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Re: Effects of Poverty on Cognitive Function: Hidden Neurologic Epi

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  • Alan
    ... So ... Stress, by way of cortisol, causes literal brain shrinkage (atrophy) and performance deficits; see the list of references here (near bottom of the
    Message 1 of 28 , Aug 31 9:48 PM
      --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "Donald W. Zimmerman"
      <dwzimm@...> wrote:
      >
      > --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, Edgar Owen
      <edgarowen@> wrote:
      >
      > > I was watching a program on NatGeo last night on Pig Genius where
      > > experiments on stressed piglets (too early weaning in this case)
      > > produced large learning deficits, increased aggression and fear.
      So
      > > various childhood stressors could well produce some IQ deficits in
      > > the poor.
      >
      >
      > Edgar and Alan,
      >
      > Yes, I can see several ways in which stress, directly or
      > indirectly, can impact IQ test performance. First, it could
      > alter metabolism and interfere with neural function directly.
      > Second, a child in a stressful home environment would have
      > less opportunity for acquiring basic intellectual skills,
      > including reading, writing, and arithmetic, and perhaps
      > other still more basic skills, the lack of which would
      > eventually impair performance in many things. Third,
      > stressful conditions, poverty, poor diet, lack of emotional
      > support, and many other things tend to go together. A child
      > under stress in poor living conditions will be more likely
      > to encounter toxins and disease, to be exposed to traumatic
      > injury, etc., so a correlation will be found between stress
      > and IQ due to such intermediate factors.

      Stress, by way of cortisol, causes literal brain shrinkage
      (atrophy) and performance deficits; see the list of
      references here (near bottom of the post):
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/evolutionary-psychology/message/65502
      also:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/evolutionary-psychology/message/65504

      Alan
    • Alan
      ... wrote: [snip] ... There s a very interesting history behind all this, weaving into one cloth racial bigotry, white supremacy, anti- immigrationism and
      Message 2 of 28 , Sep 2, 2008
        --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "Alan" <aelewis@...>
        wrote:

        [snip]

        > In contrast, the "race realists" have an agenda to prove that
        > blacks and browns are inferior to whites, and to apologize for
        > historic crimes against blacks and browns, and to make middle-
        > class and rich whites feel OK about supporting systems that
        > continue to perpetuate crimes. Hence they never mention the
        > causes of the problem or the massive documentation pertaining
        > to same. (With minor exceptions. Lynn does mention it but
        > greatly underestimates it. Sailer also mentions it, lightly,
        > placing it in a context of a false accusation about "political
        > correctness" getting in the way of remedial efforts.
        > Completely untrue.) Their whole thing is: "It's genetic!"
        >
        > It goes something like this: "Listen, the blacks and browns
        > are *genetically* doomed to low I.Q.s forever. Nothing we
        > can do. It is a sad, sad reality that we've got to bravely
        > face, unlike those deluded Marxist egalitarian ratfinks. And,
        > you know, it explains all the underdevelopment and chaos
        > in the third world, both now and in the past. They're just
        > too damn dumb -- relative to us Euros -- to pull themselves
        > up out of poverty. And, oh yes, also relative to the high-IQ
        > NE Asians. (See? We're not racists. How could we be racists
        > if we think that the NE Asians are smart, too?)"

        There's a very interesting history behind all this, weaving
        into one cloth racial bigotry, white supremacy, anti-
        immigrationism and nativism, Nazi eugenics and death cultism,
        right-wing extremism, fanatical anti-communism and
        McCarthyism, Nazi/fascist sympathy, anti-unionism, anti-
        civil-rights, jingoistic pro-militarism, and so forth, back
        nearly a century. It is not surprising that they would all
        be related -- all rooted deeply as they are in the reptilian,
        the pre-rational (primitive) -- but it is fascinating to
        see the details as to HOW they all connect, in actual
        historic fact.

