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Re: [evol-psych] Evolution of paternal behaviours in apes

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  • lynnoc@aol.com
    There are primatologists on this listserv who I think can answer this question, however I believe that I recently read (though I do not remember where, chances
    Message 1 of 4 , Oct 29, 2005
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      There are primatologists on this listserv who I think can answer this question, however I believe that I recently read (though I do not remember where, chances are it was here on this listserv) that male baboons will help their adolescent (or adult ?) sons who get in a fight with other males much more than they come to the aid of those who are not their own sons. I may have the details wrong here, as I said, there are primatologists on the listserv who I hope will provide a more scholarly answer. (Frans, what's the story here?)

      Lynn



      Lynn E. O'Connor, Ph.D.
      Professor
      Emotion, Personality & Altruism Research Group, URL: www.eparg.org
      The Wright Institute
      2728 Durant Avenue
      Berkeley CA 94704
      Phone: (415) 821-4760
      Phone: (510) 841-9230, ext 127
      E-mail: LynnOC@...



      CAUTION: electronic mail sent through the internet is not secure and could be intercepted by a third party. For your protection, avoid sending identifying information. Thistransmission and any attachments are intended only for the use of the individual to which it is addressed and may contain information that is confidential. If you have received this transmission in error, please notify me immediately.
    • Elaine Morgan
      ... From: Jean-Fran├žois Turmel To: Sent: Thursday, October 27, 2005 6:26 PM Subject:
      Message 2 of 4 , Oct 29, 2005
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        ----- Original Message -----
        From: "Jean-Fran├žois Turmel" <jfturmel22@...>
        To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
        Sent: Thursday, October 27, 2005 6:26 PM
        Subject: [evol-psych] Evolution of paternal behaviours in apes


        >I am interested in the evolution of paternal behaviours in species of apes.

        Paternal behaviour is much stronger in some of the smaller primates
        e.g.marmosets, tamarins, titi, and
        spider monkey. Here are some of the points made in an article of mine
        published in New Scientist in August.

        ..there are relevant characteristics of these small monkeys which we share ,
        while other apes do not.
        One thing we have in common with them is that giving birth is a hazardous
        and laborious process, with
        high rates of perinatal mortality for both mother and child...There is also
        the question of infant dependency
        and in particular transport. A combination of bipedalism and loss of body
        hair made it harder for early hominids
        to carry their young wherever they went, especially as their infants evolved
        to become heavier and dependent for a much longer period than those of the
        apes. The corresponding problem for marmosets is that they generally bear
        twins
        which similarly limits their freedom to forage..In these species fathers
        play their part in a system known as "co-operative parenting."

        At first it was reported that the female handed the babies to the father
        when she needed to go off to find food.
        Later it was observed that the helpers were often female, possibly female
        kin. Finally it appeared that the mother after suckling them would in effect
        hand over her young to the nearest bystander. Among humans the same system
        was found to operate among a small number of hunting /gathering tribes such
        as the Efe and the Aka, whose life-style is comparable with that attributed
        to our distant ancestors. Asked who looks after the babies, they reply "We
        all do." Sarah B. Hrdy, author of "Mother Nature", believes that this
        practice evolves whenever , for whatever reason, mothers are unable to cope
        alone.

        Two decades ago it was first discovered that marmoset males respond
        hormonally to their paternal role.In the company of a pregnant female the
        level of the hormone prolactin begins to rise and continues to rise until
        the time of birth; immediately after the birth their level of testosterone
        drops suddenly and markedly. In Canada in 2000 a team of researchers proved
        that
        in men co-habiting with pregnant women their secretion of prolactin rose
        in the same way, increasing on average 20 per cent in the three weeks before
        delivery. At the time of birth their testosterone levels dropped by up to
        33%. Is this straightforward kin selection? Apparently not. The paper
        recorded that it made "surprisingly little difference" whether or not the
        cohabiting male was the father or knew that he was not. It looks exactly
        like Hrdy's co-operative parenting and the life style of the Efe and the
        Aka. Nothing unnatural, then about the emergence if the new man. His
        fitness for the role was always there on the back burner, ready to be
        triggered when the need arose. Families with two breadwinners may well be
        providing the trigger.

