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Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

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  • merle lester
    kevin... you are making an assumption...where is your statistical evidence that so called intelligent people do not do hard drugs....?...merle ... kevin...
    Message 1 of 14 , Aug 20 3:02 PM


       kevin... you are making an assumption...where is your statistical evidence that so called intelligent  people do not do hard drugs....?...merle


      That’s rather impolite and employs a primitive, pre-statistical kind of thinking.
       
      It’s true that there are people from geniuses to idiots who do drugs but the
      question here is whether there’s a correlation between intelligence and drug
      use.
       
      The answer depends, first of all, on which drugs. Lots of smart people
      experiment with pot, alcohol, and psychedelics. Fewer get into hard drugs.
      This is reflected in the list of geniuses and their drugs of choice below.
       
      Then there’s the question of addiction, as opposed to casual use. And
      susceptibility to that (and to a lot of other psychological problems) seems to
      increase as you go in either direction from around IQ 120.
       
       
      Kevin Langdon
       
       
       
      Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2013 8:04 PM
      Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
       

      anna.... take time to read... "is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use"...
      no because my answer is as stated..there are plenty of" idiots" out there who do drugs,,,merle

       
      On 18/08/2013, at 7:38 AM, Anna wrote:
      Are you calling Feynman and Sagan idiots? If not, what it has to do with idiots out there? The article was about geniuses, not idiots.
       
      Anna
      this is absurd anna..there are plenty of "idiots " out there that have used all these drugs, we just do not get to hear about them... merle



        DRUGS

      10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

      Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use?
      August 14, 2013  |

      Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It's an interesting hypothesis, and one that's been gaining momentum in recent years.

      If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: history has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let's meet 10 of history's most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

      1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine

      To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence; he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: "If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it... I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success."

      Freud published such a review, titled "Uber Coca" in 1884. Interestingly, Freud's paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud's relationship with cocaine,check out this post by Scicurious.)

      2. Francis Crick — LSD

      Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick, and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life's information.

      In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick's — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University's researchers often used LSD in small amounts as "a thinking tool." Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually "perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD."

      3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixers

      In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented "Vin Mariani," a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeax could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

      4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines

      Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity; his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age; and his tendency to show up on his colleagues' doorsteps demanding they ''open their minds'' to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.

      His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös' de factobiographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös' proclivity for amphetamine use:

      Like all of Erdös's friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, "You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month." He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.


       

      5. Steve Jobs — LSD

      LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was "one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life." What's more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn't had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently-published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates' dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:

      "Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he's more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people's ideas."

      "He'd be a broader guy," Jobs says about Gates, "if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger."

      6. Bill Gates — LSD

      Which is funny, because Bill Gates totallydidexperiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:

      PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
      GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
      PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
      GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
      PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
      GATES: [Smiles]
      PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
      GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don't think at this age I could. I don't think you're as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.


       

      7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine

      Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain; founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins, and whales; invented the world's first sensory deprivation changer; and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.

      It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use, and sensory deprivation often overlapped.


       

      8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine

      Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. InSurely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, he writes, "You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don't want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It's the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations."

      Nevertheless, Feynman's curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine, and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

      9. Kary Mullis — LSD

      Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let's put it this way: If you've worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980's, there is an exceedingly good chance you've performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn't invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research,securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistryin the process.

      The secret to Mullis' breakthrough? In a September, 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he "took plenty of LSD" In the sixties and seventies, going so far as to call his "mind-opening" experimentation with psychedelics "much more important than any courses [he] ever took." A few years later, in an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Sciencedocumentary, Mullis mused aloud: "What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?" To which he replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."

      10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana

      Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagandid contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled Marijuana Reconsidered that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name "Mr. X." The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan's death.

       

      Robert T. Gonzalez is a science writer for io9, a daily publication that covers science, science fiction, and the future.



       






    • Edward Korber
      Iq and substance use ( as opposed to dependence) Authors James White and G. David Batty published their study online in the Journal of Epidemiology and
      Message 2 of 14 , Aug 20 5:41 PM
        Iq and substance use ( as opposed to dependence)
        Authors James White and G. David Batty published their study online in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, and looked at data from almost 8,000 people over several decades to test what habits and qualities are tied to drug use.