        A bit of it was touched-on here, in Garland Allen's
        illuminating article on hereditarian ideas about
        criminality:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/evolutionary-psychology/message/74396

        One living link to the past in all this is the still-operating
        Pioneer Fund, which has financed William Shockley (now-deceased
        hereditarian racist), Arthur Jensen, Phil Rushton, Dick
        Herrnstein (of Murray & Herrnstein - "Bell Curve" - fame),
        and many others. Pioneer was founded by a guy nameed Draper,
        a truly weird right-wing nutball (by any standard!). Pioneer's
        fundamental mission appears to be to keep alive the spirit of
        the eugenics movement of the 1920s-1930s, including its
        ultimate expression in the Nazi eugenics programs.

        Here's a NY Times article about Pioneer, with a few
        editorial comments attached, fore and aft:

        --------------------------

        "Wickliffe Preston Draper, the founder of The Pioneer Fund, is
        the epitome of an American Hitler in the guise of a
        philanthropic and well educated millionaire. His family owned
        Draper Corporation, in Hopedale, MA and both North and South
        Carolina and he was a staunch anti-Union activist from the
        early days of Sacco and Vanzetti Trial in Dedham, MA only 30
        miles from his hometown of Hopedale, MA in the heart of the
        Blackstone Valley which was the home of the Industrial
        Revolution. He was also among the most ardent and vehement
        racists and anti-civil rights advocates in the history of this
        cause from as early as the 1930's and perhaps earlier. His
        hatred of the United Nations, liberals, and his dislike for
        anyone who participated in the Nye Committees of the 1930's
        which attempted to punish so-called "war profiteering" by the
        DuPonts, led to Draper's deliberate persecution of Alger T.
        Hiss between 1948 and 1951 with the assistance of his cohort
        in racism, eugenics and white supremacy, Nathaniel Weyl, who
        is still alive today."

        "Draper's fascist-inspired vitriolic hatred of Communism and
        anything liberal led to his support of McCarthyism and the
        activities of HUAC, the House Un-American Activities Committee
        for over a decade. In the spirit of Dr. Josef Goebbels, he
        and his close associate at The Pioneer Fund, Dr. Harry H.
        Laughlin, actually created and then championed the
        "involuntary sterilization movement in America" the so-called
        "Buck vs. Bell" Supreme Court case which was favorably
        reviewed by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. It led directly to
        the involuntary sterilization of over 75,000 human beings
        between 1924 and 1972 in the approximately 24 states which
        passed similar laws at the behest and encouragement of The
        Pioneer Fund. Sound familiar? But the first major achievement
        of his work and that of Herr Laughlin, was when Hitler and
        Goebbels invited Laughlin to receive an honorary degree for
        his work in passing "The Model Eugenics Laws in America".
        Hitler used the Draper-inspired American Eugenics Model to
        pass the law which will go down in infamy as the Nuremberg
        Laws: "On the Prevention of Hereditarily Ill Progeny" -- the
        so-called Holocaust Laws."

        -----------------------------------------------------------

        Date: Wed, 15 Mar 1995 05:11:55 -0500 (EST)
        From: ODIN <odin@...>
        Subject: The PIONEER FUND as PROMULGATORS of FASCISM
        Message-ID: <Pine.SUN.3.91.950315050741.20196E-
        100000@...>
        From: pioneer@...

        Editor's hyperbolic diatribe:

        The Pioneer Fund was the primary financial sponsor of
        Proposition 187 on the California ballot. They have an
        extended legacy of sponsoring similar legislation over the
        past 57 years of their existence. The agenda that they are
        attempting to advance is one of fascism, repression and
        racism. Linkage of their past goals and ideals to their
        present visions for the future of America can go a long way
        toward stopping them in their tracks.

        Note: The comments contained in braces [ ] are those of the
        editor. Some typographical errors in the original article
        have been corrected for ease of comprehension.

        ..........

        THE NEW YORK TIMES -

        Sunday, December 11, 1977

        Fund Backs Controversial Study of "Racial Betterment"

        by Grace Lichtenstein

        A private trust fund based in New York has for more than 20
        years supported highly controversial research by a dozen
        scientists who believe that blacks are genetically less
        intelligent than whites.

