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RE: [evol-psych] Proximate mechanisms: Random mutations cause transcriptional bursts and stochastic gene expression

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  • charles beck
    Thanks for the Interesting article by Vinuelas et al. 2013, James. Lots of references to random including random variation and pseudorandom generator . None
    Message 1 of 7 , Mar 4, 2013
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      Thanks for the Interesting article by Vinuelas et al. 2013, James.

      Lots of references to random including “random variation” and “pseudorandom generator”. None to pheromones. I also read that “direct manipulation of chromatin dynamics had a marked

      effect on the extent of stochastic gene expression’. I take this to mean that changes in chromatin had random like effects on gene expression.

      Very helpful

      Charles

       

       

      From: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com [mailto:evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of james kohl
      Sent: Monday, March 04, 2013 4:43 AM
      To: human-ethology@yahoogroups.com
      Cc: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: [evol-psych] Proximate mechanisms: Random mutations cause transcriptional bursts and stochastic gene expression

       




      I'll try a different approach:

      If random mutations are involved in adaptive evolution, please attempt to explain how they cause the required transcriptional bursts, which clearly link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via chromatin remodeling. As an alternative, attempt to explain how the epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling can be eliminated. In my model, for example,
      the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling enables the development of observable phenotypic characteristics of reproductive fitness (e.g., in some species) that can be naturally selected. However, selection for visual appeal is directly enabled by olfaction and odor receptors, as it is for nutrient selection. 

      Is there another model for that? Do random mutations play a role in food choice?

      Here's more support for my model:


      Quantifying the contribution of chromatin dynamics to stochastic gene expression reveals long, locus-dependent periods between transcriptional bursts
      Vinuelas J, Kaneko G, Coulon A, Vallin E, Morin V, Mejia-Pous C, Kupiec J, Beslon G, Gandrillon O
      BMC Biology 2013, 11:15 (25 February 2013)
      [Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed]

       

      James V. Kohl
      Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
      Independent researcher
      Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.

       




    • james kohl
      From: charles beck Thanks for the Interesting article by Vinuelas et al. 2013, James. Lots of references to random including “random
      Message 2 of 7 , Mar 4, 2013
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        From: charles beck <cbeck@...>

        Thanks for the Interesting article by Vinuelas et al. 2013, James.

        Lots of references to random including “random variation” and “pseudorandom generator”. None to pheromones. I also read that “direct manipulation of chromatin dynamics had a marked effect on the extent of stochastic gene expression’. I take this to mean that changes in chromatin had random like effects on gene expression.

        Very helpful

        Charles

        You're welcome. Others may not catch your sarcasm. Can you tell us how the direct manipulation of chromatin dynamics occurred or how the manipulations led to adaptive evolution with no control by pheromones of runaway selection for mutations/variations/adaptations or whatever term is used in contexts that may include pleiotropy but not epistasis. Is there a model for that?

         
        James V. Kohl
        Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
        Independent researcher
        Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.

         

         

        From: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com [mailto:evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of james kohl
        Sent: Monday, March 04, 2013 4:43 AM
        To: human-ethology@yahoogroups.com
        Cc: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [evol-psych] Proximate mechanisms: Random mutations cause transcriptional bursts and stochastic gene expression

         




        I'll try a different approach:

        If random mutations are involved in adaptive evolution, please attempt to explain how they cause the required transcriptional bursts, which clearly link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via chromatin remodeling. As an alternative, attempt to explain how the epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling can be eliminated. In my model, for example,
        the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling enables the development of observable phenotypic characteristics of reproductive fitness (e.g., in some species) that can be naturally selected. However, selection for visual appeal is directly enabled by olfaction and odor receptors, as it is for nutrient selection. 

        Is there another model for that? Do random mutations play a role in food choice?

        Here's more support for my model:


        Quantifying the contribution of chromatin dynamics to stochastic gene expression reveals long, locus-dependent periods between transcriptional bursts
        Vinuelas J, Kaneko G, Coulon A, Vallin E, Morin V, Mejia-Pous C, Kupiec J, Beslon G, Gandrillon O
        BMC Biology 2013, 11:15 (25 February 2013)
        [Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed]

         

        James V. Kohl
        Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
        Independent researcher
        Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.

         




      • clarence_sonny_williams
        Charles, I don t know what Kohl had to say about the Vinuelas paper but it is rather routine additional details (very nice, informative work) about
        Message 3 of 7 , Mar 5, 2013
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          Charles,

          I don't know what Kohl had to say about the Vinuelas paper but it is
          rather "routine" additional details (very nice, informative work) about
          stochastic gene expression...which goes back to 1950's research. The
          classic paper on it is Elowitz et al, 2002, "Stochastic gene expression
          in a single cell," which has been cited over 2,000 times, attesting to
          its regard as a classic in cell biology. It is still used in today's
          college classes.