        Be well
        E Korber
        On Aug 20, 2013, at 6:02 PM, merle lester <bmlester@...> wrote:



         kevin... you are making an assumption...where is your statistical evidence that so called intelligent  people do not do hard drugs....?...merle


        That’s rather impolite and employs a primitive, pre-statistical kind of thinking.
         
        It’s true that there are people from geniuses to idiots who do drugs but the
        question here is whether there’s a correlation between intelligence and drug
        use.
         
        The answer depends, first of all, on which drugs. Lots of smart people
        experiment with pot, alcohol, and psychedelics. Fewer get into hard drugs.
        This is reflected in the list of geniuses and their drugs of choice below.
         
        Then there’s the question of addiction, as opposed to casual use. And
        susceptibility to that (and to a lot of other psychological problems) seems to
        increase as you go in either direction from around IQ 120.
         
         
        Kevin Langdon
         
         
         
        Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2013 8:04 PM
        Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
         

        anna.... take time to read... "is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use"...
        no because my answer is as stated..there are plenty of" idiots" out there who do drugs,,,merle

         
        On 18/08/2013, at 7:38 AM, Anna wrote:
        Are you calling Feynman and Sagan idiots? If not, what it has to do with idiots out there? The article was about geniuses, not idiots.
         
        Anna
        this is absurd anna..there are plenty of "idiots " out there that have used all these drugs, we just do not get to hear about them... merle



          DRUGS

        10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

        Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use?
        August 14, 2013  |

        Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It's an interesting hypothesis, and one that's been gaining momentum in recent years.

        If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: history has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let's meet 10 of history's most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

        1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine

        To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence; he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: "If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it... I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success."

        Freud published such a review, titled "Uber Coca" in 1884. Interestingly, Freud's paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud's relationship with cocaine,check out this post by Scicurious.)

        2. Francis Crick — LSD

        Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick, and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life's information.

        In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick's — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University's researchers often used LSD in small amounts as "a thinking tool." Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually "perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD."

        3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixers

        In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented "Vin Mariani," a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeax could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

        4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines

        Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity; his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age; and his tendency to show up on his colleagues' doorsteps demanding they ''open their minds'' to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.

        His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös' de factobiographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös' proclivity for amphetamine use:

        Like all of Erdös's friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, "You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month." He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.


         

        5. Steve Jobs — LSD

        LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was "one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life." What's more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn't had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently-published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates' dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:

        "Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he's more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people's ideas."

        "He'd be a broader guy," Jobs says about Gates, "if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger."

        6. Bill Gates — LSD

        Which is funny, because Bill Gates totallydidexperiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:

        PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
        GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
        PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
        GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
        PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
        GATES: [Smiles]
        PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
        GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don't think at this age I could. I don't think you're as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.


         

        7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine

        Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain; founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins, and whales; invented the world's first sensory deprivation changer; and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.

        It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use, and sensory deprivation often overlapped.


         

        8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine

        Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. InSurely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, he writes, "You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don't want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It's the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations."

        Nevertheless, Feynman's curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine, and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

        9. Kary Mullis — LSD

        Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let's put it this way: If you've worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980's, there is an exceedingly good chance you've performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn't invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research,securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistryin the process.

        The secret to Mullis' breakthrough? In a September, 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he "took plenty of LSD" In the sixties and seventies, going so far as to call his "mind-opening" experimentation with psychedelics "much more important than any courses [he] ever took." A few years later, in an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Sciencedocumentary, Mullis mused aloud: "What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?" To which he replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."

        10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana

        Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagandid contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled Marijuana Reconsidered that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name "Mr. X." The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan's death.

         

        Robert T. Gonzalez is a science writer for io9, a daily publication that covers science, science fiction, and the future.



         






      • Anna
        Hi Kevin, The article tells us that drugs can expand consciousness in intelligent people. Or at least, this is what drugs did for certain exceptional
        Message 3 of 14 , Aug 20 8:58 PM
          Hi Kevin,
          The article tells us that drugs can expand consciousness in intelligent people. Or at least, this is what drugs did for certain exceptional individuals. Nowhere it was said that drugs make people more intelligent, so I do not understand how Merle could came to such conclusion, since the fact that idiots also take drugs is irrelevant here.
          However, I would ask Merle to offer any evidence that drugs do not expand  consciousness in idiots just like they do in intelligent people. I am not aware of any such study.
           
          Anna
           
          Sent: Tuesday, August 20, 2013 1:49 PM
          Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
           

          That’s rather impolite and employs a primitive, pre-statistical kind of thinking.
           