        The Pioneer Fund, a tax-exempt foundation incorporated in 1937
        for the express purpose of research into "racial betterment,"
        was worth more than $2 million, according to its 1975 Internal
        Revenue Service return. Yet several officers of the leading
        geneticists professional organization say they never heard of
        it. A month-long study of the Pioneer Fund's activities by
        The New York Times shows it has given at least $179,000 over
        the last 10 years to Dr. William B. Shockley, a leading
        proponent of the theory that whites are inherently more
        intelligent than blacks. The money was paid through Stanford
        University, where professor Shockley was a Nobel Prize-winning
        professor of engineering science, as well as through his own
        personal foundation - a customary method of foundation
        disbursement.

        Another major beneficiary is Dr. Arthur R. Jensen, an
        educational psychologist at the University of California,
        whose article in 1969 theorizing that intelligence was
        hereditary touched off a furor over the value of compensatory
        education for disadvantaged black students.

        Some Others Who Got Grants

        Dr. Travis Osborn of the University of Georgia, Dr. Frank C.
        J. McGurk and Dr. Audrey Shuey are other well-known
        researchers in the same area who got Pioneer grants.

        Two researchers known to few specialists in the genetics
        field, Dr. Roger Pearson and Dr. Ralph Scott, also got
        substantial grants, which they declined to discuss. Neither
        man is a geneticist.

        Theories of racial inferiority pursued by Pioneer's staff of
        researchers have been widely discredited in recent years.
        Some data developed by Cyril Burt, a British scientist, which
        had underpinned the theory, are now alleged by leading
        geneticists to be without scientific value.

        In addition, at least one major association of professional
        geneticists has publicly decried the use of what it regards as
        questionable material on heredity and race to buttress
        political positions.

        However, Burke Judd, former secretary of the Genetics Society
        of America, and Hope Punnett, secretary of the American
        Society of Human Genetics, said that in principle they were in
        favor of any legitimate genetics research, even when it
        encompasses what some feel is an extreme point of view.

        "If you really believe in open research you've got to let
        these people do their 'research' and then let the rest of us
        question it," said Dr. Punnett. She said she did not take
        either Dr. Jensen or Dr. Shockley "too seriously" because she
        did not think they had developed good scientific information
        to support their theories.

        Some Are Embarrassed

        Other colleges that have accepted Pioneer grants for "eugenics
        and heredity" include the University of California at
        Berkeley, University of Georgia, University of Southern
        Mississippi, Randolph-Macon College, Montana College of
        Mineral Science and Technology and the University of Northern
        Iowa. High officials of the last two schools said they now
        were embarrassed by the grants. They asked to remain
        anonymous, on the ground that criticism by them would suggest
        interference with academic freedom.

        It is not known whether Pioneer financed research in fields
        other than heredity and eugenics.

        Spokesmen at all the schools who knew about the grants said
        they did not know the Pioneer Fun had been chartered for
        research into "racial betterment." Nor did those scientists
        who The Times was able to reach who would answer questions.

        A spokesman for the University of California at Berkeley said
        its records showed no Pioneer Fund grants to Dr. Jensen,
        although it did accept a Pioneer grant for a political science
        professor. Dr. Jensen confirmed that some of his grants came
        through the university.

        In each case the university, or another foundation, was named
        as recipient of the grants, although the actual work was done
        by a specific professor in residence. This is common practice
        in grant-giving everywhere.

        However, in at least one school, Northern Iowa, the professor,
        Dr. Ralph Scott, used some of the money not only for research
        but for anti-busing, anti-school integration seminars in such
        off-campus places as Louisville, (KY) and Boston (MA),
        according to the school's grants administrator.

        Question of Tax Exemption

        "This might put the fund's tax-exempt status in jeopardy," an
        Internal Revenue Service spokesman said when asked about
        general rules applying to funds such as Pioneer.

        Under Federal law, such funds remain tax-exempt as long as "no
        substantial part of the activity" is "carrying on propaganda
        or otherwise attempting to influence legislation."

