Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

ADHD linked to four damaged genes

Expand Messages
  • Nils K.
    Hi All! Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have chromsome damage, as well. [COPY:] ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder Editor s Choice
    Message 1 of 12 , Apr 8, 2013
    • 0 Attachment
      Hi All!

      Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
      chromsome damage, as well.


      [COPY:]

      ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
      Editor's Choice
      Academic Journal
      Main Category: ADHD
      Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
      Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST


      email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
      ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder

      Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)

      Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)

      Article opinions: 12 posts

      Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family, appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways, offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with ADHD and these gene variants.

      Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:


      "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children with the disorder."
      ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
      ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.

      ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.

      The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
      Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
      The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) - duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.

      They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one with the strongest result was gene GMR5.

      Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a neurotransmitter.
      GRM pathway is important in ADHD
      Hakonarson said:


      "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with, affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."


      Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:


      "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very important."


      Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2 million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

      Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
      New ADHD therapies may be developed
      Dr. Elia explained:


      "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."


      Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.

      Written by Christian Nordqvist
      Copyright: Medical News Today
      Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today


      NKO
    • JVKohl
      ... This is where the role of amino acid substitutions enters the picture of adaptive evolution (e.g., in my model) via receptor-mediated nutrient-dependent
      Message 2 of 12 , Apr 8, 2013
      • 0 Attachment
        On 4/8/2013 10:35 AM, Nils K. wrote:
        They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one with the strongest result was gene GMR5.

        Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the proteins in our body
        This is where the role of amino acid substitutions enters the picture of adaptive evolution (e.g., in my model) via receptor-mediated nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects, which are controlled by the metabolism of nutrients to pheromones that control reproduction in species from microbes to man. The complexity of the systems biology and feedback loops required to get from the sensory environment to species diversification has not been addressed by mutations theory, which is a comparatively automagical way to end up with a new species. Note, however, that Williams brought up the missense mutations / nonsense mutations difference, as if he knew something about it. Unless someone who actually does understand the difference wishes to enter discussion, we will be left with even more nonsense than Williams has contributed to discussion in the past. The differences between missense and nonsense mutations may be critical to understanding adaptive evolution compared to mutation-driven physical and mental disorders.  For example, nutrients actually cause receptors to be produced that enable them to enter the cell and to alter protein biosynthesis. When a gene of large effect, like the one linked to the GMR5 receptor appears to be involved in ADHD, it might also be linked to differences in prenatal and postnatal nutrient stress and social stress that would aid in diagnosis and treatment -- not just in ADHD, but in other disorders of development that might be genetically predisposed and epigenetically effected.

        -- 
        James V. Kohl
        Medical laboratory scientist
        ASCP AMT ASCLS
        Independent researcher
        Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors...
        Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.
        http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/snp.v2i0.17338
        
        
      • clarence_sonny_williams
        Nils continues to misrepresent evolution with his use of the term damaged genes. Damaged by what? In the case in point here (4 alleles linked to ADHD),
        Message 3 of 12 , Apr 8, 2013
        • 0 Attachment
          Nils continues to misrepresent evolution with his use of the term
          "damaged genes." Damaged by what? In the case in point here (4 alleles
          linked to ADHD), those alleles were NOT the result of ANY "damage"
          whatsoever but resulted from some sort of quite natural mutation. In
          order for Nils' term "damaged gene" to be applicable, some sort of
          mutagen must be involved AND THAT IS NOT THE CASE HERE! In fact,
          science has discovered only a few human mutagens, but the search
          continues (e.g., endocrine disrupters may be a mutagen and not just act
          through epigenetic mechanisms) and those few are, indeed, dangerous and
          damaging. Through his egregious misrepresentations, Nils does a
          terribly disservice to the many good individuals attempting to keep us
          informed about environmental mutagens.

          Please, Nils, either learn some basic genetics or keep your self-serving
          idiotic phrase "damaged genes" to yourself!