          It’s true that there are people from geniuses to idiots who do drugs but the
          question here is whether there’s a correlation between intelligence and drug
          use.
           
          The answer depends, first of all, on which drugs. Lots of smart people
          experiment with pot, alcohol, and psychedelics. Fewer get into hard drugs.
          This is reflected in the list of geniuses and their drugs of choice below.
           
          Then there’s the question of addiction, as opposed to casual use. And
          susceptibility to that (and to a lot of other psychological problems) seems to
          increase as you go in either direction from around IQ 120.
           
           
          Kevin Langdon
           
           
           
          Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2013 8:04 PM
          Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
           

          anna.... take time to read... "is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use"...
          no because my answer is as stated..there are plenty of" idiots" out there who do drugs,,,merle

           
          On 18/08/2013, at 7:38 AM, Anna wrote:
          Are you calling Feynman and Sagan idiots? If not, what it has to do with idiots out there? The article was about geniuses, not idiots.
           
          Anna
          this is absurd anna..there are plenty of "idiots " out there that have used all these drugs, we just do not get to hear about them... merle



            DRUGS

          10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

          Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use?
          August 14, 2013  |

          Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It's an interesting hypothesis, and one that's been gaining momentum in recent years.

          If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: history has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let's meet 10 of history's most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

          1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine

          To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence; he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: "If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it... I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success."

          Freud published such a review, titled "Uber Coca" in 1884. Interestingly, Freud's paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud's relationship with cocaine,check out this post by Scicurious.)

          2. Francis Crick — LSD

          Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick, and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life's information.

          In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick's — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University's researchers often used LSD in small amounts as "a thinking tool." Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually "perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD."

          3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixers

          In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented "Vin Mariani," a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeax could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

          4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines

          Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity; his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age; and his tendency to show up on his colleagues' doorsteps demanding they ''open their minds'' to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.

          His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös' de factobiographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös' proclivity for amphetamine use:

          Like all of Erdös's friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, "You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month." He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.


           

          5. Steve Jobs — LSD

          LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was "one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life." What's more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn't had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently-published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates' dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:

          "Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he's more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people's ideas."

          "He'd be a broader guy," Jobs says about Gates, "if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger."

          6. Bill Gates — LSD

          Which is funny, because Bill Gates totallydidexperiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:

          PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
          GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
          PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
          GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
          PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
          GATES: [Smiles]
          PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
          GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don't think at this age I could. I don't think you're as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.


           

          7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine

          Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain; founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins, and whales; invented the world's first sensory deprivation changer; and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.

          It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use, and sensory deprivation often overlapped.


           

          8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine

          Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. InSurely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, he writes, "You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don't want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It's the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations."

          Nevertheless, Feynman's curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine, and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

          9. Kary Mullis — LSD

          Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let's put it this way: If you've worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980's, there is an exceedingly good chance you've performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn't invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research,securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistryin the process.

          The secret to Mullis' breakthrough? In a September, 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he "took plenty of LSD" In the sixties and seventies, going so far as to call his "mind-opening" experimentation with psychedelics "much more important than any courses [he] ever took." A few years later, in an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Sciencedocumentary, Mullis mused aloud: "What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?" To which he replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."

          10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana

          Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagandid contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled Marijuana Reconsidered that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name "Mr. X." The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan's death.

           

          Robert T. Gonzalez is a science writer for io9, a daily publication that covers science, science fiction, and the future.



           


           
        • Anna
          You just do not get it. Related is not the same as correlated. The question is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug
          Message 4 of 14 , Aug 20 9:06 PM
            You just do not get it. Related is not the same as correlated.
            The question  "is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use"...does not imply  correlation between drug use and intelligence, but rather whether being intelligent makes a person want to take drugs to expand consciousness ( as explained in the article).
             
            Anna
             
            Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2013 9:04 PM
            Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
             


            anna.... take time to read... "is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use"...
            no because my answer is as stated..there are plenty of" idiots" out there who do drugs,,,merle




             
            On 18/08/2013, at 7:38 AM, Anna wrote:



            Are you calling Feynman and Sagan idiots? If not, what it has to do with idiots out there? The article was about geniuses, not idiots.
             
            Anna
             


            this is absurd anna..there are plenty of "idiots " out there that have used all these drugs, we just do not get to hear about them... merle



              DRUGS

            10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

            Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use?
            August 14, 2013  |

            Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It's an interesting hypothesis, and one that's been gaining momentum in recent years.

