Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

Expand Messages
  • anonymous_9001
    JK: No. You wrote: It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that ll never
    Message 1 of 23 , Sep 1 8:12 PM
    • 0 Attachment
      JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
      I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
      JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
      If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

      anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?". It's clear that's the information I was seeking from you and you still refuse to answer.

      JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.

      anon (new): Admit you're right and then ask for the details upon which I should judge the validity of it? That doesn't make any sense.

      JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes.

      anon (new): I still think it's absolutely hilarious that you continue with these petty "insults".


      --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:


      From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
      To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Saturday, August 31, 2013 4:21 PM
      Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

       
      JK: If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.


      anonymous_9001@... now regurgitates:I asked you to explain the enzymes/pathway you allege is responsible and then you turn around and ask me the same thing?
      JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
      I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
      JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
      If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

      anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone-
      JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.
      anon: What enzymes/pathway is responsible for the site-directed changes in your model?

      anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone- JK: [insert enzyme name(s) here]

      See how easy that would have been?
      JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes. Then, I mayl tell you how one of the most common elements on earth becomes 'fixed' in the process of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.


      James V. Kohl
      Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
      Independent researcher
      Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
      Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



      --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

      The anonymous fool wrote:

      "It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."

      If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.
       
      James V. Kohl
      Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
      Independent researcher
      Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
      Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


      From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
      To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Friday, August 30, 2013 3:53 PM
      Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

       
      I predict he'll "correct" you and say that it's obviously the result of other enzymes first being affected by the presence of lactose during their folding, following translation, and being triggered to undergo alternative splicing during intron removal. This somehow will eventually alter the genomic sequence of said enzyme through a currently unknown process utilizing unknown enzymes to "automagically" figure out which bases need to be changed and what they need to be changed into.

      He will, however, deflect and fail to point out which enzymes are responsible for making the directed genome changes. It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen.

      "O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

      How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

      Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

      "Is there a model for that?"
      :-)

      Edgar"


      --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <edgarowen@...> wrote:

      O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

      How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

      Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

      "Is there a model for that?"
      :-)

      Edgar




      On Aug 29, 2013, at 11:57 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek wrote:

       


      Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

      August 29th, 2013 in Genetics
      milkA genetic phenomenon that allows for the selection of multiple genetic mutations that all lead to a similar outcome—for instance the ability to digest milk—has been characterised for the first time in humans.
      The phenomenon, known as a 'soft selective sweep', was described in the population of Ethiopia and reveals that individuals from the Eastern African population have adapted to be able to digest milk, but via different mutations in their genetic material.
      A team of geneticists from UCL, University of Addis Ababa and Roskilde University have shown that five different alleles are found in the Ethiopian population that cause adult lactase production, one of which is newly confirmed. Their study is published in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
      Professor Dallas Swallow, from the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, senior author of the paper said: "Our genetic make-up determines our ability to digest milk into adulthood. Just over a third of the global population have inherited genes that allow us to make lactase, the enzyme that digests milk, as adults.
      "This study shows that several different genetic changes that allow our bodies to make lactase have emerged independently. Changes to our lifestyle over the past 10,000 years—including diet, altitude acclimatisation and infectious disease resistance—will likely have caused many genetic adaptations of this kind."
      We need lactase when we are babies to digest our mother's milk, so in babies large amounts of lactase enzyme are expressed by our genes. When we are older we no longer rely on our mother's milk for essential nutrients, so in most humans manufacture of the lactase enzyme stops through de-activation of the corresponding gene.
      However, subtle mutations in the regulatory region of the gene in some individuals cause lactase to carry on being expressed into adulthood. Different mutations are likely to affect lactase expression using slightly different mechanisms. This parallel selection of different gene mutations that have the same phenotypic effect - in this case lactase persistence - is known as a soft selective sweep.
      Soft selective sweeps have not been so clearly described before in humans, one reason being that variations caused by soft selective sweeps are more likely to be caused by genetic mutations in regulatory sequences, rather than mutations found in coding regions of genes.
      Most statistical methods that analyse genetic variation assume we are looking for only one variation as the cause of genetic adaptation. But, in soft selective sweep patterns, more than one genetic variation is selected in parallel, which makes them more difficult to detect.
      Dr Bryony Jones, also from the UCL Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, and lead author of the paper said: "Such variations have so far been very poorly studied and it will be important for them to be better characterised to understand better the relationship between historic adaptation and 21st century disease susceptibility."
      Only in the last 5-10,000 years have humans started drinking the milk of other animals, following advances in our ability to herd animals. In times of plenty, being able to drink the milk of other animals would not have given a particular advantage to those with lactase persistence.
      However, in situations where food sources became scarce, individuals capable of producing lactase as adults would be able to drink the milk of their animals, increasing their chances of survival.
      Ethiopia has been subject to frequent droughts that contribute to famine. Individuals who can digest milk are more likely to increase their chance of survival under these conditions.
      Dr Jones explained: "Ethiopia has been a cross-roads of human migrations in the last five thousand years since the lactase persistence genes are likely to have come under selection.
      "Our studies on other African and Middle Eastern populations show quite different geographic distributions, with overlap in Ethiopia, suggesting that their origins are all different, but determining where these were and how they spread is likely to be difficult."
      Professor Swallow said: "The combination of mutation, large effective population size, migration and selection has been shown to be important in generating this kind of pattern of diversity, namely parallel selection of multiple alleles of similar function, a so-called soft selective sweep."
      More information: 'Diversity in lactase persistence alleles in Ethiopia; signature of a soft selective sweep' is published online on the 29th of August in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
      Provided by University College London
      "Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations." August 29th, 2013. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-08-digesting-ethiopia-case-multiple-genetic.html
      Posted by
      Robert Karl Stonjek






    • hibbsa
      ... What s your perspective on mutations-theory? ... Hi Maarten - What that closing paragraph is trying to say is that people should not have a problem per se
      Message 2 of 23 , Sep 2 3:35 AM
      • 0 Attachment
        > " Which is important, because what you are also then doing is shifting the reason why people have a problem with Jim, to the more accurate spot, which is not about questioning the foundations of current thinking "

        >Hibssa, can you elaborate on this?