          --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
          wrote:
          >
          > Hi All!
          >
          > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
          > chromsome damage, as well.
          >
          >
          > [COPY:]
          >
          > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
          > Editor's Choice
          > Academic Journal
          > Main Category: ADHD
          > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
          > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
          >
          >
          > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings
          for:
          > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
          >
          > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
          >
          > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
          >
          > Article opinions: 12 posts
          >
          > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
          appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
          children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder),
          researchers from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's
          Hospital of Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The
          authors add that their findings could help create drugs that target
          those pathways, offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with
          those specific gene variants. There are an estimated half-a-million
          American children with ADHD and these gene variants.
          >
          > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
          >
          >
          > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
          particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
          systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have
          a genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
          with the disorder."
          > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
          > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
          smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder.
          ADHD has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
          attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
          >
          > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it -
          scientists and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which
          interact in certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for
          ADHD, they do not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
          >
          > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD
          from a database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were
          compared with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD
          (controls). They did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
          > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
          > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
          duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
          preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with
          and 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
          >
          > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs
          in the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The
          one with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
          >
          > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
          proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is
          a neurotransmitter.
          > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
          > Hakonarson said:
          >
          >
          > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
          affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and
          interconnections in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are
          more likely to have alterations in these genes reinforces previous
          evidence that the GRM pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to
          the cause of the ADHD symptoms in a subset of children with the
          disease."
          >
          >
          > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
          >
          >
          > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the
          different subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is
          very important."
          >
          >
          > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be
          involved in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a
          major contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough.
          5.2 million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
          (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
          >
          > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models,
          brain imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that
          these pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
          > New ADHD therapies may be developed
          > Dr. Elia explained:
          >
          >
          > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are
          tailored to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step
          toward individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
          >
          >
          > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research
          and subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
          pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
          could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
          potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs.
          Preclinical studies will need to be carried out first on candidate
          medications.
          >
          > Written by Christian Nordqvist
          > Copyright: Medical News Today
          > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
          >
          >
          > NKO
          >
        • Leif Ekblad
          Excerpt: They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in the ADHD children . CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene damage. That
          Message 4 of 12 , Apr 8, 2013
          • 0 Attachment
            Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
            CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
            damage. That is elementary.

            Leif Ekblad


            ----- Original Message -----
            From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
            To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
            Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
            Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes


            > Hi All!
            >
            > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
            > chromsome damage, as well.
            >
            >
            > [COPY:]
            >
            > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
            > Editor's Choice
            > Academic Journal
            > Main Category: ADHD
            > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
            > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
            >
            >
            > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
            > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
            >
            > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
            >
            > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
            >
            > Article opinions: 12 posts
            >
            > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
            > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
            > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
            > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
            > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
            > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
            > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
            > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
            > ADHD and these gene variants.
            >
            > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
            >
            >
            > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
            > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
            > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
            > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
            > with the disorder."
            > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
            > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
            > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
            > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
            > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
            >
            > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
            > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
            > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
            > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
            >
            > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
            > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
            > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
            > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
            > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
            > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
            > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
            > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
            > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
            >
            > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
            > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
            > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
            >
            > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
            > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
            > neurotransmitter.
            > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
            > Hakonarson said:
            >
            >
            > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
            > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
            > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
            > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
            > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
            > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
            >
            >
            > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
            >
            >
            > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
            > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
            > important."
            >
            >
            > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
            > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
            > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
            > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
            > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
            >
            > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
            > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
            > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
            > New ADHD therapies may be developed
            > Dr. Elia explained:
            >
            >
            > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
            > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
            > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
            >
            >
            > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
            > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
            > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
            > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
            > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
            > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
            >
            > Written by Christian Nordqvist
            > Copyright: Medical News Today
            > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
            >
            >
            > NKO
            >
            >
            >
            > ------------------------------------
            >
            > Yahoo! Groups Links
            >
            >
            >
          • Edgar Owen
            Sonny, I fear it s more likely to be brain damage in this case.... Edgar
            Message 5 of 12 , Apr 8, 2013
            • 0 Attachment
              Sonny,

              I fear it's more likely to be brain damage in this case....

              Edgar



              On Apr 8, 2013, at 12:21 PM, clarence_sonny_williams wrote:

               

              Nils continues to misrepresent evolution with his use of the term
              "damaged genes." Damaged by what? In the case in point here (4 alleles
              linked to ADHD), those alleles were NOT the result of ANY "damage"
              whatsoever but resulted from some sort of quite natural mutation. In
              order for Nils' term "damaged gene" to be applicable, some sort of
              mutagen must be involved AND THAT IS NOT THE CASE HERE! In fact,
              science has discovered only a few human mutagens, but the search
              continues (e.g., endocrine disrupters may be a mutagen and not just act
              through epigenetic mechanisms) and those few are, indeed, dangerous and
              damaging. Through his egregious misrepresentations, Nils does a
              terribly disservice to the many good individuals attempting to keep us
              informed about environmental mutagens.

              Please, Nils, either learn some basic genetics or keep your self-serving
              idiotic phrase "damaged genes" to yourself!