          All chemical bonds, including the ones that initiate DNA transcription,
          are simply probabilistic interactions between dynamic atomic particles.
          In essence, then, everything that happens in every cell of your body can
          be described as a "stochastic event." That's why, for instance, a
          neuron's extended dendrites are properly called "processes;" they are
          not "firm structures" in the normal sense of the term but dynamic in
          nature. Fortunately for all living things, natural selection has
          ensured that there are numerous "checks, balances, and sensing of
          errors" (crudely speaking) that occur in every cell...and which permit
          life to do just fine despite this "stochastic nature."

          Don't let creationists or other non-biologists attempt to fool you into
          thinking that stochastic gene expression is something new and
          "unnatural."

          --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "charles beck"
          <cbeck@...> wrote:
          >
          > Thanks for the Interesting article by Vinuelas et al. 2013, James.
          >
          > Lots of references to random including "random variation" and
          "pseudorandom
          > generator". None to pheromones. I also read that "direct manipulation
          of
          > chromatin dynamics had a marked
          >
          > effect on the extent of stochastic gene expression'. I take this to
          mean
          > that changes in chromatin had random like effects on gene expression.
          >
          > Very helpful
          >
          > Charles
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > From: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
          > [mailto:evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of james
          kohl
          > Sent: Monday, March 04, 2013 4:43 AM
          > To: human-ethology@yahoogroups.com
          > Cc: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
          > Subject: [evol-psych] Proximate mechanisms: Random mutations cause
          > transcriptional bursts and stochastic gene expression
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > I'll try a different approach:
          >
          > If random mutations are involved in adaptive evolution, please attempt
          to
          > explain how they cause the required transcriptional bursts, which
          clearly
          > link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via
          chromatin
          > remodeling. As an alternative, attempt to explain how the epigenetic
          effects
          > of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling can be
          > eliminated. In my model, for example,
          > the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling
          enables the
          > development of observable phenotypic characteristics of reproductive
          fitness
          > (e.g., in some species) that can be naturally selected. However,
          selection
          > for visual appeal is directly enabled by olfaction and odor receptors,
          as it
          > is for nutrient selection.
          >
          > Is there another model for that? Do random mutations play a role in
          food
          > choice?
          >
          > Here's more support for my model:
          >
          > Quantifying the contribution of chromatin dynamics to stochastic gene
          > expression reveals long, locus-dependent periods between
          transcriptional
          > bursts <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/15/abstract>
          > Vinuelas J, Kaneko G, Coulon A, Vallin E, Morin V, Mejia-Pous C,
          Kupiec J,
          > Beslon G, Gandrillon O
          > BMC Biology 2013, 11:15 (25 February 2013)
          > [Abstract <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/15/abstract> ]
          > [Provisional PDF
          > <http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-11-15.pdf> ]
          [PubMed
          > <http://www.biomedcentral.com/pubmed/23442824> ]
          >
          >
          >
          > James V. Kohl
          > Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
          > Independent researcher
          > Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic
          influences on
          > the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors.
          > <http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/snp.v2i0.17338> Socioaffective
          Neuroscience &
          > Psychology, 2: 17338.
          >
        • charles beck
          Hi James To answer your first question I suggest you read the article you cited as that is what the authors did (manipulated chromatin dynamics). You may get
          Message 4 of 7 , Mar 5, 2013
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            Hi James

            To answer your first question I suggest you read the article you cited as that is what the authors did (manipulated chromatin dynamics).

            You may get an answer to the second question by communicating with the authors of the article you cited.

            I would assume you cited the article to make the case for your pheromone theory. So why they would not mention such a key element as pheromones is a real mystery.

            I delete most posts (except for RKS’s) so I don’t have your precise wording on why you cited it.

            Sorry about that

            Charles

             

             

            From: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com [mailto:evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of james kohl
            Sent: Monday, March 04, 2013 7:34 PM
            To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: Re: [evol-psych] Proximate mechanisms: Random mutations cause transcriptional bursts and stochastic gene expression

             




            From: charles beck <cbeck@...>

             

            Thanks for the Interesting article by Vinuelas et al. 2013, James.

            Lots of references to random including “random variation” and “pseudorandom generator”. None to pheromones. I also read that “direct manipulation of chromatin dynamics had a marked effect on the extent of stochastic gene expression’. I take this to mean that changes in chromatin had random like effects on gene expression.