            If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: history has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let's meet 10 of history's most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

            1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine

            To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence; he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: "If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it... I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success."

            Freud published such a review, titled "Uber Coca" in 1884. Interestingly, Freud's paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud's relationship with cocaine,check out this post by Scicurious.)

            2. Francis Crick — LSD

            Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick, and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life's information.

            In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick's — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University's researchers often used LSD in small amounts as "a thinking tool." Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually "perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD."

            3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixers

            In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented "Vin Mariani," a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeax could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

            4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines

            Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity; his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age; and his tendency to show up on his colleagues' doorsteps demanding they ''open their minds'' to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.

            His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös' de factobiographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös' proclivity for amphetamine use:

            Like all of Erdös's friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, "You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month." He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.


             

            5. Steve Jobs — LSD

            LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was "one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life." What's more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn't had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently-published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates' dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:

            "Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he's more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people's ideas."

            "He'd be a broader guy," Jobs says about Gates, "if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger."

            6. Bill Gates — LSD

            Which is funny, because Bill Gates totallydidexperiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:

            PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
            GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
            PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
            GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
            PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
            GATES: [Smiles]
            PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
            GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don't think at this age I could. I don't think you're as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.


             

            7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine

            Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain; founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins, and whales; invented the world's first sensory deprivation changer; and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.

            It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use, and sensory deprivation often overlapped.


             

            8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine

            Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. InSurely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, he writes, "You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don't want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It's the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations."

            Nevertheless, Feynman's curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine, and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

            9. Kary Mullis — LSD

            Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let's put it this way: If you've worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980's, there is an exceedingly good chance you've performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn't invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research,securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistryin the process.

            The secret to Mullis' breakthrough? In a September, 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he "took plenty of LSD" In the sixties and seventies, going so far as to call his "mind-opening" experimentation with psychedelics "much more important than any courses [he] ever took." A few years later, in an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Sciencedocumentary, Mullis mused aloud: "What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?" To which he replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."

            10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana

            Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagandid contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled Marijuana Reconsidered that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name "Mr. X." The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan's death.

             

            Robert T. Gonzalez is a science writer for io9, a daily publication that covers science, science fiction, and the future.



             


             
          • merle lester
            anna... i sniff a snob here... you are making an assumption that intelligence and drug taking are about consciousness raising ... think again.. how conscious
            Message 5 of 14 , Aug 20 10:08 PM



               anna... 

              i sniff a snob here...

              you are making an assumption that intelligence and drug taking are about consciousness raising

              ... think again..

              how conscious raising is alcohol and apart from that any other drug?... 

              you are implying that all intelligent people are attempting to expand their consciousness...

              how intelligent does one have to be to fall into your consciousness raising  spectrum? 

              merle



              On 21/08/2013, at 2:06 PM, Anna wrote:



              You just do not get it. Related is not the same as correlated.
              The question  "is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use"...does not imply  correlation between drug use and intelligence, but rather whether being intelligent makes a person want to take drugs to expand consciousness ( as explained in the article).
               
              Anna
               
              Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2013 9:04 PM
              Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
               


              anna.... take time to read... "is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use"...
              no because my answer is as stated..there are plenty of" idiots" out there who do drugs,,,merle




               
              On 18/08/2013, at 7:38 AM, Anna wrote:



              Are you calling Feynman and Sagan idiots? If not, what it has to do with idiots out there? The article was about geniuses, not idiots.
               
              Anna
               


              this is absurd anna..there are plenty of "idiots " out there that have used all these drugs, we just do not get to hear about them... merle



                DRUGS

              10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

              Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use?
              August 14, 2013  |

              Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It's an interesting hypothesis, and one that's been gaining momentum in recent years.

              If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: history has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let's meet 10 of history's most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

              1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine

              To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence; he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: "If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it... I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success."

              Freud published such a review, titled "Uber Coca" in 1884. Interestingly, Freud's paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud's relationship with cocaine,check out this post by Scicurious.)

              2. Francis Crick — LSD

              Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick, and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life's information.

              In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick's — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University's researchers often used LSD in small amounts as "a thinking tool." Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually "perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD."

              3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixers

              In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented "Vin Mariani," a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeax could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

              4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines

              Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity; his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age; and his tendency to show up on his colleagues' doorsteps demanding they ''open their minds'' to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.