              --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
              wrote:
              >
              > Hi All!
              >
              > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
              > chromsome damage, as well.
              >
              >
              > [COPY:]
              >
              > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
              > Editor's Choice
              > Academic Journal
              > Main Category: ADHD
              > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
              > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
              >
              >
              > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings
              for:
              > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
              >
              > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
              >
              > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
              >
              > Article opinions: 12 posts
              >
              > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
              appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
              children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder),
              researchers from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's
              Hospital of Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The
              authors add that their findings could help create drugs that target
              those pathways, offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with
              those specific gene variants. There are an estimated half-a-million
              American children with ADHD and these gene variants.
              >
              > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
              >
              >
              > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
              particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
              systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have
              a genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
              with the disorder."
              > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
              > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
              smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder.
              ADHD has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
              attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
              >
              > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it -
              scientists and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which
              interact in certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for
              ADHD, they do not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
              >
              > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD
              from a database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were
              compared with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD
              (controls). They did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
              > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
              > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
              duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
              preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with
              and 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
              >
              > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs
              in the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The
              one with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
              >
              > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
              proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is
              a neurotransmitter.
              > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
              > Hakonarson said:
              >
              >
              > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
              affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and
              interconnections in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are
              more likely to have alterations in these genes reinforces previous
              evidence that the GRM pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to
              the cause of the ADHD symptoms in a subset of children with the
              disease."
              >
              >
              > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
              >
              >
              > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the
              different subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is
              very important."
              >
              >
              > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be
              involved in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a
              major contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough.
              5.2 million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
              (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
              >
              > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models,
              brain imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that
              these pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
              > New ADHD therapies may be developed
              > Dr. Elia explained:
              >
              >
              > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are
              tailored to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step
              toward individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
              >
              >
              > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research
              and subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
              pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
              could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
              potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs.
              Preclinical studies will need to be carried out first on candidate
              medications.
              >
              > Written by Christian Nordqvist
              > Copyright: Medical News Today
              > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
              >
              >
              > NKO
              >


            • james kohl
              From: clarence_sonny_williams Nils continues to misrepresent evolution with his use of the term damaged genes. Damaged by what? In
              Message 6 of 12 , Apr 8, 2013
              • 0 Attachment
                From: clarence_sonny_williams <clarencew@...>
                Nils continues to misrepresent evolution with his use of the term

                "damaged genes." Damaged by what? In the case in point here (4 alleles
                linked to ADHD), those alleles were NOT the result of ANY "damage"
                whatsoever but resulted from some sort of quite natural mutation. In
                order for Nils' term "damaged gene" to be applicable, some sort of
                mutagen must be involved AND THAT IS NOT THE CASE HERE! In fact,
                science has discovered only a few human mutagens, but the search
                continues (e.g., endocrine disrupters may be a mutagen and not just act
                through epigenetic mechanisms) and those few are, indeed, dangerous and
                damaging. Through his egregious misrepresentations, Nils does a
                terribly disservice to the many good individuals attempting to keep us
                informed about environmental mutagens.

                JK: Elsewhere, in this same thread, Kohl wrote: "The complexity of the systems biology and feedback loops required to get from the sensory environment to species diversification has not been addressed by mutations theory, which is a comparatively automagical way to end up with a new species. Note, however, that Williams brought up the missense mutations / nonsense mutations difference, as if he knew something about it."

                Williams now again attacks Nils, instead of telling us all what it is that he thinks he knows about mutations, or how they cause adaptive evolution.

                 
                James V. Kohl
                Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                Independent researcher
                Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.





                Please, Nils, either learn some basic genetics or keep your self-serving
                idiotic phrase "damaged genes" to yourself!

                --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
                wrote:

                >
                > Hi All!
                >
                > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
                > chromsome damage, as well.
                >
                >
                > [COPY:]
                >
                > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                > Editor's Choice
                > Academic Journal
                > Main Category: ADHD
                > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
                > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
                >
                >
                > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings
                for:
                > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                >
                > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
                >
                > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
                >
                > Article opinions: 12 posts
                >
                > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
                appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
                children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder),
                researchers from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's
                Hospital of Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The
                authors add that their findings could help create drugs that target
                those pathways, offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with
                those specific gene variants. There are an estimated half-a-million
                American children with ADHD and these gene variants.
                >
                > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
                >
                >
                > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
                particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
                systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have
                a genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
                with the disorder."
                > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
                > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
                smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder.
                ADHD has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
                attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
                >
                > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it -
                scientists and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which
                interact in certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for
                ADHD, they do not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
                >
                > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD
                from a database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were
                compared with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD
                (controls). They did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
                > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
                > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
                duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
                preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with
                and 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
                >
                > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs
                in the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The
                one with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
                >
                > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
                proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is
                a neurotransmitter.
                > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
                > Hakonarson said:
                >
                >
                > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
                affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and
                interconnections in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are
                more likely to have alterations in these genes reinforces previous
                evidence that the GRM pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to
                the cause of the ADHD symptoms in a subset of children with the
                disease."
                >
                >
                > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
                >
                >
                > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the
                different subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is
                very important."
                >
                >
                > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be
                involved in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a
                major contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough.
                5.2 million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
                (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
                >
                > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models,
                brain imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that
                these pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
                > New ADHD therapies may be developed
                > Dr. Elia explained:
                >
                >
                > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are
                tailored to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step
                toward individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
                >
                >
                > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research
                and subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
                pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
                could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
                potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs.
                Preclinical studies will need to be carried out first on candidate
                medications.
                >
                > Written by Christian Nordqvist
                > Copyright: Medical News Today
                > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
                >
                >
                > NKO
                >