        >If it is "not about questioning the foundations of current thinking", what is it about, according to you?
        What's your perspective on mutations-theory?

        >I'm really interested in understanding your point better, because often I find your perspective very valuable.

        >Thanks in advance,
        >Maarten

        Hi Maarten - What that closing paragraph is trying to say is that people should not have a problem per se with challenges that go to the foundation of Evolutionary Theory.

        Meaning, that should not be the motivation for dismissing a POV, which sometimes it can be, or things can slip in that direction. Indeed I think this is part of Kohl's argument: that he is facing an out of touch theoretical paradigm long since left behind by biological facts.

        Anonymous has been adding value by revealing what has certainly been the reason for my change of attitude toward Kohl, and that is his refusal to engage simple points of challenge, usually using some sort of obfuscation device (could be pretending not to 'get it' what is being said or whatever).

        Hence nothing to do with the notion of challenging the foundations of theory, and also nothing to do with any attachment to a theoretical paradigm over biological facts. Simple points of reasoning are usually stand-alone, like "how does the model compute the specific challenge in the niche and then calculate the specific phenotypic change best suited to meet that challenge".

        I hope that helps.

        About 'mutations'...the thing is if you go back through scientific history, words that once dominated the landscape tend to disappear. Not because they were wrong, but because they simply became inadequate.
      • james kohl
        anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis? . JK: I think it s
        Message 3 of 23 , Sep 2 7:09 AM
        • 0 Attachment
          anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?".

          JK: I think it's ridiculous that you attempt discussion under the identification as "anonymous_9001@..."  -- and try to tell others how long it would take me to address your comment, which you will not address.

           
          James V. Kohl
          Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
          Independent researcher
          Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
          Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


          From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
          To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Sunday, September 1, 2013 11:12 PM
          Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

           
          JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
          I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
          JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
          If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

          anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?". It's clear that's the information I was seeking from you and you still refuse to answer.

          JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.

          anon (new): Admit you're right and then ask for the details upon which I should judge the validity of it? That doesn't make any sense.

          JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes.

          anon (new): I still think it's absolutely hilarious that you continue with these petty "insults".


          --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:


          From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
          To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Saturday, August 31, 2013 4:21 PM
          Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

           
          JK: If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.


          anonymous_9001@... now regurgitates:I asked you to explain the enzymes/pathway you allege is responsible and then you turn around and ask me the same thing?
          JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
          I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
          JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
          If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

          anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone-
          JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.
          anon: What enzymes/pathway is responsible for the site-directed changes in your model?

          anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone- JK: [insert enzyme name(s) here]

          See how easy that would have been?
          JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes. Then, I mayl tell you how one of the most common elements on earth becomes 'fixed' in the process of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.


          James V. Kohl
          Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
          Independent researcher
          Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
          Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



          --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

          The anonymous fool wrote:

          "It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."

          If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.
           
          James V. Kohl
          Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
          Independent researcher
          Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
          Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


          From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
          To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Friday, August 30, 2013 3:53 PM
          Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

           
          I predict he'll "correct" you and say that it's obviously the result of other enzymes first being affected by the presence of lactose during their folding, following translation, and being triggered to undergo alternative splicing during intron removal. This somehow will eventually alter the genomic sequence of said enzyme through a currently unknown process utilizing unknown enzymes to "automagically" figure out which bases need to be changed and what they need to be changed into.

          He will, however, deflect and fail to point out which enzymes are responsible for making the directed genome changes. It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen.

          "O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

          How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

          Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

          "Is there a model for that?"
          :-)

          Edgar"


          --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <edgarowen@...> wrote:

          O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

          How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

          Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

          "Is there a model for that?"
          :-)

          Edgar




          On Aug 29, 2013, at 11:57 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek wrote:

           


          Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

          August 29th, 2013 in Genetics
          milkA genetic phenomenon that allows for the selection of multiple genetic mutations that all lead to a similar outcome—for instance the ability to digest milk—has been characterised for the first time in humans.
          The phenomenon, known as a 'soft selective sweep', was described in the population of Ethiopia and reveals that individuals from the Eastern African population have adapted to be able to digest milk, but via different mutations in their genetic material.
          A team of geneticists from UCL, University of Addis Ababa and Roskilde University have shown that five different alleles are found in the Ethiopian population that cause adult lactase production, one of which is newly confirmed. Their study is published in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
          Professor Dallas Swallow, from the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, senior author of the paper said: "Our genetic make-up determines our ability to digest milk into adulthood. Just over a third of the global population have inherited genes that allow us to make lactase, the enzyme that digests milk, as adults.
          "This study shows that several different genetic changes that allow our bodies to make lactase have emerged independently. Changes to our lifestyle over the past 10,000 years—including diet, altitude acclimatisation and infectious disease resistance—will likely have caused many genetic adaptations of this kind."
          We need lactase when we are babies to digest our mother's milk, so in babies large amounts of lactase enzyme are expressed by our genes. When we are older we no longer rely on our mother's milk for essential nutrients, so in most humans manufacture of the lactase enzyme stops through de-activation of the corresponding gene.
          However, subtle mutations in the regulatory region of the gene in some individuals cause lactase to carry on being expressed into adulthood. Different mutations are likely to affect lactase expression using slightly different mechanisms. This parallel selection of different gene mutations that have the same phenotypic effect - in this case lactase persistence - is known as a soft selective sweep.
          Soft selective sweeps have not been so clearly described before in humans, one reason being that variations caused by soft selective sweeps are more likely to be caused by genetic mutations in regulatory sequences, rather than mutations found in coding regions of genes.
          Most statistical methods that analyse genetic variation assume we are looking for only one variation as the cause of genetic adaptation. But, in soft selective sweep patterns, more than one genetic variation is selected in parallel, which makes them more difficult to detect.
          Dr Bryony Jones, also from the UCL Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, and lead author of the paper said: "Such variations have so far been very poorly studied and it will be important for them to be better characterised to understand better the relationship between historic adaptation and 21st century disease susceptibility."
          Only in the last 5-10,000 years have humans started drinking the milk of other animals, following advances in our ability to herd animals. In times of plenty, being able to drink the milk of other animals would not have given a particular advantage to those with lactase persistence.
          However, in situations where food sources became scarce, individuals capable of producing lactase as adults would be able to drink the milk of their animals, increasing their chances of survival.
          Ethiopia has been subject to frequent droughts that contribute to famine. Individuals who can digest milk are more likely to increase their chance of survival under these conditions.
          Dr Jones explained: "Ethiopia has been a cross-roads of human migrations in the last five thousand years since the lactase persistence genes are likely to have come under selection.
          "Our studies on other African and Middle Eastern populations show quite different geographic distributions, with overlap in Ethiopia, suggesting that their origins are all different, but determining where these were and how they spread is likely to be difficult."
          Professor Swallow said: "The combination of mutation, large effective population size, migration and selection has been shown to be important in generating this kind of pattern of diversity, namely parallel selection of multiple alleles of similar function, a so-called soft selective sweep."
          More information: 'Diversity in lactase persistence alleles in Ethiopia; signature of a soft selective sweep' is published online on the 29th of August in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
          Provided by University College London
          "Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations." August 29th, 2013. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-08-digesting-ethiopia-case-multiple-genetic.html
          Posted by
          Robert Karl Stonjek








        • james kohl
          I ve repeatedly asked others to explain their perspective on mutations theory, and no one has done that. The attacks on my perspective, which has been fully
          Message 4 of 23 , Sep 2 7:14 AM
          • 0 Attachment
            I've repeatedly asked others to explain their perspective on mutations theory, and no one has done that. The attacks on my perspective, which has been fully detailed in a series of published works, have continued. Why is Maarten, who seems to have no perspective on anything except psychobabble, now asking hibbsa for his perspective? Has it not been perfectly well established that I am the only participant here who has any perspective on biologically based adaptive evolution?

             
            James V. Kohl
            Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
            Independent researcher
            Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
            Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


            From: "m.aalberse@..." <m.aalberse@...>
            To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Monday, September 2, 2013 12:55 AM
            Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

             
             " Which is important, because what you are also then doing is shifting the reason why people have a problem with Jim, to the more accurate spot, which is not about questioning the foundations of current thinking "

            Hibssa, can you elaborate on this?
            If it is "not about questioning the foundations of current thinking", what is it about, according to you?
            What's your perspective on mutations-theory?

            I'm really interested in understanding your point better, because often I find your perspective very valuable.

            Thanks in advance,
            Maarten


            --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

            From: hibbsa <hibbsa@...>
            To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Sunday, September 1, 2013 4:47 PM
            Subject: [evol-psych] Re: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

             
            Anonymous, I'm pretty sure you already know you will never get anywhere with Jim Kohl. So eventually you'll obviously have had enough. But for as long as you are doing it, you're probably doing something positive.

            Reason being. We probably are on the cusp of a major shift in Evolution Theory. Probably the major shift is going to be the source of diversity. Probably, we're not going to be talking about mutations so much in the future.

            Moments like this create a sort of window for poorly motivated participants in Science. The one thing Kohl is partially right about is the mutations issue IMHO, but so far as I can tell it's for all the wrong reasons. And by dogging him you make this clear by drawing out his obfuscation and other outrageous behaviour. 
            JK: Partially right?????? What is it that you think is obfuscation in the context of anything I have every written here, anything I have ever presented, or anything I have ever published in peer-reviewed journals?  Either adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled or there is the alternative, which is mutation-driven evolution.

            From: hibbsa <hibbsa@...> Which is important, because what you are also then doing is shifting the reason why people have a problem with Jim, to the more accurate spot, which is not about questioning the foundations of current thinking. 
            JK: If you don't accept nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, what difference does it make if I add further details of the conserved molecular mechanisms. The problem with me is that no one is willing to address what I have published or to do anything other than complain about what I've said here -- regardless of the fact that it is consistent with others are now saying about the need for models.





          • anonymous_9001
            Once again, I put forward the exceedingly simple question: what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis? JK: The attacks on my
            Message 5 of 23 , Sep 2 6:05 PM
            • 0 Attachment

              Once again, I put forward the exceedingly simple question: what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?


              JK: The attacks on my perspective, which has been fully detailed in a series of published works, have continued.


              anon: Your perspective obviously hasn't been "fully detailed" if the mechanism responsible for your proposed site-directed mutagenesis is nowhere to be found.

               


              --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

              anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?".

              JK: I think it's ridiculous that you attempt discussion under the identification as "anonymous_9001@..."  -- and try to tell others how long it would take me to address your comment, which you will not address.

               
              James V. Kohl
              Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
              Independent researcher
              Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
              Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


              From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
              To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Sunday, September 1, 2013 11:12 PM
              Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

               
              JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
              I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
              JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
              If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

              anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?". It's clear that's the information I was seeking from you and you still refuse to answer.

              JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.

              anon (new): Admit you're right and then ask for the details upon which I should judge the validity of it? That doesn't make any sense.

              JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes.

              anon (new): I still think it's absolutely hilarious that you continue with these petty "insults".


              --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:


              From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
              To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Saturday, August 31, 2013 4:21 PM
              Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

               
              JK: If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.


              anonymous_9001@... now regurgitates:I asked you to explain the enzymes/pathway you allege is responsible and then you turn around and ask me the same thing?
              JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
              I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
              JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
              If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

              anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone-
              JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.
              anon: What enzymes/pathway is responsible for the site-directed changes in your model?

              anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone- JK: [insert enzyme name(s) here]

              See how easy that would have been?
              JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes. Then, I mayl tell you how one of the most common elements on earth becomes 'fixed' in the process of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.


              James V. Kohl
              Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
              Independent researcher
              Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
              Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



              --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

              The anonymous fool wrote:

              "It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."

              If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.
               
              James V. Kohl
              Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
              Independent researcher
              Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
              Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


              From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
              To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Friday, August 30, 2013 3:53 PM
              Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

               
              I predict he'll "correct" you and say that it's obviously the result of other enzymes first being affected by the presence of lactose during their folding, following translation, and being triggered to undergo alternative splicing during intron removal. This somehow will eventually alter the genomic sequence of said enzyme through a currently unknown process utilizing unknown enzymes to "automagically" figure out which bases need to be changed and what they need to be changed into.

              He will, however, deflect and fail to point out which enzymes are responsible for making the directed genome changes. It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen.

              "O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

              How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

              Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

              "Is there a model for that?"
              :-)

              Edgar"


              --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <edgarowen@...> wrote:

              O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

              How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

              Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

              "Is there a model for that?"
              :-)

              Edgar




              On Aug 29, 2013, at 11:57 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek wrote:

               


              Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

              August 29th, 2013 in Genetics
              milkA genetic phenomenon that allows for the selection of multiple genetic mutations that all lead to a similar outcome—for instance the ability to digest milk—has been characterised for the first time in humans.
              The phenomenon, known as a 'soft selective sweep', was described in the population of Ethiopia and reveals that individuals from the Eastern African population have adapted to be able to digest milk, but via different mutations in their genetic material.
              A team of geneticists from UCL, University of Addis Ababa and Roskilde University have shown that five different alleles are found in the Ethiopian population that cause adult lactase production, one of which is newly confirmed. Their study is published in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
              Professor Dallas Swallow, from the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, senior author of the paper said: "Our genetic make-up determines our ability to digest milk into adulthood. Just over a third of the global population have inherited genes that allow us to make lactase, the enzyme that digests milk, as adults.
              "This study shows that several different genetic changes that allow our bodies to make lactase have emerged independently. Changes to our lifestyle over the past 10,000 years—including diet, altitude acclimatisation and infectious disease resistance—will likely have caused many genetic adaptations of this kind."
              We need lactase when we are babies to digest our mother's milk, so in babies large amounts of lactase enzyme are expressed by our genes. When we are older we no longer rely on our mother's milk for essential nutrients, so in most humans manufacture of the lactase enzyme stops through de-activation of the corresponding gene.
              However, subtle mutations in the regulatory region of the gene in some individuals cause lactase to carry on being expressed into adulthood. Different mutations are likely to affect lactase expression using slightly different mechanisms. This parallel selection of different gene mutations that have the same phenotypic effect - in this case lactase persistence - is known as a soft selective sweep.
              Soft selective sweeps have not been so clearly described before in humans, one reason being that variations caused by soft selective sweeps are more likely to be caused by genetic mutations in regulatory sequences, rather than mutations found in coding regions of genes.
              Most statistical methods that analyse genetic variation assume we are looking for only one variation as the cause of genetic adaptation. But, in soft selective sweep patterns, more than one genetic variation is selected in parallel, which makes them more difficult to detect.
              Dr Bryony Jones, also from the UCL Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, and lead author of the paper said: "Such variations have so far been very poorly studied and it will be important for them to be better characterised to understand better the relationship between historic adaptation and 21st century disease susceptibility."
              Only in the last 5-10,000 years have humans started drinking the milk of other animals, following advances in our ability to herd animals. In times of plenty, being able to drink the milk of other animals would not have given a particular advantage to those with lactase persistence.
              However, in situations where food sources became scarce, individuals capable of producing lactase as adults would be able to drink the milk of their animals, increasing their chances of survival.
              Ethiopia has been subject to frequent droughts that contribute to famine. Individuals who can digest milk are more likely to increase their chance of survival under these conditions.
              Dr Jones explained: "Ethiopia has been a cross-roads of human migrations in the last five thousand years since the lactase persistence genes are likely to have come under selection.
              "Our studies on other African and Middle Eastern populations show quite different geographic distributions, with overlap in Ethiopia, suggesting that their origins are all different, but determining where these were and how they spread is likely to be difficult."
              Professor Swallow said: "The combination of mutation, large effective population size, migration and selection has been shown to be important in generating this kind of pattern of diversity, namely parallel selection of multiple alleles of similar function, a so-called soft selective sweep."
              More information: 'Diversity in lactase persistence alleles in Ethiopia; signature of a soft selective sweep' is published online on the 29th of August in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
              Provided by University College London
              "Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations." August 29th, 2013. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-08-digesting-ethiopia-case-multiple-genetic.html
              Posted by
              Robert Karl Stonjek








            • james kohl
              I have never proposed anything related to site-directed mutagenesis. Asking me what enzyme/pathway is responsible for what you are suggesting is important to
              Message 6 of 23 , Sep 2 8:29 PM
              • 0 Attachment
                I have never proposed anything related to site-directed mutagenesis. Asking me what enzyme/pathway is responsible for what you are suggesting is important to mutation-driven evolution is an example of your intolerable ignorance.