        "You're in a very sticky area," the I.R.S. spokesman replied
        when asked about the definition of propaganda. Pioneer Fund
        is currently in a tax-exempt category applying to groups
        exclusively charitable, religious, testing and educational.
        Although it has been a major "banker" in the financing of
        research on race and genetics, Pioneer's chief executive will
        not talk to reporters. Nor will some of the scientists who
        take its money acknowledge their connection with Pioneer. The
        president of Pioneer Fund is Harry F. Weyher [pronounced like
        "wire"], a lawyer whose office at 299 Park Avenue also is the
        fund's office. Questioned by telephone about Pioneer, Mr.
        Weyher said, "It's a client." Then he added, "I'm not going
        to talk to you any more," and hung up.

        Mr. Weyher, several directors and the fund's founder have had
        long-standing connections with conservative causes or
        political candidates, although no one has suggested that the
        conservatives in question shared their interest in eugenics
        and heredity research.

        The founder, Wickliffe [Preston] Draper, a 1913 graduate of
        Harvard who died in 1972, was the reclusive heir to a
        Massachusetts textile-machinery fortune, according to
        published accounts.

        Two Committees Supported

        In the 1950's and 1960's Mr. Draper supported two now-defunct
        committees that gave grants for genetics research. Mr. Weyher
        was his lawyer. The committee members included Representative
        Francis E. Walter, chairman of the House Un-American
        Activities Committee [HUAC]; Henry E. Garrett, an educator
        known for his belief in the genetic inferiority of blacks, and
        Senator James O. Eastland of Mississippi.

        When it was disclosed in 1960 that Richard Arens, staff
        director for the Un-American Activities Committee, was also a
        paid consultant to the Draper-financed committees, Mr. Arens
        was forced to leave his Congressional job.

        In 1960 published reports quoted some leading American
        geneticists as saying they had turned down requests from Mr.
        Draper to do research into theories of racial inferiority
        among blacks.

        Mr. Weyher, in a newspaper interview at the time, said Mr.
        Draper had already sponsored a book on restricting immigration
        and another on the intelligence of blacks by Dr. Shuey, a
        retired professor at Randolph-Macon Woman's College.

        Mr. Draper also gave money to right wing political candidates,
        including the late Representative Donald Bruce [Republican] of
        Indiana, and the late Representative Walter, as well as to
        conservative lobbying organizations such as the American
        Coalition of Patriotic Societies.

        When Mr. Draper died his estate turned over $1.4 million to
        the Pioneer Fund. Among two men listed as directors of
        Pioneer in 1975, the most recent year for which Internal
        Revenue Service records are available, is John B. Trevor,
        [Jr.] of New York, [whose father was] a founder of the
        American Coalition of Patriotic Societies, adviser to Billy
        James Hargis' Christian Crusade and author of an article on
        South Africa that appeared in The Citizen, the publication of
        the White Citizens' Councils.

        Testifying against more liberal immigration laws in 1965, Mr.
        Trevor warned against "a conglomeration of racial and ethnic
        elements" that he said led to "a serious culture decline."

        The other Pioneer director [in 1975] is Thomas F. Ellis of
        Raleigh, N.C., manager of [Senator] Jesse Helm's 1972 campaign
        for Senator and an important backer of Ronald Reagan's 1976
        Presidential campaign.

        Pioneer-sponsored research in eugenics, a movement devoted to
        improving the human species through control of hereditary
        factors in mating, and dysgenics the study of trends in
        population leading to the deterioration of hereditary, is a
        subject of much dispute in the genetics field.

        An 'Inescapable Opinion'

        Dr. Shockley, co-inventor of the transistor, has for years
        been collecting material on eugenics and dysgenics research.
        He said in a telephone interview a few days ago from his home
        in Palo Alto, California, that he had reached "the inescapable
        opinion that a major cause of American Negroes' intellectual
        and social deficits is hereditary and racially genetic in
        origin." This, he continued, "is not remediable to a major
        degree by practical improvements in environment," such as
        better schools, jobs or living conditions. He said he was
        "very grateful" for Pioneer's grants. A spokesman for
        Stanford said that $179,000 over 10 years to Dr. Shockley from
        Pioneer sounded correct, although the school did not have an
        exact dollar figure.