              • james kohl
                And now we have Ekblad pretending he also, like the pretender Williams, understands genetics. Perhaps Ekblad will tell us the differences between missense and
                Message 7 of 12 , Apr 8, 2013
                • 0 Attachment
                  And now we have Ekblad pretending he also, like the pretender Williams, understands genetics. Perhaps Ekblad will tell us the differences between missense and nonsense mutations, since Williams will not. 
                   
                  James V. Kohl
                  Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                  Independent researcher
                  Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



                  From: Leif Ekblad <leif@...>
                  To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Mon, April 8, 2013 8:13:00 PM
                  Subject: Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                   

                  Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
                  CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
                  damage. That is elementary.

                  Leif Ekblad

                  ----- Original Message -----
                  From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
                  To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
                  Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
                  Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                  > Hi All!
                  >
                  > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
                  > chromsome damage, as well.
                  >
                  >
                  > [COPY:]
                  >
                  > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                  > Editor's Choice
                  > Academic Journal
                  > Main Category: ADHD
                  > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
                  > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
                  >
                  >
                  > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
                  > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                  >
                  > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
                  >
                  > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
                  >
                  > Article opinions: 12 posts
                  >
                  > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
                  > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
                  > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
                  > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
                  > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
                  > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
                  > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
                  > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
                  > ADHD and these gene variants.
                  >
                  > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
                  >
                  >
                  > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
                  > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
                  > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
                  > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
                  > with the disorder."
                  > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
                  > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
                  > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
                  > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
                  > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
                  >
                  > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
                  > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
                  > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
                  > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
                  >
                  > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
                  > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
                  > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
                  > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
                  > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
                  > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
                  > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
                  > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
                  > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
                  >
                  > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
                  > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
                  > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
                  >
                  > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
                  > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
                  > neurotransmitter.
                  > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
                  > Hakonarson said:
                  >
                  >
                  > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
                  > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
                  > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
                  > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
                  > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
                  > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
                  >
                  >
                  > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
                  >
                  >
                  > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
                  > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
                  > important."
                  >
                  >
                  > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
                  > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
                  > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
                  > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
                  > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
                  >
                  > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
                  > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
                  > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
                  > New ADHD therapies may be developed
                  > Dr. Elia explained:
                  >
                  >
                  > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
                  > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
                  > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
                  >
                  >
                  > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
                  > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
                  > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
                  > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
                  > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
                  > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
                  >
                  > Written by Christian Nordqvist
                  > Copyright: Medical News Today
                  > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
                  >
                  >
                  > NKO
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > ------------------------------------
                  >
                  > Yahoo! Groups Links
                  >
                  >
                  >

                • james kohl
                  Williams wrote (excerpted from below). In the case in point here (4 alleles linked to ADHD), those alleles were NOT the result of ANY damage whatsoever but
                  Message 8 of 12 , Apr 9, 2013
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Williams wrote (excerpted from below). "In the case in point here (4 alleles linked to ADHD), those alleles were NOT the result of ANY "damage" whatsoever but resulted from some sort of quite natural mutation."

                    JK: Is what you now call a "natural mutation" a missense mutation or a nonsense mutation? In the context of other discussions of mutation theory and adaptive evolution, a "natural mutation" is simply more of your nonsense. I am willing to defer my final decision, however, until you tell us what the difference is between missense mutations and nonsense in the context of mutations theory and adaptive evolution. I'd invite Edgar to help you explain this, since he seems to know what you are talking about, which indicates he may best understand nonsense.
                     
                    James V. Kohl
                    Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                    Independent researcher
                    Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



                    From: Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...>
                    To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Tue, April 9, 2013 5:22:08 AM
                    Subject: Re: [evol-psych] Re: ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                     

                    Sonny,


                    I fear it's more likely to be brain damage in this case....

                    Edgar



                    On Apr 8, 2013, at 12:21 PM, clarence_sonny_williams wrote:

                     

                    Nils continues to misrepresent evolution with his use of the term
                    "damaged genes." Damaged by what? In the case in point here (4 alleles
                    linked to ADHD), those alleles were NOT the result of ANY "damage"
                    whatsoever but resulted from some sort of quite natural mutation. In
                    order for Nils' term "damaged gene" to be applicable, some sort of
                    mutagen must be involved AND THAT IS NOT THE CASE HERE! In fact,
                    science has discovered only a few human mutagens, but the search
                    continues (e.g., endocrine disrupters may be a mutagen and not just act
                    through epigenetic mechanisms) and those few are, indeed, dangerous and
                    damaging. Through his egregious misrepresentations, Nils does a
                    terribly disservice to the many good individuals attempting to keep us
                    informed about environmental mutagens.