                 
                James V. Kohl
                Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                Independent researcher
                Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Monday, September 2, 2013 9:05 PM
                Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                 
                Once again, I put forward the exceedingly simple question: what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?

                JK: The attacks on my perspective, which has been fully detailed in a series of published works, have continued.

                anon: Your perspective obviously hasn't been "fully detailed" if the mechanism responsible for your proposed site-directed mutagenesis is nowhere to be found.
                 


                --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

                anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?".

                JK: I think it's ridiculous that you attempt discussion under the identification as "anonymous_9001@..."  -- and try to tell others how long it would take me to address your comment, which you will not address.

                 
                James V. Kohl
                Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                Independent researcher
                Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Sunday, September 1, 2013 11:12 PM
                Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                 
                JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
                I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
                JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
                If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

                anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?". It's clear that's the information I was seeking from you and you still refuse to answer.

                JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.

                anon (new): Admit you're right and then ask for the details upon which I should judge the validity of it? That doesn't make any sense.

                JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes.

                anon (new): I still think it's absolutely hilarious that you continue with these petty "insults".


                --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:


                From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Saturday, August 31, 2013 4:21 PM
                Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                 
                JK: If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.


                anonymous_9001@... now regurgitates:I asked you to explain the enzymes/pathway you allege is responsible and then you turn around and ask me the same thing?
                JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
                I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
                JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
                If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

                anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone-
                JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.
                anon: What enzymes/pathway is responsible for the site-directed changes in your model?

                anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone- JK: [insert enzyme name(s) here]

                See how easy that would have been?
                JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes. Then, I mayl tell you how one of the most common elements on earth becomes 'fixed' in the process of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.


                James V. Kohl
                Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                Independent researcher
                Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



                --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

                The anonymous fool wrote:

                "It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."

                If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.
                 
                James V. Kohl
                Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                Independent researcher
                Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Friday, August 30, 2013 3:53 PM
                Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                 
                I predict he'll "correct" you and say that it's obviously the result of other enzymes first being affected by the presence of lactose during their folding, following translation, and being triggered to undergo alternative splicing during intron removal. This somehow will eventually alter the genomic sequence of said enzyme through a currently unknown process utilizing unknown enzymes to "automagically" figure out which bases need to be changed and what they need to be changed into.

                He will, however, deflect and fail to point out which enzymes are responsible for making the directed genome changes. It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen.

                "O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

                How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

                Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

                "Is there a model for that?"
                :-)

                Edgar"


                --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <edgarowen@...> wrote:

                O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

                How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

                Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

                "Is there a model for that?"
                :-)

                Edgar




                On Aug 29, 2013, at 11:57 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek wrote:

                 


                Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                August 29th, 2013 in Genetics
                milkA genetic phenomenon that allows for the selection of multiple genetic mutations that all lead to a similar outcome—for instance the ability to digest milk—has been characterised for the first time in humans.
                The phenomenon, known as a 'soft selective sweep', was described in the population of Ethiopia and reveals that individuals from the Eastern African population have adapted to be able to digest milk, but via different mutations in their genetic material.
                A team of geneticists from UCL, University of Addis Ababa and Roskilde University have shown that five different alleles are found in the Ethiopian population that cause adult lactase production, one of which is newly confirmed. Their study is published in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
                Professor Dallas Swallow, from the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, senior author of the paper said: "Our genetic make-up determines our ability to digest milk into adulthood. Just over a third of the global population have inherited genes that allow us to make lactase, the enzyme that digests milk, as adults.
                "This study shows that several different genetic changes that allow our bodies to make lactase have emerged independently. Changes to our lifestyle over the past 10,000 years—including diet, altitude acclimatisation and infectious disease resistance—will likely have caused many genetic adaptations of this kind."
                We need lactase when we are babies to digest our mother's milk, so in babies large amounts of lactase enzyme are expressed by our genes. When we are older we no longer rely on our mother's milk for essential nutrients, so in most humans manufacture of the lactase enzyme stops through de-activation of the corresponding gene.
                However, subtle mutations in the regulatory region of the gene in some individuals cause lactase to carry on being expressed into adulthood. Different mutations are likely to affect lactase expression using slightly different mechanisms. This parallel selection of different gene mutations that have the same phenotypic effect - in this case lactase persistence - is known as a soft selective sweep.
                Soft selective sweeps have not been so clearly described before in humans, one reason being that variations caused by soft selective sweeps are more likely to be caused by genetic mutations in regulatory sequences, rather than mutations found in coding regions of genes.
                Most statistical methods that analyse genetic variation assume we are looking for only one variation as the cause of genetic adaptation. But, in soft selective sweep patterns, more than one genetic variation is selected in parallel, which makes them more difficult to detect.
                Dr Bryony Jones, also from the UCL Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, and lead author of the paper said: "Such variations have so far been very poorly studied and it will be important for them to be better characterised to understand better the relationship between historic adaptation and 21st century disease susceptibility."
                Only in the last 5-10,000 years have humans started drinking the milk of other animals, following advances in our ability to herd animals. In times of plenty, being able to drink the milk of other animals would not have given a particular advantage to those with lactase persistence.
                However, in situations where food sources became scarce, individuals capable of producing lactase as adults would be able to drink the milk of their animals, increasing their chances of survival.
                Ethiopia has been subject to frequent droughts that contribute to famine. Individuals who can digest milk are more likely to increase their chance of survival under these conditions.
                Dr Jones explained: "Ethiopia has been a cross-roads of human migrations in the last five thousand years since the lactase persistence genes are likely to have come under selection.
                "Our studies on other African and Middle Eastern populations show quite different geographic distributions, with overlap in Ethiopia, suggesting that their origins are all different, but determining where these were and how they spread is likely to be difficult."
                Professor Swallow said: "The combination of mutation, large effective population size, migration and selection has been shown to be important in generating this kind of pattern of diversity, namely parallel selection of multiple alleles of similar function, a so-called soft selective sweep."
                More information: 'Diversity in lactase persistence alleles in Ethiopia; signature of a soft selective sweep' is published online on the 29th of August in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
                Provided by University College London
                "Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations." August 29th, 2013. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-08-digesting-ethiopia-case-multiple-genetic.html
                Posted by
                Robert Karl Stonjek