            Very helpful

            Charles

            You're welcome. Others may not catch your sarcasm. Can you tell us how the direct manipulation of chromatin dynamics occurred or how the manipulations led to adaptive evolution with no control by pheromones of runaway selection for mutations/variations/adaptations or whatever term is used in contexts that may include pleiotropy but not epistasis. Is there a model for that?

             

            James V. Kohl
            Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
            Independent researcher
            Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.

             

             

            From: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com [mailto:evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of james kohl
            Sent: Monday, March 04, 2013 4:43 AM
            To: human-ethology@yahoogroups.com
            Cc: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: [evol-psych] Proximate mechanisms: Random mutations cause transcriptional bursts and stochastic gene expression

             



            I'll try a different approach:

            If random mutations are involved in adaptive evolution, please attempt to explain how they cause the required transcriptional bursts, which clearly link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via chromatin remodeling. As an alternative, attempt to explain how the epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling can be eliminated. In my model, for example,
            the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling enables the development of observable phenotypic characteristics of reproductive fitness (e.g., in some species) that can be naturally selected. However, selection for visual appeal is directly enabled by olfaction and odor receptors, as it is for nutrient selection. 

            Is there another model for that? Do random mutations play a role in food choice?

            Here's more support for my model:


            Quantifying the contribution of chromatin dynamics to stochastic gene expression reveals long, locus-dependent periods between transcriptional bursts
            Vinuelas J, Kaneko G, Coulon A, Vallin E, Morin V, Mejia-Pous C, Kupiec J, Beslon G, Gandrillon O
            BMC Biology 2013, 11:15 (25 February 2013)
            [Abstract] [Provisional PDF] [PubMed]

             

            James V. Kohl
            Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
            Independent researcher
            Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.

             






          • clarence_sonny_williams
            Charles, In retrospect, the tone of this post addressed to you makes it seem like I m talking down to you. Sorry about that. My principle purpose was
            Message 5 of 7 , Mar 6, 2013
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              Charles,

              In retrospect, the tone of this post addressed to you makes it seem like
              I'm "talking down to you." Sorry about that. My principle purpose was
              discussing this for the benefit of others who may not understand
              "stochastic genes," and who might otherwise give credence to how Kohl,
              an admitted creationist, might interpret the noted research.

              --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com,
              "clarence_sonny_williams" <clarencew@...> wrote:
              >
              > Charles,
              >
              > I don't know what Kohl had to say about the Vinuelas paper but it is
              > rather "routine" additional details (very nice, informative work)
              about
              > stochastic gene expression...which goes back to 1950's research. The
              > classic paper on it is Elowitz et al, 2002, "Stochastic gene
              expression
              > in a single cell," which has been cited over 2,000 times, attesting to
              > its regard as a classic in cell biology. It is still used in today's
              > college classes.
              >
              > All chemical bonds, including the ones that initiate DNA
              transcription,
              > are simply probabilistic interactions between dynamic atomic
              particles.
              > In essence, then, everything that happens in every cell of your body
              can
              > be described as a "stochastic event." That's why, for instance, a
              > neuron's extended dendrites are properly called "processes;" they are
              > not "firm structures" in the normal sense of the term but dynamic in
              > nature. Fortunately for all living things, natural selection has
              > ensured that there are numerous "checks, balances, and sensing of
              > errors" (crudely speaking) that occur in every cell...and which permit
              > life to do just fine despite this "stochastic nature."
              >
              > Don't let creationists or other non-biologists attempt to fool you
              into
              > thinking that stochastic gene expression is something new and
              > "unnatural."
              >
              > --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "charles beck"
              > cbeck@ wrote:
              > >
              > > Thanks for the Interesting article by Vinuelas et al. 2013, James.
              > >
              > > Lots of references to random including "random variation" and
              > "pseudorandom
              > > generator". None to pheromones. I also read that "direct
              manipulation
              > of
              > > chromatin dynamics had a marked
              > >
              > > effect on the extent of stochastic gene expression'. I take this to
              > mean
              > > that changes in chromatin had random like effects on gene
              expression.
              > >
              > > Very helpful
              > >
              > > Charles
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > > From: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
              > > [mailto:evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of james
              > kohl
              > > Sent: Monday, March 04, 2013 4:43 AM
              > > To: human-ethology@yahoogroups.com
              > > Cc: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
              > > Subject: [evol-psych] Proximate mechanisms: Random mutations cause
              > > transcriptional bursts and stochastic gene expression
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > > I'll try a different approach:
              > >
              > > If random mutations are involved in adaptive evolution, please
              attempt
              > to
              > > explain how they cause the required transcriptional bursts, which
              > clearly
              > > link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via
              > chromatin
              > > remodeling. As an alternative, attempt to explain how the epigenetic
              > effects
              > > of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling can
              be
              > > eliminated. In my model, for example,
              > > the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling
              > enables the
              > > development of observable phenotypic characteristics of reproductive
              > fitness
              > > (e.g., in some species) that can be naturally selected. However,
              > selection
              > > for visual appeal is directly enabled by olfaction and odor
              receptors,
              > as it
              > > is for nutrient selection.
              > >
              > > Is there another model for that? Do random mutations play a role in
              > food
              > > choice?
              > >
              > > Here's more support for my model:
              > >
              > > Quantifying the contribution of chromatin dynamics to stochastic
              gene
              > > expression reveals long, locus-dependent periods between
              > transcriptional
              > > bursts <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/15/abstract>
              > > Vinuelas J, Kaneko G, Coulon A, Vallin E, Morin V, Mejia-Pous C,
              > Kupiec J,
              > > Beslon G, Gandrillon O
              > > BMC Biology 2013, 11:15 (25 February 2013)
              > > [Abstract <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/15/abstract> ]
              > > [Provisional PDF
              > > <http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-11-15.pdf> ]
              > [PubMed
              > > <http://www.biomedcentral.com/pubmed/23442824> ]
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > > James V. Kohl
              > > Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
              > > Independent researcher
              > > Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic
              > influences on
              > > the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors.
              > > <http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/snp.v2i0.17338> Socioaffective
              > Neuroscience &
              > > Psychology, 2: 17338.
              > >
              >
            • JVKohl
              ... *JK*: We can t be sure what Williams interpretation of the noted research is. Has he been correct about domain-specific modules; transgenerational
              Message 6 of 7 , Mar 6, 2013
              • 0 Attachment
                On 3/6/2013 10:18 AM, clarence_sonny_williams wrote:
                 