                    Please, Nils, either learn some basic genetics or keep your self-serving
                    idiotic phrase "damaged genes" to yourself!

                    --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
                    wrote:
                    >
                    > Hi All!
                    >
                    > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
                    > chromsome damage, as well.
                    >
                    >
                    > [COPY:]
                    >
                    > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                    > Editor's Choice
                    > Academic Journal
                    > Main Category: ADHD
                    > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
                    > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
                    >
                    >
                    > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings
                    for:
                    > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                    >
                    > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
                    >
                    > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
                    >
                    > Article opinions: 12 posts
                    >
                    > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
                    appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
                    children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder),
                    researchers from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's
                    Hospital of Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The
                    authors add that their findings could help create drugs that target
                    those pathways, offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with
                    those specific gene variants. There are an estimated half-a-million
                    American children with ADHD and these gene variants.
                    >
                    > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
                    >
                    >
                    > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
                    particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
                    systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have
                    a genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
                    with the disorder."
                    > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
                    > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
                    smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder.
                    ADHD has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
                    attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
                    >
                    > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it -
                    scientists and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which
                    interact in certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for
                    ADHD, they do not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
                    >
                    > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD
                    from a database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were
                    compared with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD
                    (controls). They did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
                    > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
                    > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
                    duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
                    preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with
                    and 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
                    >
                    > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs
                    in the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The
                    one with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
                    >
                    > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
                    proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is
                    a neurotransmitter.
                    > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
                    > Hakonarson said:
                    >
                    >
                    > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
                    affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and
                    interconnections in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are
                    more likely to have alterations in these genes reinforces previous
                    evidence that the GRM pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to
                    the cause of the ADHD symptoms in a subset of children with the
                    disease."
                    >
                    >
                    > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
                    >
                    >
                    > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the
                    different subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is
                    very important."
                    >
                    >
                    > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be
                    involved in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a
                    major contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough.
                    5.2 million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
                    (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
                    >
                    > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models,
                    brain imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that
                    these pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
                    > New ADHD therapies may be developed
                    > Dr. Elia explained:
                    >
                    >
                    > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are
                    tailored to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step
                    toward individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
                    >
                    >
                    > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research
                    and subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
                    pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
                    could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
                    potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs.
                    Preclinical studies will need to be carried out first on candidate
                    medications.
                    >
                    > Written by Christian Nordqvist
                    > Copyright: Medical News Today
                    > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
                    >
                    >
                    > NKO
                    >


                  • Timothy McCajor Hall
                    Copy-number variation would probably be better described as genomic or chromosomal damage than gene damage, but the distinction would be lost on the general
                    Message 9 of 12 , Apr 9, 2013
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Copy-number variation would probably be better described as genomic or chromosomal damage than gene damage, but the distinction would be lost on the general public. CNVs have certainly been linked to disease states, and can result in over- or under-expression of a given gene, with over- or under-activity of the gene product(s).

                      -- Cage Hall 

                      On 8 Apr 2013, at 15:21, "Leif Ekblad" <leif@...> wrote:

                       

                      Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
                      CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
                      damage. That is elementary.

                      Leif Ekblad

                      ----- Original Message -----
                      From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
                      To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
                      Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
                      Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                      > Hi All!
                      >
                      > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
                      > chromsome damage, as well.
                      >
                      >
                      > [COPY:]
                      >
                      > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                      > Editor's Choice
                      > Academic Journal
                      > Main Category: ADHD
                      > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
                      > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
                      >
                      >
                      > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
                      > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                      >
                      > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
                      >
                      > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
                      >
                      > Article opinions: 12 posts
                      >
                      > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
                      > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
                      > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
                      > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
                      > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
                      > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
                      > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
                      > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
                      > ADHD and these gene variants.
                      >
                      > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
                      >
                      >
                      > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
                      > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
                      > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
                      > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
                      > with the disorder."
                      > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
                      > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
                      > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
                      > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
                      > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
                      >
                      > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
                      > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
                      > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
                      > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
                      >
                      > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
                      > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
                      > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
                      > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
                      > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
                      > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
                      > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
                      > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
                      > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
                      >
                      > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
                      > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
                      > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
                      >
                      > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
                      > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
                      > neurotransmitter.
                      > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
                      > Hakonarson said:
                      >
                      >
                      > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
                      > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
                      > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
                      > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
                      > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
                      > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
                      >
                      >
                      > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
                      >
                      >
                      > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
                      > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
                      > important."
                      >
                      >
                      > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
                      > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
                      > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
                      > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
                      > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
                      >
                      > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
                      > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
                      > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
                      > New ADHD therapies may be developed
                      > Dr. Elia explained:
                      >
                      >
                      > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
                      > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
                      > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
                      >
                      >
                      > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
                      > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
                      > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
                      > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
                      > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
                      > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
                      >
                      > Written by Christian Nordqvist
                      > Copyright: Medical News Today
                      > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
                      >
                      >
                      > NKO
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > ------------------------------------
                      >
                      > Yahoo! Groups Links
                      >
                      >
                      >