              • anonymous_9001
                JK: I have never proposed anything related to site-directed mutagenesis. Thank you. What then, do you think is responsible for genetic sequence changes in your
                Message 7 of 23 , Sep 3 8:37 AM
                • 0 Attachment

                  JK: I have never proposed anything related to site-directed mutagenesis.


                  Thank you. What then, do you think is responsible for genetic sequence changes in your model?



                  --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

                  I have never proposed anything related to site-directed mutagenesis. Asking me what enzyme/pathway is responsible for what you are suggesting is important to mutation-driven evolution is an example of your intolerable ignorance.

                   
                  James V. Kohl
                  Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                  Independent researcher
                  Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                  Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                  From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                  To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Monday, September 2, 2013 9:05 PM
                  Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                   
                  Once again, I put forward the exceedingly simple question: what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?

                  JK: The attacks on my perspective, which has been fully detailed in a series of published works, have continued.

                  anon: Your perspective obviously hasn't been "fully detailed" if the mechanism responsible for your proposed site-directed mutagenesis is nowhere to be found.
                   


                  --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

                  anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?".

                  JK: I think it's ridiculous that you attempt discussion under the identification as "anonymous_9001@..."  -- and try to tell others how long it would take me to address your comment, which you will not address.

                   
                  James V. Kohl
                  Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                  Independent researcher
                  Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                  Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                  From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                  To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Sunday, September 1, 2013 11:12 PM
                  Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                   
                  JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
                  I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
                  JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
                  If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

                  anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?". It's clear that's the information I was seeking from you and you still refuse to answer.

                  JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.

                  anon (new): Admit you're right and then ask for the details upon which I should judge the validity of it? That doesn't make any sense.

                  JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes.

                  anon (new): I still think it's absolutely hilarious that you continue with these petty "insults".


                  --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:


                  From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                  To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Saturday, August 31, 2013 4:21 PM
                  Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                   
                  JK: If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.


                  anonymous_9001@... now regurgitates:I asked you to explain the enzymes/pathway you allege is responsible and then you turn around and ask me the same thing?
                  JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
                  I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
                  JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
                  If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

                  anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone-
                  JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.
                  anon: What enzymes/pathway is responsible for the site-directed changes in your model?

                  anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone- JK: [insert enzyme name(s) here]

                  See how easy that would have been?
                  JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes. Then, I mayl tell you how one of the most common elements on earth becomes 'fixed' in the process of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.


                  James V. Kohl
                  Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                  Independent researcher
                  Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                  Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



                  --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

                  The anonymous fool wrote:

                  "It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."

                  If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.
                   
                  James V. Kohl
                  Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                  Independent researcher
                  Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                  Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                  From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                  To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Friday, August 30, 2013 3:53 PM
                  Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                   
                  I predict he'll "correct" you and say that it's obviously the result of other enzymes first being affected by the presence of lactose during their folding, following translation, and being triggered to undergo alternative splicing during intron removal. This somehow will eventually alter the genomic sequence of said enzyme through a currently unknown process utilizing unknown enzymes to "automagically" figure out which bases need to be changed and what they need to be changed into.

                  He will, however, deflect and fail to point out which enzymes are responsible for making the directed genome changes. It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen.

                  "O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

                  How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

                  Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

                  "Is there a model for that?"
                  :-)

                  Edgar"


                  --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <edgarowen@...> wrote:

                  O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

                  How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

                  Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

                  "Is there a model for that?"
                  :-)

                  Edgar




                  On Aug 29, 2013, at 11:57 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek wrote:

                   


