      = Parus palustris dresseri Stejneger 1886 nomen dubium
      = Parus hensoni Stejneger 1892 nomen dubium
      = Parus seebohmi Stejneger 1892 nomen dubium
      = Parus dresseri longirostris O. Kleinschmidt 1897 nomen dubium
      = Parus communis italicus Tschusi & Hellmayr 1900 nomen dubium
      = Phaeopharus palustris (Linnaeus 1758) Madarasz 1900
      = Parus communis tschusii Hellmayr 1901 nomen dubium
      = Poecile communis hellmayri Bianchi 1902 nomen dubium
      = Parus communis korejewi Zarudny & Haerms 1902 nomen dubium
      = Parus palustris balticus Reichenow 1916 nomen dubium
      = Parus palustris siculus von Burg 1925 nomen dubium
      = Poecile palustris orii Yamashina 1927 nomen dubium
      = Parus palustris congrevei Kinnear 1928 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes palustris kabardensis Buturlin 1929 nomen dubium
      = Parus palustris darti Jouard 1929 nomen dubium
      = Parus palustris ernsti Yamashina 1933 nomen dubium
      3D Parus palustris mizunoi Yamashina 1939 nomen dubium
      = Parus palustris altaicus Johansen 1952 nomen dubium

      Poecile hypermelaena Berezowski & Bianchi 1891
      = Parus dejeani Oustalet 1897 nomen dubium
      = Lophophanes poecilopsis Sharpe 1902 nomen dubium

      Poecile carolinensis (Audubon 1834)
      = Parus carolinensis Audubon 1834
      = Parus carolinensis agilis Sennett 1888 nomen dubium
      = Parus carolinensis impiger Bangs 1903 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes carolinensis extimus Todd & Sutton 1936 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes carolinensis guilloti Oberholser 1938 nomen dubium
      = Parus carolinensis atricapilloides Lunk 1952 nomen dubium

      Poecile cinctus (Boddaert 1783)
      = Parus cinctus Boddaert 1783
      = Parus sibiricus J.F. Gmelin 1788 nomen dubium
      = Parus lathami Stephens 1817 nomen dubium
      = Parus lapponicus Lundahl 1848 nomen dubium
      = Poecile sibirica vera 'Kaup' C.L. Brehm 1856 nomen dubium
      = Parus sibmicrorhynchus C.L. Brehm 1856 nomen dubium
      = Parus (Poecilia) obtectus Cabanis 1871 nomen dubium
      = Parus grisescens Sharpe & Dresser 1871 nomen dubium
      = Poecile affinis Prjvalsky 1876 nomen dubium
      = Poecile obecta [sic] Prazak 1895 nomen dubium
      = Poecile cincta alscensis Prazak 189 5 nomen dubium
      = Poecile cincta sayana Sushkin 1903 nomen dubium
      = Poecile kolymensis Buturlin 1908 nomen dubium

      Poecile rufescens (J.K. Townsend 1837)
      = Parus sitchensis Kittlitz 1836 nomen nudum
      = Parus rufescens J.K. Townsend 1837
      = Parus rufescens neglectus Ridgway 1879 nomen dubium
      = Parus rufescens barlowi Grinnell 1900 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes rufescens vivax Grinnell 1910 nomen dubium
      = Parus rufescens caliginosus Burleigh 1959 nomen dubium

      Poecile hudsonicus (J.R. Forster 1772)
      = Parus hudsonicus J.R. Forster 1772
      = Parus hudsonicus var. littoralis H. Bryant 1865 nomen dubium
      = Parus hudsonicus evura Coues 1884 nomen dubium
      = Parus stoneyi Ridgway 1887 nomen dubium
      = Parus hudsonicus columbianus Rhoads 1893 nomen dubium
      = Parus hudsonicus ungava Rhoads 1893 nomen dubium
      = Parus hudsonicus cascadensis A.H. Miller 1943 nomen dubium
      = Para [sic] hudsonicus rabbittsi Burleigh & Peters 1948 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes hudsonicus labradorius Todd 1950 nomen dubium
      = Parus hudsonicus farleyi Godfrey 1951 nomen dubium

      Poecile sclateri (O. Kleinschmidt 1897)
      = Parus meridionalis P.L. Sclater 1857/Lilljeborg 1852
      = Parus sclateri O. Kleinschmidt 1897 [new name for P. meridionalis 1857]
      = Penthestes sclateri eidos J.L. Peters 1927 nomen dubium
      = Parus sclateri rayi Miller & Storer 1950 nomen dubium
      = Parus sclateri garzai A.R. Phillips 1986 nomen dubium

      Poecile atricapillus (Linnaeus 1766)
      = Parus atricapillus Linnaeus 1766
      = Parus septentrionalis Harris 1846 nomen dubium
      = Parus melanocephalus C.L. Brehm 1855 nomen dubium
      = Parus albescens S.F. Baird 1858 nomen nudum
      = Parus occidentalis S.F. Baird 1858 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus turneri Ridgway 1884 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes atricapillus fortuitus Dawson & Bowles 1909 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes atricapillus practicus Oberholser 1937 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes atricapillus nevadensis Linsdale 1938 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes atricapillus anamesus Todd 1938 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes atricapillus bartletti Aldrich & Nutt 1939 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes atricapillus aldrichi Braund & McCullagh 1940 nomen dubium
      = Parus atricapillus garrinus Behle 1951 nomen dubium

      Poecile gambeli (Ridgway 1886)
      = Parus montanus Gambel 1843/Conrad von Baldenstein 1827
      = Parus gambeli Ridgway 1886 [new name for P. montanus 1843]
      = Parus gambeli thayeri Birtwell 1901 nomen dubium
      = Parus gambeli baileyae Grinnell 1908 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes gambeli inyoensis Grinnell 1918 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes gambeli abbreviatus Grinnell 1918 nomen dubium
      = Penthestes gambeli grinnelli van Rossem 1928 nomen dubium
      = Parus gambeli wasatchensis Behle 1950 nomen dubium

      STEPHAN PICKERING / Chofetz Chayim ben-Avraham


      2333 Portola Drive # 4
      Santa Cruz, California 95062-4250
      stephanpickering@ redshift. com

      website: http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/paleo_ bio_dinosaur_ ontology 

      IN PROGRESS: Mutanda Dinosaurologica: in memory of Samuel Paul Welles (9 November 1909--6 August 1997)

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      IN PROGR ESS: Alfred Russel Wallace's KING KONG: the semioptics of Willis O'Brien



      One concept c orrupts and confuses the others. I am not speaking of the Evil whose limited sphere is ethics; I am speaking of the infinite. -- J.L. Borges

      You never know what's comin' for you. Queenie in Eric Roth's The curious case of Benjamin Button

      And suddenly, with the terrible clarity of a man too long deceived, Leamas underst ood the whole ghastly trick. -- John Le Carre, The spy who came in from the cold

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