              His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös' de factobiographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös' proclivity for amphetamine use:

              Like all of Erdös's friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, "You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month." He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.


               

              5. Steve Jobs — LSD

              LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was "one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life." What's more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn't had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently-published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates' dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:

              "Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he's more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people's ideas."

              "He'd be a broader guy," Jobs says about Gates, "if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger."

              6. Bill Gates — LSD

              Which is funny, because Bill Gates totallydidexperiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:

              PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
              GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
              PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
              GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
              PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
              GATES: [Smiles]
              PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
              GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don't think at this age I could. I don't think you're as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.


               

              7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine

              Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain; founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins, and whales; invented the world's first sensory deprivation changer; and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.

              It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use, and sensory deprivation often overlapped.


               

              8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine

              Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. InSurely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, he writes, "You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don't want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It's the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations."

              Nevertheless, Feynman's curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine, and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

              9. Kary Mullis — LSD

              Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let's put it this way: If you've worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980's, there is an exceedingly good chance you've performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn't invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research,securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistryin the process.

              The secret to Mullis' breakthrough? In a September, 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he "took plenty of LSD" In the sixties and seventies, going so far as to call his "mind-opening" experimentation with psychedelics "much more important than any courses [he] ever took." A few years later, in an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Sciencedocumentary, Mullis mused aloud: "What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?" To which he replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."

              10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana

              Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagandid contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled Marijuana Reconsidered that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name "Mr. X." The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan's death.

               

              Robert T. Gonzalez is a science writer for io9, a daily publication that covers science, science fiction, and the future.



               


               



            • merle lester
              anna...you are making an assumption that drugs expand consciousness.. proof please...merle ... anna...you are making an assumption that drugs expand
              Message 6 of 14 , Aug 20 10:11 PM



                 anna...you are making an assumption that drugs expand consciousness.. proof please...merle


                Hi Kevin,
                The article tells us that drugs can expand consciousness in intelligent people. Or at least, this is what drugs did for certain exceptional individuals. Nowhere it was said that drugs make people more intelligent, so I do not understand how Merle could came to such conclusion, since the fact that idiots also take drugs is irrelevant here.
                However, I would ask Merle to offer any evidence that drugs do not expand  consciousness in idiots just like they do in intelligent people. I am not aware of any such study.
                 
                Anna
                 
                Sent: Tuesday, August 20, 2013 1:49 PM
                Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

                That’s rather impolite and employs a primitive, pre-statistical kind of thinking.
                 
                It’s true that there are people from geniuses to idiots who do drugs but the
                question here is whether there’s a correlation between intelligence and drug
                use.
                 
                The answer depends, first of all, on which drugs. Lots of smart people
                experiment with pot, alcohol, and psychedelics. Fewer get into hard drugs.
                This is reflected in the list of geniuses and their drugs of choice below.
                 
                Then there’s the question of addiction, as opposed to casual use. And
                susceptibility to that (and to a lot of other psychological problems) seems to
                increase as you go in either direction from around IQ 120.
                 
                 
                Kevin Langdon
                 
                 
                 
                F


              • mark hubey
                Who said all these people were geniuses ? ... Who said all these people were geniuses ? On Aug 17, 2013 8:57 PM, Anna wrote: á Are you
                Message 7 of 14 , Aug 20 10:23 PM

                  Who said all these people were geniuses ?

                  On Aug 17, 2013 8:57 PM, "Anna" <pantheon@...> wrote:
                   

                  Are you calling Feynman and Sagan idiots? If not, what it has to do with idiots out there? The article was about geniuses, not idiots.
                   
                  Anna
                   
                  Sent: Friday, August 16, 2013 8:20 PM
                  Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
                   



                  this is absurd anna..there are plenty of "idiots " out there that have used all these drugs, we just do not get to hear about them... merle



                    DRUGS

                  10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

                  Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use?
                  August 14, 2013  |

                  Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It's an interesting hypothesis, and one that's been gaining momentum in recent years.

                  If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: history has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let's meet 10 of history's most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

                  1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine

                  To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence; he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: "If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it... I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success."

                  Freud published such a review, titled "Uber Coca" in 1884. Interestingly, Freud's paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud's relationship with cocaine,check out this post by Scicurious.)

                  2. Francis Crick — LSD

                  Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick, and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life's information.