                  Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                  August 29th, 2013 in Genetics
                  milkA genetic phenomenon that allows for the selection of multiple genetic mutations that all lead to a similar outcome—for instance the ability to digest milk—has been characterised for the first time in humans.
                  The phenomenon, known as a 'soft selective sweep', was described in the population of Ethiopia and reveals that individuals from the Eastern African population have adapted to be able to digest milk, but via different mutations in their genetic material.
                  A team of geneticists from UCL, University of Addis Ababa and Roskilde University have shown that five different alleles are found in the Ethiopian population that cause adult lactase production, one of which is newly confirmed. Their study is published in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
                  Professor Dallas Swallow, from the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, senior author of the paper said: "Our genetic make-up determines our ability to digest milk into adulthood. Just over a third of the global population have inherited genes that allow us to make lactase, the enzyme that digests milk, as adults.
                  "This study shows that several different genetic changes that allow our bodies to make lactase have emerged independently. Changes to our lifestyle over the past 10,000 years—including diet, altitude acclimatisation and infectious disease resistance—will likely have caused many genetic adaptations of this kind."
                  We need lactase when we are babies to digest our mother's milk, so in babies large amounts of lactase enzyme are expressed by our genes. When we are older we no longer rely on our mother's milk for essential nutrients, so in most humans manufacture of the lactase enzyme stops through de-activation of the corresponding gene.
                  However, subtle mutations in the regulatory region of the gene in some individuals cause lactase to carry on being expressed into adulthood. Different mutations are likely to affect lactase expression using slightly different mechanisms. This parallel selection of different gene mutations that have the same phenotypic effect - in this case lactase persistence - is known as a soft selective sweep.
                  Soft selective sweeps have not been so clearly described before in humans, one reason being that variations caused by soft selective sweeps are more likely to be caused by genetic mutations in regulatory sequences, rather than mutations found in coding regions of genes.
                  Most statistical methods that analyse genetic variation assume we are looking for only one variation as the cause of genetic adaptation. But, in soft selective sweep patterns, more than one genetic variation is selected in parallel, which makes them more difficult to detect.
                  Dr Bryony Jones, also from the UCL Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, and lead author of the paper said: "Such variations have so far been very poorly studied and it will be important for them to be better characterised to understand better the relationship between historic adaptation and 21st century disease susceptibility."
                  Only in the last 5-10,000 years have humans started drinking the milk of other animals, following advances in our ability to herd animals. In times of plenty, being able to drink the milk of other animals would not have given a particular advantage to those with lactase persistence.
                  However, in situations where food sources became scarce, individuals capable of producing lactase as adults would be able to drink the milk of their animals, increasing their chances of survival.
                  Ethiopia has been subject to frequent droughts that contribute to famine. Individuals who can digest milk are more likely to increase their chance of survival under these conditions.
                  Dr Jones explained: "Ethiopia has been a cross-roads of human migrations in the last five thousand years since the lactase persistence genes are likely to have come under selection.
                  "Our studies on other African and Middle Eastern populations show quite different geographic distributions, with overlap in Ethiopia, suggesting that their origins are all different, but determining where these were and how they spread is likely to be difficult."
                  Professor Swallow said: "The combination of mutation, large effective population size, migration and selection has been shown to be important in generating this kind of pattern of diversity, namely parallel selection of multiple alleles of similar function, a so-called soft selective sweep."
                  More information: 'Diversity in lactase persistence alleles in Ethiopia; signature of a soft selective sweep' is published online on the 29th of August in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
                  Provided by University College London
                  "Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations." August 29th, 2013. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-08-digesting-ethiopia-case-multiple-genetic.html
                  Posted by
                  Robert Karl Stonjek










                • Leif Ekblad
                  OK, so you propose that specific mutations related to adaptations like digesting milk are nutrition and pheromone controlled, but you cannot describe the
                  Message 8 of 23 , Sep 3 11:01 AM
                  • 0 Attachment
                    
                    OK, so you propose that specific mutations related to adaptations like digesting milk are nutrition and pheromone controlled, but you cannot describe the mechanism that creates these mutations. Either your model has huge gaps that needs to be filled, or it is not a valid model of evolution. Epigenetics certainly could create lactose tolerance by silencing the lactase gene, but it cannot explain the mutation(s) that permanently turns the gene off.
                     
                    Leif Ekblad
                     
                    ----- Original Message -----
                    Sent: Tuesday, September 03, 2013 5:29 AM
                    Subject: Re: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                    I have never proposed anything related to site-directed mutagenesis. Asking me what enzyme/pathway is responsible for what you are suggesting is important to mutation-driven evolution is an example of your intolerable ignorance.

                     
                    James V. Kohl
                    Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                    Independent researcher
                    Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                    Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                    From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                    To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Monday, September 2, 2013 9:05 PM
                    Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                     
                    Once again, I put forward the exceedingly simple question: what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?

                    JK: The attacks on my perspective, which has been fully detailed in a series of published works, have continued.

                    anon: Your perspective obviously hasn't been "fully detailed" if the mechanism responsible for your proposed site-directed mutagenesis is nowhere to be found.
                     


                    --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

                    anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?".

                    JK: I think it's ridiculous that you attempt discussion under the identification as "anonymous_9001@..."  -- and try to tell others how long it would take me to address your comment, which you will not address.

                     
                    James V. Kohl
                    Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                    Independent researcher
                    Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                    Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                    From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                    To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Sunday, September 1, 2013 11:12 PM
                    Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                     
                    JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
                    I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
                    JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
                    If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

                    anon (new): I never indicated I had an answer to the implied question- "what enzymes/pathway is responsible for site-directed mutagenesis?". It's clear that's the information I was seeking from you and you still refuse to answer.

                    JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.

                    anon (new): Admit you're right and then ask for the details upon which I should judge the validity of it? That doesn't make any sense.

                    JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes.

                    anon (new): I still think it's absolutely hilarious that you continue with these petty "insults".


                    --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:


                    From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                    To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Saturday, August 31, 2013 4:21 PM
                    Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                     
                    JK: If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.


                    anonymous_9001@... now regurgitates:I asked you to explain the enzymes/pathway you allege is responsible and then you turn around and ask me the same thing?
                    JK: No. You wrote:"It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."
                    I said you'd refuse to answer that extremely simple question and you did.
                    JK: You didn't ask a question. You indicated you had an answer, so I asked:
                    If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.

                    anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone-
                    JK: This is how any discussion with you could proceed. First, admit that adaptive evolution is nutrient-dependent or tell us how it is mutation-driven. Then ask me to explain how nutrients cause the differences in SNPs that underlie nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.
                    anon: What enzymes/pathway is responsible for the site-directed changes in your model?

                    anonymous_9001@... This is how it should have gone- JK: [insert enzyme name(s) here]

                    See how easy that would have been?
                    JK:The easiest thing for you to do at this point is to simply admit that you will never be anything more than an anonymous fool who thinks that evolution is dependent only on enzymes. Then, I mayl tell you how one of the most common elements on earth becomes 'fixed' in the process of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.


