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Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

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  • Timothy McCajor Hall
    Copy-number variation would probably be better described as genomic or chromosomal damage than gene damage, but the distinction would be lost on the general
    Message 1 of 12 , Apr 9, 2013
      Copy-number variation would probably be better described as genomic or chromosomal damage than gene damage, but the distinction would be lost on the general public. CNVs have certainly been linked to disease states, and can result in over- or under-expression of a given gene, with over- or under-activity of the gene product(s).

      -- Cage Hall 

      On 8 Apr 2013, at 15:21, "Leif Ekblad" <leif@...> wrote:

       

      Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
      CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
      damage. That is elementary.

      Leif Ekblad

      ----- Original Message -----
      From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
      To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
      Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
      Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

      > Hi All!
      >
      > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
      > chromsome damage, as well.
      >
      >
      > [COPY:]
      >
      > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
      > Editor's Choice
      > Academic Journal
      > Main Category: ADHD
      > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
      > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
      >
      >
      > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
      > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
      >
      > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
      >
      > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
      >
      > Article opinions: 12 posts
      >
      > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
      > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
      > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
      > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
      > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
      > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
      > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
      > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
      > ADHD and these gene variants.
      >
      > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
      >
      >
      > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
      > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
      > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
      > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
      > with the disorder."
      > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
      > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
      > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
      > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
      > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
      >
      > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
      > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
      > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
      > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
      >
      > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
      > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
      > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
      > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
      > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
      > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
      > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
      > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
      > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
      >
      > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
      > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
      > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
      >
      > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
      > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
      > neurotransmitter.
      > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
      > Hakonarson said:
      >
      >
      > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
      > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
      > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
      > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
      > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
      > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
      >
      >
      > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
      >
      >
      > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
      > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
      > important."
      >
      >
      > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
      > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
      > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
      > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
      > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
      >
      > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
      > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
      > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
      > New ADHD therapies may be developed
      > Dr. Elia explained:
      >
      >
      > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
      > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
      > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
      >
      >
      > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
      > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
      > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
      > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
      > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
      > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
      >
      > Written by Christian Nordqvist
      > Copyright: Medical News Today
      > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
      >
      >
      > NKO
      >
      >
      >
      > ------------------------------------
      >
      > Yahoo! Groups Links
      >
      >
      >


    • Leif Ekblad
      Yes, one example is fragile-X, which is caused by excessive copies. But in the ordinary case it seems like CNVs often regulate gene expression, and if a gene
      Message 2 of 12 , Apr 9, 2013
        Yes, one example is fragile-X, which is caused by excessive copies. But in the ordinary case it seems like CNVs often regulate gene expression, and if a gene expression difference is damage or not is not a simple issue as Nils states. It could just as well be diversity, which was my point.
         
        One example of a CNV difference that is related to ADHD is the DRD4 7R repeat. The most common variant has 4 repeats, while the less common has 7. The 7 repeat version is associated with novelity seeking. But according to Nils it is gene damage.
         
        Leif Ekblad
         
        ----- Original Message -----
        Sent: Tuesday, April 09, 2013 5:04 PM
        Subject: Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

        Copy-number variation would probably be better described as genomic or chromosomal damage than gene damage, but the distinction would be lost on the general public. CNVs have certainly been linked to disease states, and can result in over- or under-expression of a given gene, with over- or under-activity of the gene product(s).

        -- Cage Hall 

        On 8 Apr 2013, at 15:21, "Leif Ekblad" <leif@...> wrote:

         

        Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
        CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
        damage. That is elementary.

        Leif Ekblad

        ----- Original Message -----
        From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
        To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
        Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
        Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

        > Hi All!
        >
        > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
        > chromsome damage, as well.
        >
        >
        > [COPY:]
        >
        > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
        > Editor's Choice
        > Academic Journal
        > Main Category: ADHD
        > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
        > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
        >
        >
        > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
        > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
        >
        > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
        >
        > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
        >
        > Article opinions: 12 posts
        >
        > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
        > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
        > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
        > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
        > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
        > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
        > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
        > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
        > ADHD and these gene variants.
        >
        > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
        >
        >
        > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
        > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
        > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
        > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
        > with the disorder."
        > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
        > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
        > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
        > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
        > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
        >
        > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
        > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
        > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
        > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
        >
        > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
        > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
        > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
        > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
        > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
        > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
        > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
        > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
        > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
        >
        > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
        > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
        > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
        >
        > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
        > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
        > neurotransmitter.
        > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
        > Hakonarson said:
        >
        >
        > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
        > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
        > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
        > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
        > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
        > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
        >
        >
        > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
        >
        >
        > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
        > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
        > important."
        >
        >
        > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
        > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
        > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
        > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
        > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
        >
        > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
        > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
        > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
        > New ADHD therapies may be developed
        > Dr. Elia explained:
        >
        >
        > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
        > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
        > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
        >
        >
        > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
        > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
        > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
        > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
        > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
        > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
        >
        > Written by Christian Nordqvist
        > Copyright: Medical News Today
        > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
        >
        >
        > NKO
        >
        >
        >
        > ------------------------------------
        >
        > Yahoo! Groups Links
        >
        >
        >


      • Leif Ekblad
        James, I m stunned that you believe that CNVs are mutations. CNVs are differences in the number of copies of a certain sequence, not point mutations. Leif
        Message 3 of 12 , Apr 9, 2013
          
          James,
           
          I'm stunned that you believe that CNVs are mutations. CNVs are differences in the number of copies of a certain sequence, not point mutations.
           