                    • Leif Ekblad
                      Yes, one example is fragile-X, which is caused by excessive copies. But in the ordinary case it seems like CNVs often regulate gene expression, and if a gene
                      Message 10 of 12 , Apr 9, 2013
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Yes, one example is fragile-X, which is caused by excessive copies. But in the ordinary case it seems like CNVs often regulate gene expression, and if a gene expression difference is damage or not is not a simple issue as Nils states. It could just as well be diversity, which was my point.
                         
                        One example of a CNV difference that is related to ADHD is the DRD4 7R repeat. The most common variant has 4 repeats, while the less common has 7. The 7 repeat version is associated with novelity seeking. But according to Nils it is gene damage.
                         
                        Leif Ekblad
                         
                        ----- Original Message -----
                        Sent: Tuesday, April 09, 2013 5:04 PM
                        Subject: Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                        Copy-number variation would probably be better described as genomic or chromosomal damage than gene damage, but the distinction would be lost on the general public. CNVs have certainly been linked to disease states, and can result in over- or under-expression of a given gene, with over- or under-activity of the gene product(s).

                        -- Cage Hall 

                        On 8 Apr 2013, at 15:21, "Leif Ekblad" <leif@...> wrote:

                         

                        Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
                        CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
                        damage. That is elementary.

                        Leif Ekblad

                        ----- Original Message -----
                        From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
                        To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
                        Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
                        Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                        > Hi All!
                        >
                        > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
                        > chromsome damage, as well.
                        >
                        >
                        > [COPY:]
                        >
                        > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                        > Editor's Choice
                        > Academic Journal
                        > Main Category: ADHD
                        > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
                        > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
                        >
                        >
                        > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
                        > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                        >
                        > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
                        >
                        > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
                        >
                        > Article opinions: 12 posts
                        >
                        > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
                        > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
                        > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
                        > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
                        > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
                        > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
                        > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
                        > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
                        > ADHD and these gene variants.
                        >
                        > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
                        >
                        >
                        > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
                        > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
                        > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
                        > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
                        > with the disorder."
                        > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
                        > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
                        > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
                        > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
                        > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
                        >
                        > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
                        > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
                        > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
                        > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
                        >
                        > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
                        > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
                        > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
                        > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
                        > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
                        > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
                        > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
                        > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
                        > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
                        >
                        > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
                        > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
                        > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
                        >
                        > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
                        > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
                        > neurotransmitter.
                        > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
                        > Hakonarson said:
                        >
                        >
                        > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
                        > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
                        > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
                        > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
                        > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
                        > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
                        >
                        >
                        > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
                        >
                        >
                        > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
                        > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
                        > important."
                        >
                        >
                        > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
                        > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
                        > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
                        > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
                        > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
                        >
                        > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
                        > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
                        > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
                        > New ADHD therapies may be developed
                        > Dr. Elia explained:
                        >
                        >
                        > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
                        > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
                        > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
                        >
                        >
                        > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
                        > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
                        > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
                        > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
                        > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
                        > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
                        >
                        > Written by Christian Nordqvist
                        > Copyright: Medical News Today
                        > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
                        >
                        >
                        > NKO
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > ------------------------------------
                        >
                        > Yahoo! Groups Links
                        >
                        >
                        >


                      • Leif Ekblad
                        James, I m stunned that you believe that CNVs are mutations. CNVs are differences in the number of copies of a certain sequence, not point mutations. Leif
                        Message 11 of 12 , Apr 9, 2013
                        • 0 Attachment
                          
                          James,
                           
                          I'm stunned that you believe that CNVs are mutations. CNVs are differences in the number of copies of a certain sequence, not point mutations.
                           
                          Leif Ekblad
                           
                           
                          ----- Original Message -----
                          Sent: Tuesday, April 09, 2013 4:14 AM
                          Subject: Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                          And now we have Ekblad pretending he also, like the pretender Williams, understands genetics. Perhaps Ekblad will tell us the differences between missense and nonsense mutations, since Williams will not. 
                           