                    James V. Kohl
                    Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                    Independent researcher
                    Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                    Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



                    --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <jvkohl@...> wrote:

                    The anonymous fool wrote:

                    "It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen."

                    If you know how the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes results in the SNPs, which are required for amino acid substitutions and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution, tell us. Alternatively, tell us how mutations that result in lactose persistence enable adaptive evolution.
                     
                    James V. Kohl
                    Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                    Independent researcher
                    Kohl, J.V. (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 20553.
                    Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                    From: "anonymous_9001@..." <anonymous_9001@...>
                    To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Friday, August 30, 2013 3:53 PM
                    Subject: [evol-psych] RE: News: Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                     
                    I predict he'll "correct" you and say that it's obviously the result of other enzymes first being affected by the presence of lactose during their folding, following translation, and being triggered to undergo alternative splicing during intron removal. This somehow will eventually alter the genomic sequence of said enzyme through a currently unknown process utilizing unknown enzymes to "automagically" figure out which bases need to be changed and what they need to be changed into.

                    He will, however, deflect and fail to point out which enzymes are responsible for making the directed genome changes. It would literally take about 3 seconds to type out the name of the enzyme/pathway responsible for making such changes, but that'll never happen.

                    "O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

                    How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

                    Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

                    "Is there a model for that?"
                    :-)

                    Edgar"


                    --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, <edgarowen@...> wrote:

                    O my Gosh. More evidence of genetic MUTATIONS!

                    How does one explain the ability of human adults to digest milk?

                    Under Kohl's crackpot theory the necessary genetic changes to digest milk could only come from first drinking when it COULDN'T be digested and drinking milk you couldn't digest would somehow produce pheromones that would allow you to eventually digest it and then that ability would be passed on to your offspring.

                    "Is there a model for that?"
                    :-)

                    Edgar




                    On Aug 29, 2013, at 11:57 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek wrote:

                     


                    Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations

                    August 29th, 2013 in Genetics
                    milkA genetic phenomenon that allows for the selection of multiple genetic mutations that all lead to a similar outcome—for instance the ability to digest milk—has been characterised for the first time in humans.
                    The phenomenon, known as a 'soft selective sweep', was described in the population of Ethiopia and reveals that individuals from the Eastern African population have adapted to be able to digest milk, but via different mutations in their genetic material.
                    A team of geneticists from UCL, University of Addis Ababa and Roskilde University have shown that five different alleles are found in the Ethiopian population that cause adult lactase production, one of which is newly confirmed. Their study is published in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
                    Professor Dallas Swallow, from the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, senior author of the paper said: "Our genetic make-up determines our ability to digest milk into adulthood. Just over a third of the global population have inherited genes that allow us to make lactase, the enzyme that digests milk, as adults.
                    "This study shows that several different genetic changes that allow our bodies to make lactase have emerged independently. Changes to our lifestyle over the past 10,000 years—including diet, altitude acclimatisation and infectious disease resistance—will likely have caused many genetic adaptations of this kind."
                    We need lactase when we are babies to digest our mother's milk, so in babies large amounts of lactase enzyme are expressed by our genes. When we are older we no longer rely on our mother's milk for essential nutrients, so in most humans manufacture of the lactase enzyme stops through de-activation of the corresponding gene.
                    However, subtle mutations in the regulatory region of the gene in some individuals cause lactase to carry on being expressed into adulthood. Different mutations are likely to affect lactase expression using slightly different mechanisms. This parallel selection of different gene mutations that have the same phenotypic effect - in this case lactase persistence - is known as a soft selective sweep.
                    Soft selective sweeps have not been so clearly described before in humans, one reason being that variations caused by soft selective sweeps are more likely to be caused by genetic mutations in regulatory sequences, rather than mutations found in coding regions of genes.
                    Most statistical methods that analyse genetic variation assume we are looking for only one variation as the cause of genetic adaptation. But, in soft selective sweep patterns, more than one genetic variation is selected in parallel, which makes them more difficult to detect.
                    Dr Bryony Jones, also from the UCL Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, and lead author of the paper said: "Such variations have so far been very poorly studied and it will be important for them to be better characterised to understand better the relationship between historic adaptation and 21st century disease susceptibility."
                    Only in the last 5-10,000 years have humans started drinking the milk of other animals, following advances in our ability to herd animals. In times of plenty, being able to drink the milk of other animals would not have given a particular advantage to those with lactase persistence.
                    However, in situations where food sources became scarce, individuals capable of producing lactase as adults would be able to drink the milk of their animals, increasing their chances of survival.
                    Ethiopia has been subject to frequent droughts that contribute to famine. Individuals who can digest milk are more likely to increase their chance of survival under these conditions.
                    Dr Jones explained: "Ethiopia has been a cross-roads of human migrations in the last five thousand years since the lactase persistence genes are likely to have come under selection.
                    "Our studies on other African and Middle Eastern populations show quite different geographic distributions, with overlap in Ethiopia, suggesting that their origins are all different, but determining where these were and how they spread is likely to be difficult."
                    Professor Swallow said: "The combination of mutation, large effective population size, migration and selection has been shown to be important in generating this kind of pattern of diversity, namely parallel selection of multiple alleles of similar function, a so-called soft selective sweep."
                    More information: 'Diversity in lactase persistence alleles in Ethiopia; signature of a soft selective sweep' is published online on the 29th of August in The American Journal of Human Genetics.
                    Provided by University College London
                    "Digesting milk in Ethiopia: A case of multiple genetic adaptations." August 29th, 2013. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-08-digesting-ethiopia-case-multiple-genetic.html
                    Posted by
                    Robert Karl Stonjek










                  Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.