        The views of Dr. Shockley and Dr. Jensen and their supporters,
        have come under attack recently from, among other sources, the
        Genetics Society of America, a leading professional
        organization. In July 1976 it published a statement of its
        committee on genetics, race and intelligence that was endorsed
        by nearly 1,400 members. "In our views there is no convincing
        evidence as to whether there is or is not an appreciable
        genetic difference in intelligence between races," it said.
        "Well designed research... may yield valid and socially useful
        results and should not be discouraged. We feel that
        geneticists can and must also speak out against the misuse of
        genetics for political purposes and the drawing of social
        conclusions from inadequate data."

        Genetics and Busing

        When informed about Dr. Scott's activities on busing at
        Northern Iowa, Professor Judd said it sounded contrary to
        normal academic practices for an educational, tax-exempt
        foundation to finance genetics research linked to the
        school-busing controversy. "But I don't have enough
        information," he added.

        According to Northern Iowa officials, Dr. Scott is studying
        "forced busing and its relationship to genetic aspects of
        educability." In this context he sent a graduate student to
        Mississippi and held seminars on busing, according to sources
        at the university. Dr. Scott, a professor of education,
        refused to comment on his research and to say whether its
        results had been published anywhere.

        Roger Pearson, a British-educated economist who has been the
        beneficiary of two Pioneer grants for work while he was dean
        at Montana Tech, also refused to talk about his research.

        Such nonresponses are unusual in the field of academic
        research openly sponsored by tax-exempt foundations.
        Standford, for example, has a policy stating that "findings
        and conclusions" of research supported by outside grants
        "should be available for scrutiny and criticism.

        Dr. Pearson, who served for the 1974-1975 academic year as
        dean at Montana Tech before leaving by mutual consent in a
        disagreement over educational goals, got $60,000 from Pioneer
        while he was there. Montana Tech officials said they had no
        idea that he apparently was the same man who some years ago
        edited Western Destiny, a journal with many pro-South Africa,
        anti-Communist and anti-racial mixing articles and who wrote a
        number of pamphlets for the conservative-oriented Noontide
        Press such as "Eugenics and Race" and "Early Civilizations of
        the Nordic Race."

        end of NYTimes article

        ..............

        How many goals of Hitler's Third Reich are mentioned in this
        article?

        1. Anti-immigration legislation, sentiments and testimony
        2. Anti-civil rights legislation, sentiments and activities
        3. Anti-minority pseudo scientific research into racial
        inferiority
        4. Anti-communist and anti-liberal agendas of the radical right
        5. Attempts at genetic manipulation by pseudo science towards
        a Master Race
        6. Use of "internal security" at HUAC as a direct smokescreen
        for racism
        7. Supporting the most anti-union Senator who ever lived in
        Jesse Helms
        8. Using the veneer of "academic respectability" and
        "science" for racism

        Wickliffe Preston Draper, the founder of The Pioneer Fund, is
        the epitome of an American Hitler in the guise of a
        philanthropic and well educated millionaire. His family owned
        Draper Corporation, in Hopedale, MA and both North and South
        Carolina and he was a staunch anti-Union activist from the
        early days of Sacco and Vanzetti Trial in Dedham, MA only 30
        miles from his hometown of Hopedale, MA in the heart of the
        Blackstone Valley which was the home of the Industrial
        Revolution. He was also among the most ardent and vehement
        racists and anti-civil rights advocates in the history of this
        cause from as early as the 1930's and perhaps earlier. His
        hatred of the United Nations, liberals, and his dislike for
        anyone who participated in the Nye Committees of the 1930's
        which attempted to punish so-called "war profiteering" by the
        DuPonts, led to Draper's deliberate persecution of Alger T.
        Hiss between 1948 and 1951 with the assistance of his cohort
        in racism, eugenics and white supremacy, Nathaniel Weyl, who
        is still alive today.

        Draper's vitriolic hatred for President John F. Kennedy was
        epitomized by his direct financial sponsorship of several
        publications that led the character assassination attacks on
        him during the 1950's when he was a Senator from
        Massachusetts. These included Human Events, Right magazine,
        Noontide Press, The American Mercury and comparable rightist
        publications ostensibly owned and operated by The Liberty
        Lobby or affiliates, the foremost racist, proto-fascist and
        anti-Semitic organization that has ever existed in a
        Democracy. Only a Democracy could be brought to its knees by
        the sinister forces of fascism, operating under the protection
        of the First Amendment to the Constitution. This is a very
        sad commentary on our times and on the foibles of our once
        magnificent system of egalitarian democracy.