          Leif Ekblad
           
           
          ----- Original Message -----
          Sent: Tuesday, April 09, 2013 4:14 AM
          Subject: Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

          And now we have Ekblad pretending he also, like the pretender Williams, understands genetics. Perhaps Ekblad will tell us the differences between missense and nonsense mutations, since Williams will not. 
           
          James V. Kohl
          Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
          Independent researcher
          Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



          From: Leif Ekblad <leif@...>
          To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Mon, April 8, 2013 8:13:00 PM
          Subject: Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

           

          Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
          CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
          damage. That is elementary.

          Leif Ekblad

          ----- Original Message -----
          From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
          To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
          Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
          Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

          > Hi All!
          >
          > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
          > chromsome damage, as well.
          >
          >
          > [COPY:]
          >
          > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
          > Editor's Choice
          > Academic Journal
          > Main Category: ADHD
          > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
          > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
          >
          >
          > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
          > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
          >
          > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
          >
          > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
          >
          > Article opinions: 12 posts
          >
          > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
          > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
          > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
          > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
          > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
          > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
          > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
          > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
          > ADHD and these gene variants.
          >
          > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
          >
          >
          > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
          > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
          > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
          > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
          > with the disorder."
          > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
          > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
          > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
          > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
          > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
          >
          > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
          > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
          > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
          > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
          >
          > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
          > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
          > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
          > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
          > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
          > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
          > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
          > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
          > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
          >
          > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
          > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
          > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
          >
          > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
          > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
          > neurotransmitter.
          > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
          > Hakonarson said:
          >
          >
          > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
          > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
          > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
          > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
          > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
          > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
          >
          >
          > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
          >
          >
          > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
          > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
          > important."
          >
          >
          > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
          > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
          > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
          > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
          > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
          >
          > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
          > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
          > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
          > New ADHD therapies may be developed
          > Dr. Elia explained:
          >
          >
          > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
          > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
          > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
          >
          >
          > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
          > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
          > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
          > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
          > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
          > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
          >
          > Written by Christian Nordqvist
          > Copyright: Medical News Today
          > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
          >
          >
          > NKO
          >
          >
          >
          > ------------------------------------
          >
          > Yahoo! Groups Links
          >
          >
          >

        • james kohl
          From: Leif Ekblad Yes, one example is fragile-X, which is caused by excessive copies. But in the ordinary case it seems like CNVs often
          Message 4 of 12 , Apr 9, 2013
            From: Leif Ekblad <leif@...>
            Yes, one example is fragile-X, which is caused by excessive copies. But in the ordinary case it seems like CNVs often regulate gene expression...

            Leif,

            I've told you several times and provided citations to support the fact that the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled microRNA/messenger RNA balance regulates gene expression. You seem unwilling to accept the fact that CNVs are nutrient dependent, which probably helps to explain your errant logic in the context of ridiculous mutations theory of adaptive evolution. Why don't you inform yourself about this, as I have repeatedly asked you to do? Now, even when Cage Hall tries to help you grasp the biological facts, you respond with more nonsense. Stop that!

            James V. Kohl
            Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
            Independent researcher
            Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


            From: Leif Ekblad <leif@...>....and if a gene expression difference is damage or not is not a simple issue as Nils states. It could just as well be diversity, which was my point.
             
            One example of a CNV difference that is related to ADHD is the DRD4 7R repeat. The most common variant has 4 repeats, while the less common has 7. The 7 repeat version is associated with novelity seeking. But according to Nils it is gene damage.
             
            Leif Ekblad
             
            ----- Original Message -----
            Sent: Tuesday, April 09, 2013 5:04 PM
            Subject: Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

            Copy-number variation would probably be better described as genomic or chromosomal damage than gene damage, but the distinction would be lost on the general public. CNVs have certainly been linked to disease states, and can result in over- or under-expression of a given gene, with over- or under-activity of the gene product(s).

            -- Cage Hall 

            On 8 Apr 2013, at 15:21, "Leif Ekblad" <leif@...> wrote:

             

            Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
            CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
            damage. That is elementary.

            Leif Ekblad

            ----- Original Message -----
            From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
            To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
            Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
            Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

            > Hi All!
            >
            > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
            > chromsome damage, as well.
            >
            >
            > [COPY:]
            >
            > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
            > Editor's Choice
            > Academic Journal
            > Main Category: ADHD
            > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
            > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
            >
            >
            > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
            > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
            >
            > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
            >
            > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
            >
            > Article opinions: 12 posts
            >
            > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
            > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
            > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
            > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
            > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
            > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
            > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
            > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
            > ADHD and these gene variants.
            >
            > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
            >
            >
            > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
            > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
            > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
            > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
            > with the disorder."
            > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
            > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
            > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
            > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
            > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
            >
            > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
            > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
            > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
            > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
            >
            > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
            > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
            > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
            > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
            > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
            > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
            > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
            > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
            > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
            >
            > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
            > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
            > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
            >
            > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
            > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
            > neurotransmitter.
            > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
            > Hakonarson said:
            >
            >
            > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
            > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
            > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
            > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
            > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
            > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
            >
            >
            > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
            >
            >
            > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
            > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
            > important."
            >
            >
            > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
            > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
            > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
            > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
            > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
            >
            > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
            > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
            > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
            > New ADHD therapies may be developed
            > Dr. Elia explained:
            >
            >
            > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
            > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
            > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
            >
            >
            > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
            > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
            > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
            > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
            > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
            > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
            >
            > Written by Christian Nordqvist
            > Copyright: Medical News Today
            > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
            >
            >
            > NKO
            >
            >
            >
            > ------------------------------------
            >
            > Yahoo! Groups Links
            >
            >
            >


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