Article: EFFECTS OF SOCIAL TRAUMA IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS
- PHYSIOLOGY: EFFECTS OF SOCIAL TRAUMA IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS
The following points are made by G. A. Bradshaw et al (Nature 2005 433:807):
1) Psychobiological trauma in humans is increasingly encountered as a legacy of war and socio-ecological disruptions. Trauma affects society directly through an individual's experience, and indirectly through social transmission and the collapse of traditional social structures. Long-term studies show that although many individuals survive, they may face a lifelong struggle with depression, suicide, or behavioral dysfunctions. In addition, their children and families can exhibit similar symptoms, including domestic violence. Trauma can define a culture.
2) How posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) manifests has long been a puzzle, but researchers today have a better idea as to why the effects of violence persist so long after the event. Studies on animals and human genocide survivors indicate that trauma early in life has lasting psychophysiological effects on brain and behavior. Under normal conditions, early mother-infant interactions facilitate the development of self-regulatory structures located in the corticolimbic region of the brain's right hemisphere. But with trauma, an enduring right-brain dysfunction can develop, creating a vulnerability to PTSD and a predisposition to violence in adulthood. Profound disruptions to the attachment bonding process, such as maternal separation, deprivation, or trauma, can upset psychobiological and neurochemical regulation in the developing brain, leading to abnormal neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and neurochemical differentiation. The absence of compensatory social structures, such as older generations, can also impede recovery.Full Text at Science WeekPosted by
Robert Karl Stonjek