                  In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick's — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University's researchers often used LSD in small amounts as "a thinking tool." Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually "perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD."

                  3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixers

                  In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented "Vin Mariani," a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeax could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

                  4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines

                  Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity; his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age; and his tendency to show up on his colleagues' doorsteps demanding they ''open their minds'' to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.

                  His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös' de factobiographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös' proclivity for amphetamine use:

                  Like all of Erdös's friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, "You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month." He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.


                   

                  5. Steve Jobs — LSD

                  LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was "one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life." What's more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn't had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently-published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates' dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:

                  "Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he's more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people's ideas."

                  "He'd be a broader guy," Jobs says about Gates, "if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger."

                  6. Bill Gates — LSD

                  Which is funny, because Bill Gates totallydidexperiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:

                  PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
                  GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
                  PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
                  GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
                  PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
                  GATES: [Smiles]
                  PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
                  GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don't think at this age I could. I don't think you're as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.


                   

                  7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine

                  Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain; founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins, and whales; invented the world's first sensory deprivation changer; and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.

                  It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use, and sensory deprivation often overlapped.


                   

                  8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine

                  Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. InSurely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, he writes, "You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don't want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It's the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations."

                  Nevertheless, Feynman's curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine, and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

                  9. Kary Mullis — LSD

                  Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let's put it this way: If you've worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980's, there is an exceedingly good chance you've performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn't invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research,securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistryin the process.

                  The secret to Mullis' breakthrough? In a September, 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he "took plenty of LSD" In the sixties and seventies, going so far as to call his "mind-opening" experimentation with psychedelics "much more important than any courses [he] ever took." A few years later, in an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Sciencedocumentary, Mullis mused aloud: "What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?" To which he replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."

                  10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana

                  Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagandid contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled Marijuana Reconsidered that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name "Mr. X." The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan's death.

                   

                  Robert T. Gonzalez is a science writer for io9, a daily publication that covers science, science fiction, and the future.




                • merle lester
                  yes indeed anna..who ? merle ... yes indeed anna..who ? merle On 21/08/2013, at 3:23 PM, mark hubey wrote: Who said all these people were geniuses ? On Aug 17,
                  Message 8 of 14 , Aug 21 12:42 AM



                     yes indeed anna..who ? merle






                    On 21/08/2013, at 3:23 PM, mark hubey wrote:



                    Who said all these people were geniuses ?

                    On Aug 17, 2013 8:57 PM, "Anna" <pantheon@...> wrote:
                     

                    Are you calling Feynman and Sagan idiots? If not, what it has to do with idiots out there? The article was about geniuses, not idiots.
                     
                    Anna
                     
                    Sent: Friday, August 16, 2013 8:20 PM
                    Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
                     



                    this is absurd anna..there are plenty of "idiots " out there that have used all these drugs, we just do not get to hear about them... merle



                      DRUGS

                    10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

                    Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use?
                    August 14, 2013  |

                    Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It's an interesting hypothesis, and one that's been gaining momentum in recent years.

                    If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: history has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let's meet 10 of history's most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

                    1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine

                    To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence; he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: "If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it... I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success."

                    Freud published such a review, titled "Uber Coca" in 1884. Interestingly, Freud's paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud's relationship with cocaine,check out this post by Scicurious.)

                    2. Francis Crick — LSD

                    Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick, and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life's information.

                    In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick's — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University's researchers often used LSD in small amounts as "a thinking tool." Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually "perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD."

                    3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixers

                    In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented "Vin Mariani," a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeax could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

                    4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines

                    Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity; his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age; and his tendency to show up on his colleagues' doorsteps demanding they ''open their minds'' to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.

                    His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös' de factobiographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös' proclivity for amphetamine use:

                    Like all of Erdös's friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, "You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month." He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.


                     

                    5. Steve Jobs — LSD

                    LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was "one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life." What's more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn't had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently-published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates' dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:

                    "Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he's more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people's ideas."

                    "He'd be a broader guy," Jobs says about Gates, "if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger."

                    6. Bill Gates — LSD

                    Which is funny, because Bill Gates totallydidexperiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:

                    PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
                    GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
                    PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
                    GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
                    PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
                    GATES: [Smiles]
                    PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
                    GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don't think at this age I could. I don't think you're as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.


                     

                    7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine

                    Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain; founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins, and whales; invented the world's first sensory deprivation changer; and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.

