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Re: [evol-psych] Ameritocracy: The racing of our nation's children

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  • Robert Karl Stonjek
    ... RKS: Kin selection, as outlined by Bill Hamilton, is actually the favouritism shown towards those with which you are familiar. Primates have no
    Message 1 of 5 , Apr 3, 2005
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      >
      > From: "artemistroy" <
      href="mailto:artemispub@...">artemispub@...>
      > >
      > > Why is it only Whites are accused of racism when there is
      > > ample
      > > evidence that all races tend to favor their
      own?
      > > Obviously, there is
      > > more to race than just
      color, specifically genetics and
      > > kinship.
      > >
      > > Artemis
      >
      > It seems to me there is ample evidence of our
      social
      > tendencies, using whatever model one chooses. But I think
      > there is another tendency that is rarely discussed but just
      > as
      significant, which is the tendency to reject those
      > outside of our
      social group. The two go together, hold to
      > our own and reject
      outsiders, in group, out group.
      >
      > I don't know what criteria for
      membership is innate, but we
      > can see in today's culture and subculture
      all kinds of man
      > made customs or beliefs or ideas. Group membership
      includes
      > the need to do what is PC, to go along, to assume
      >
      superiority, and to some extent to criticize outsiders as
      > incorrect,
      uncooperative, inferior. We see it in political
      > parties, religions,
      business loyalties, nationalism, high
      > school cliques, dress codes,
      music taste, table manners,
      > academic levels, economic success. We seem
      to use any
      > conceivable criteria for including some as acceptable
      > members, and others as laughable or enemies or vermin,
      > worthy
      of pity, or prayers.
      >
      <Snip>
       
      RKS:
      Kin selection, as outlined by Bill Hamilton, is actually the favouritism shown towards those with which you are familiar.  Primates have no ability to detect genetically related kin, as substitution of young shortly after birth shows (mother brings them up as their own, they treat their siblings and kin as if they are related and will be cautious of actual genetically related individuals as if they were unrelated).
       
      Matata, the famous Kanzi's mother, stole Kanzi from another bonobo when he was still an infant.  Kin selection theory has no answer to this behaviour, which is not unknown among bonobos.
       
      This innate tendency to favour those with whom you are familiar has solid evolutionary foundation - it is more energy efficient to trust those with whom you are familiar than to form new relationships with strangers.  The level of reciprocity, for instance, is known for those with whom you are familiar but must be learnt when encountering strangers, which is a cost.  Those with whom you are familiar are most likely going to be those with whom you grew up with and so are likely to be genetically related.  That is the mechanism by which kin selection works - favouritism of the familiar, not favouritism of the genetically related in the hope of aiding the proliferation of one's personal genes.
       
      In humans this innate tendency is extended considerably.  The criteria by which another individual can be adjudged 'familiar' go far beyond simple recognition of the face.  Familiarity is generalised to include familiar in habit, location and physical resemblances thus we see, for instance, religious and political affiliation as criteria, city, state and country of origin criteria, and skin colour and some facial features adjudged as familiar.
       
      Thus the tendencies to discriminate against others, at least weakly or in the first instance, is nothing more than the innate predisposition to favour those who are familiar as seen in most other mammals.
       
      Kind Regards
      Robert Karl Stonjek
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