                          James V. Kohl
                          Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                          Independent researcher
                          Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



                          From: Leif Ekblad <leif@...>
                          To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                          Sent: Mon, April 8, 2013 8:13:00 PM
                          Subject: Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                           

                          Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
                          CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
                          damage. That is elementary.

                          Leif Ekblad

                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
                          To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
                          Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
                          Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                          > Hi All!
                          >
                          > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
                          > chromsome damage, as well.
                          >
                          >
                          > [COPY:]
                          >
                          > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                          > Editor's Choice
                          > Academic Journal
                          > Main Category: ADHD
                          > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
                          > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
                          >
                          >
                          > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
                          > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                          >
                          > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
                          >
                          > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
                          >
                          > Article opinions: 12 posts
                          >
                          > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
                          > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
                          > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
                          > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
                          > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
                          > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
                          > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
                          > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
                          > ADHD and these gene variants.
                          >
                          > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
                          >
                          >
                          > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
                          > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
                          > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
                          > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
                          > with the disorder."
                          > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
                          > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
                          > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
                          > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
                          > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
                          >
                          > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
                          > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
                          > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
                          > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
                          >
                          > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
                          > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
                          > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
                          > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
                          > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
                          > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
                          > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
                          > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
                          > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
                          >
                          > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
                          > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
                          > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
                          >
                          > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
                          > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
                          > neurotransmitter.
                          > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
                          > Hakonarson said:
                          >
                          >
                          > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
                          > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
                          > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
                          > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
                          > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
                          > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
                          >
                          >
                          > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
                          >
                          >
                          > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
                          > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
                          > important."
                          >
                          >
                          > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
                          > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
                          > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
                          > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
                          > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
                          >
                          > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
                          > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
                          > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
                          > New ADHD therapies may be developed
                          > Dr. Elia explained:
                          >
                          >
                          > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
                          > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
                          > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
                          >
                          >
                          > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
                          > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
                          > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
                          > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
                          > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
                          > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
                          >
                          > Written by Christian Nordqvist
                          > Copyright: Medical News Today
                          > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
                          >
                          >
                          > NKO
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > ------------------------------------
                          >
                          > Yahoo! Groups Links
                          >
                          >
                          >

                        • james kohl
                          From: Leif Ekblad Yes, one example is fragile-X, which is caused by excessive copies. But in the ordinary case it seems like CNVs often
                          Message 12 of 12 , Apr 9, 2013
                          • 0 Attachment
                            From: Leif Ekblad <leif@...>
                            Yes, one example is fragile-X, which is caused by excessive copies. But in the ordinary case it seems like CNVs often regulate gene expression...

                            Leif,

                            I've told you several times and provided citations to support the fact that the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled microRNA/messenger RNA balance regulates gene expression. You seem unwilling to accept the fact that CNVs are nutrient dependent, which probably helps to explain your errant logic in the context of ridiculous mutations theory of adaptive evolution. Why don't you inform yourself about this, as I have repeatedly asked you to do? Now, even when Cage Hall tries to help you grasp the biological facts, you respond with more nonsense. Stop that!

                            James V. Kohl
                            Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                            Independent researcher
                            Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                            From: Leif Ekblad <leif@...>....and if a gene expression difference is damage or not is not a simple issue as Nils states. It could just as well be diversity, which was my point.
                             
                            One example of a CNV difference that is related to ADHD is the DRD4 7R repeat. The most common variant has 4 repeats, while the less common has 7. The 7 repeat version is associated with novelity seeking. But according to Nils it is gene damage.
                             
                            Leif Ekblad
                             
                            ----- Original Message -----
                            Sent: Tuesday, April 09, 2013 5:04 PM
                            Subject: Re: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                            Copy-number variation would probably be better described as genomic or chromosomal damage than gene damage, but the distinction would be lost on the general public. CNVs have certainly been linked to disease states, and can result in over- or under-expression of a given gene, with over- or under-activity of the gene product(s).

                            -- Cage Hall 

                            On 8 Apr 2013, at 15:21, "Leif Ekblad" <leif@...> wrote:

                             

                            Excerpt: "They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of
                            CNVs in the ADHD children". CNVs (Copy Number Variation) cannot be gene
                            damage. That is elementary.