                    It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use, and sensory deprivation often overlapped.


                     

                    8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine

                    Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. InSurely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, he writes, "You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don't want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It's the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations."

                    Nevertheless, Feynman's curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine, and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

                    9. Kary Mullis — LSD

                    Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let's put it this way: If you've worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980's, there is an exceedingly good chance you've performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn't invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research,securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistryin the process.

                    The secret to Mullis' breakthrough? In a September, 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he "took plenty of LSD" In the sixties and seventies, going so far as to call his "mind-opening" experimentation with psychedelics "much more important than any courses [he] ever took." A few years later, in an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Sciencedocumentary, Mullis mused aloud: "What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?" To which he replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."

                    10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana

                    Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagandid contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled Marijuana Reconsidered that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name "Mr. X." The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan's death.

                     

                    Robert T. Gonzalez is a science writer for io9, a daily publication that covers science, science fiction, and the future.









                  • Anna
                    Irrelevant. Anna From: mark hubey Sent: Tuesday, August 20, 2013 11:23 PM To: Evol Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of
                    Message 9 of 14 , Aug 21 1:12 AM
                      Irrelevant.
                       
                      Anna
                       
                      Sent: Tuesday, August 20, 2013 11:23 PM
                      To: Evol
                      Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
                       

                      Who said all these people were geniuses ?

                      On Aug 17, 2013 8:57 PM, "Anna" <pantheon@...> wrote:
                       

                      Are you calling Feynman and Sagan idiots? If not, what it has to do with idiots out there? The article was about geniuses, not idiots.
                       
                      Anna
                       
                      Sent: Friday, August 16, 2013 8:20 PM
                      Subject: Re: [evol-psych] 10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice
                       



                      this is absurd anna..there are plenty of "idiots " out there that have used all these drugs, we just do not get to hear about them... merle



                        DRUGS

                      10 Geniuses Who Used Drugs -- And Their Drugs of Choice

                      Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use?
                      August 14, 2013  |

                      Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It's an interesting hypothesis, and one that's been gaining momentum in recent years.

                      If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: history has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let's meet 10 of history's most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

                      1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine

                      To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence; he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: "If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it... I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success."

                      Freud published such a review, titled "Uber Coca" in 1884. Interestingly, Freud's paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud's relationship with cocaine,check out this post by Scicurious.)

                      2. Francis Crick — LSD

                      Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick, and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life's information.

                      In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick's — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University's researchers often used LSD in small amounts as "a thinking tool." Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually "perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD."

                      3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixers

                      In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented "Vin Mariani," a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeax could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

                      4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines

                      Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity; his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age; and his tendency to show up on his colleagues' doorsteps demanding they ''open their minds'' to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.

                      His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös' de factobiographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös' proclivity for amphetamine use:

                      Like all of Erdös's friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, "You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month." He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.


                       

                      5. Steve Jobs — LSD

                      LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was "one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life." What's more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn't had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently-published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates' dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:

                      "Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he's more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people's ideas."

                      "He'd be a broader guy," Jobs says about Gates, "if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger."

                      6. Bill Gates — LSD

                      Which is funny, because Bill Gates totallydidexperiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:

                      PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
                      GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
                      PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
                      GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
                      PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
                      GATES: [Smiles]
                      PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
                      GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don't think at this age I could. I don't think you're as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.


                       

                      7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine

                      Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain; founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins, and whales; invented the world's first sensory deprivation changer; and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.

                      It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use, and sensory deprivation often overlapped.


                       

                      8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine

                      Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. InSurely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, he writes, "You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don't want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It's the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations."

                      Nevertheless, Feynman's curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine, and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

                      9. Kary Mullis — LSD

                      Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let's put it this way: If you've worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980's, there is an exceedingly good chance you've performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn't invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research,securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistryin the process.

                      The secret to Mullis' breakthrough? In a September, 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he "took plenty of LSD" In the sixties and seventies, going so far as to call his "mind-opening" experimentation with psychedelics "much more important than any courses [he] ever took." A few years later, in an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Sciencedocumentary, Mullis mused aloud: "What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?" To which he replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."

                      10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana

                      Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagandid contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled Marijuana Reconsidered that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name "Mr. X." The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan's death.

                       

                      Robert T. Gonzalez is a science writer for io9, a daily publication that covers science, science fiction, and the future.




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