        Elaine Morgan
      • Jay R. Feierman
        Although the references are now old, see D.M. Taub s Primate Paternalism. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. David Traub also wrote a long chapter (with 11
        Message 3 of 4 , Oct 29, 2005
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          Although the references are now old, see D.M. Taub's Primate Paternalism. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. David Traub also wrote a long chapter (with 11 pages of references), "The Functions of Primate Paternalism: A Cross-Species Review," pp. 338 - 377, in the Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions book I edited in 1990.
           
          Regards,
          Jay R. Feierman
          ----- Original Message -----
          Sent: Saturday, October 29, 2005 11:30 AM
          Subject: Re: [evol-psych] Evolution of paternal behaviours in apes

          There are primatologists on this listserv who I think can answer this question, however I believe that I recently read (though I do not remember where, chances are it was here on this listserv) that male baboons will help their adolescent (or adult ?) sons who get in a fight with other males much more than they come to the aid of those who are not their own sons. I may have the details wrong here, as I said, there are primatologists on the listserv who I hope will provide a more scholarly answer. (Frans, what's the story here?)

          Lynn



          Lynn E. O'Connor, Ph.D.
          Professor
          Emotion, Personality & Altruism Research Group, URL: www.eparg.org
          The Wright Institute
          2728 Durant Avenue
          Berkeley CA 94704
          Phone: (415) 821-4760
          Phone: (510) 841-9230, ext 127
          E-mail: LynnOC@...



          CAUTION: electronic mail sent through the internet is not secure and could be intercepted by a third party. For your protection, avoid sending identifying information. Thistransmission and any attachments are intended only for the use of the individual to which it is addressed and may contain information that is confidential. If you have received this transmission in error, please notify me immediately.
        • Harold Gouzoules
          Not Frans, nor have I stayed in a Holiday Inn Express lately -- but Frans does have an office down the hall from me -- and I do study nonhuman primates. The
          Message 4 of 4 , Oct 29, 2005
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            Not Frans, nor have I stayed in a Holiday Inn Express lately -- but Frans does have an office down the hall from me -- and I do study nonhuman primates.

            The study appeared in NATURE (Buchan, J.C., Alberts, S.C., Silk, J.C. & Altmann, J. True paternal care in a multi-male primate society. Nature, 425, 179, 2003) and concludes that when male savannah baboons (Papio cynocephalus) intervene in fights between juveniles, they favor offspring over nonkin. The authors contend that because "support in agonistic disputes is likely to contribute to rank acquisition and protect juveniles from injury and stress, this can be considered true parental care."  I don't think there is good evidence that fights among such young monkeys are of any real consequence to the participants (no serious injury  -- many occur during play bouts) and intervention itself is not costly in any clear way to the males.

            Harold

            -- 
            ________________________________
            Harold Gouzoules
            Department of Psychology
            Emory University
            Atlanta, GA. 30322
            
            tel:    404-727-7444
            fax:    404-727-0372
            email:  psyhg@...


            lynnoc@... wrote:
            There are primatologists on this listserv who I think can answer this question, however I believe that I recently read (though I do not remember where, chances are it was here on this listserv) that male baboons will help their adolescent (or adult ?) sons who get in a fight with other males much more than they come to the aid of those who are not their own sons. I may have the details wrong here, as I said, there are primatologists on the listserv who I hope will provide a more scholarly answer. (Frans, what's the story here?)

            Lynn



            Lynn E. O'Connor, Ph.D.
            Professor
            Emotion, Personality & Altruism Research Group, URL: www.eparg.org
            The Wright Institute
            2728 Durant Avenue
            Berkeley CA 94704
            Phone: (415) 821-4760
            Phone: (510) 841-9230, ext 127
            E-mail: LynnOC@...



            CAUTION: electronic mail sent through the internet is not secure and could be intercepted by a third party. For your protection, avoid sending identifying information. Thistransmission and any attachments are intended only for the use of the individual to which it is addressed and may contain information that is confidential. If you have received this transmission in error, please notify me immediately.

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