                            Leif Ekblad

                            ----- Original Message -----
                            From: "Nils K." <n-oeij@...>
                            To: <evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com>
                            Sent: Monday, April 08, 2013 4:35 PM
                            Subject: [evol-psych] ADHD linked to four damaged genes

                            > Hi All!
                            >
                            > Note also: in 2011 they found that ADHD victims have
                            > chromsome damage, as well.
                            >
                            >
                            > [COPY:]
                            >
                            > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                            > Editor's Choice
                            > Academic Journal
                            > Main Category: ADHD
                            > Also Included In: Neurology / Neuroscience; Genetics
                            > Article Date: 06 Dec 2011 - 0:00 PST
                            >
                            >
                            > email to a friend printer friendly opinions Current ratings for:
                            > ADHD - Four Genes Linked To The Disorder
                            >
                            > Patient / Public: 3.64 (22 votes)
                            >
                            > Healthcare Prof: 3.67 (6 votes)
                            >
                            > Article opinions: 12 posts
                            >
                            > Four gene variants, all members of the glutamate receptor gene family,
                            > appear to be involved in vital brain signaling pathways in a sub-set of
                            > children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), researchers
                            > from the Center for Applied Genomics at The Children's Hospital of
                            > Philadelphia reported in the journal Nature Genetics. The authors add that
                            > their findings could help create drugs that target those pathways,
                            > offering potential therapies for ADHD patients with those specific gene
                            > variants. There are an estimated half-a-million American children with
                            > ADHD and these gene variants.
                            >
                            > Study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., said:
                            >
                            >
                            > "At least 10 percent of the ADHD patients in our sample have these
                            > particular genetic variants. The genes involved affect neurotransmitter
                            > systems in the brain that have been implicated in ADHD, and we now have a
                            > genetic explanation for this link that applies to a subset of children
                            > with the disorder."
                            > ADHD is fairly common and tends to run in families
                            > ADHD, which is thought to affect about 7% of kids of school age and a
                            > smaller percentage of adults, is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD
                            > has several subtypes, with varying symptoms that may include short
                            > attention span, impulsivity, and overactivity.
                            >
                            > ADHD tends to run in families, nobody is sure what causes it - scientists
                            > and experts believe it is mainly caused by many genes which interact in
                            > certain ways. Although drugs are frequently prescribed for ADHD, they do
                            > not always work, especially if symptoms are severe.
                            >
                            > The researchers carried out a study involving 1,000 kids with ADHD from a
                            > database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; they were compared
                            > with 4,100 others of the same age who did not have ADHD (controls). They
                            > did whole-genome analyses of all of them.
                            > Researchers looked for duplications or deletions of DNA sequences
                            > The scientists were looking for CNVs (copy number variations) -
                            > duplications or deletions of DNA sequences. They then compared these
                            > preliminary findings with various cohorts, made up of 2,500 kids with and
                            > 9,200 without ADHD. All the children where Caucasian.
                            >
                            > They identified four genes with a considerably greater number of CNVs in
                            > the ADHD children. They were all glutamate receptor (GMR) genes. The one
                            > with the strongest result was gene GMR5.
                            >
                            > Glutamate is an amino acid, one of the 20 AAa used to make all of the
                            > proteins in our body, it transmits signals between brain neurons - it is a
                            > neurotransmitter.
                            > GRM pathway is important in ADHD
                            > Hakonarson said:
                            >
                            >
                            > "Members of the GMR gene family, along with genes they interact with,
                            > affect nerve transmission, the formation of neurons, and interconnections
                            > in the brain, so the fact that children with ADHD are more likely to have
                            > alterations in these genes reinforces previous evidence that the GRM
                            > pathway is important in ADHD. Our findings get to the cause of the ADHD
                            > symptoms in a subset of children with the disease."
                            >
                            >
                            > Co-first author Josephine Elia, M.D., said:
                            >
                            >
                            > "ADHD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and separating out the different
                            > subgroups of genetic mutations that these children have is very
                            > important."
                            >
                            >
                            > Dr. Elia, an ADHD expert, explains that thousands of genes may be involved
                            > in ADHD risk. However, finding a gene family which might be a major
                            > contributory factor in 10% of ADHD cases is a major breakthrough. 5.2
                            > million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD
                            > (overall), says the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
                            >
                            > Their findings are consistent with those done with animal models, brain
                            > imaging studies and other investigations, Elia wrote, showing that these
                            > pathways play a vital role in certain types of ADHD cases.
                            > New ADHD therapies may be developed
                            > Dr. Elia explained:
                            >
                            >
                            > "This research will allow new therapies to be developed that are tailored
                            > to treating underlying causes of ADHD. This is another step toward
                            > individualizing treatment to a child's genetic profile."
                            >
                            >
                            > Hakonarson believes his team's findings will trigger further research and
                            > subsequent discoveries of ADHD-related genes along the GMR signaling
                            > pathways. According to current research, carefully selected GRM agonists
                            > could be used in human studies to determine whether they might have
                            > potential as therapies for ADHD patients with particular CNVs. Preclinical
                            > studies will need to be carried out first on candidate medications.
                            >
                            > Written by Christian Nordqvist
                            > Copyright: Medical News Today
                            > Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today
                            >
                            >
                            > NKO
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > ------------------------------------
                            >
                            > Yahoo! Groups Links
                            >
                            >
                            >


                          Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.