        The Draper attacks and assaults on President Kennedy
        intensified even more during the 1960's when he was President
        and culminated in the final character assassination in Dallas,
        Texas on November 22, 1963.

        The Draper family, in 1967 became the largest shareholder in
        Rockwell-Standard, which later became Rockwell International,
        one of the two largest defense contractors in the entire
        universe along with the Lockheed Corp. of Marietta, GA which
        is championed by Rep. Newt Gingrich (R-GA). Rockwell bought
        out the failing Draper Corporation, a manufacturer of textile
        loom machinery and equipment just before the acceleration of
        military activity in Vietnam and shortly before the Draper
        Corporation was liquidated by Rockwell as a bankrupt concern
        in the late 1970's. Rockets, missiles and warplanes are
        apparently a much easier place to make money than in the arena
        of textile loom equipment and textile machinery. Neither
        Kennedy's opposition to the Cost Plus Fixed Fee method of
        compensating defense contractors nor the CIA's opposition to
        the National Intelligence Estimates of March 22, 1963 called
        NIE 11-4-63 stood in the way of the plans for the future of
        this country as defined and designed by those in the
        Draper-Rockwell coalition which reached its culmination during
        their merger.

        Draper's fascist-inspired vitriolic hatred of Communism and
        anything liberal led to his support of McCarthyism and the
        activities of HUAC, the House Un-American Activities Committee
        for over a decade. In the spirit of Dr. Josef Goebbels, he
        and his close associate at The Pioneer Fund, Dr. Harry H.
        Laughlin, actually created and then championed the
        "involuntary sterilization movement in America" the so-called
        "Buck vs. Bell" Supreme Court case which was favorably
        reviewed by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. It led directly to
        the involuntary sterilization of over 75,000 human beings
        between 1924 and 1972 in the approximately 24 states which
        passed similar laws at the behest and encouragement of The
        Pioneer Fund. Sound familiar? But the first major achievement
        of his work and that of Herr Laughlin, was when Hitler and
        Goebbels invited Laughlin to receive an honorary degree for
        his work in passing "The Model Eugenics Laws in America".
        Hitler used the Draper-inspired American Eugenics Model to
        pass the law which will go down in infamy as the Nuremberg
        Laws: "On the Prevention of Hereditarily Ill Progeny" -- the
        so-called Holocaust Laws. Are you beginning to get the picture
        here? Are you willing to put your actions and money where
        your realistic concerns are?

        The last time that Immigration laws were severely tightened
        was the 1924 Immigration Act which was accomplished, in my
        opinion, in direct anticipation of the coming unrest in Europe
        during the 1930's and 1940's. These laws kept may legitimate
        refugees, all targeted for elimination by the Third Reich,
        from ever reaching a safe haven in the United States. The
        precisely identical intentions are at work today with this
        renewed emphasis on "Proposition 187", which is intended to
        become "The Model Anti-Immigration Legislation in America" and
        for the rest of the world. When a Rwanda or Zaire-style
        deliberately initiated crisis occurs in Bosnia-Herzegovina or
        elsewhere in the world, the intention of the sponsors of
        "Proposition 187" is to prevent those refugees targeted for
        "ethnic extinction" from ever reaching a safe haven in
        American or anywhere else in the free world for that matter.
        This is a very real and serious concern and every American who
        recognizes the true intentions of Proposition 187 should
        oppose it with their last breath and their last ounce of
        strength before it is too late.

        Critiques and comments are solicited to our email address:
        pioneer@...

        Additional research assistance from anyone with experience in
        either manual or computer assisted research techniques is
        desperately needed as well. It would involve primarily
        digging into old newspaper archives which have been put on
        microfilm like the NY Times and The Washington Post as well as
        research into other manuscripts and generally available
        published literature in most major university or large city
        public libraries.
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