                Charles,

                In retrospect, the tone of this post addressed to you makes it seem like
                I'm "talking down to you." Sorry about that. My principle purpose was
                discussing this for the benefit of others who may not understand
                "stochastic genes," and who might otherwise give credence to how Kohl,
                an admitted creationist, might interpret the noted research.


                JK: We can't be sure what Williams' interpretation of the noted research is. Has
                he been correct about domain-specific modules; transgenerational epigenetic
                inheritance; the overwhelming importance of the histone core, or anything else?

                For contrast, I have modeled the facts. Therefore, when the question
                is asked Do we owe our sense of smell to epigenetics?I can answer clearly.
                Yes, of course, and there's a model for that, and it's my model, of course.

                Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone-controlled Adaptive Evolution

                In my model
                random mutations do not cause transcriptional bursts and stochastic gene
                expression, because they would first need to alter the thermodynamics  of
                intracellular interactions, survive the perturbations to be manifested in organism-level
                thermoregulation and somehow signal reproductive fitness if they
                were random mutations occurring for selection among the organisms that
                sexually reproduce.

                See also, for more facts: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6112/1265.2.short

                Or, ask Williams to interpret the noted research for you, rather than claim I'm
                a creationist whose "interpretation" is somehow wrong. FYI Wililams wrote
                "...others who may not understand "stochastic genes..." If it were anyone else I might
                think he meant "understand stochastic gene EXPRESSION."  Instead, I wonder what
                he thinks he means.
                 
                James V. Kohl
                Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                Independent researcher
                Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on
                the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/snp.v2i0.17338
                Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com,
                "clarence_sonny_williams" wrote:
                >
                > Charles,
                >
                > I don't know what Kohl had to say about the Vinuelas paper but it is
                > rather "routine" additional details (very nice, informative work)
                about
                > stochastic gene expression...which goes back to 1950's research. The
                > classic paper on it is Elowitz et al, 2002, "Stochastic gene
                expression
                > in a single cell," which has been cited over 2,000 times, attesting to
                > its regard as a classic in cell biology. It is still used in today's
                > college classes.
                >
                > All chemical bonds, including the ones that initiate DNA
                transcription,
                > are simply probabilistic interactions between dynamic atomic
                particles.
                > In essence, then, everything that happens in every cell of your body
                can
                > be described as a "stochastic event." That's why, for instance, a
                > neuron's extended dendrites are properly called "processes;" they are
                > not "firm structures" in the normal sense of the term but dynamic in
                > nature. Fortunately for all living things, natural selection has
                > ensured that there are numerous "checks, balances, and sensing of
                > errors" (crudely speaking) that occur in every cell...and which permit
                > life to do just fine despite this "stochastic nature."
                >
                > Don't let creationists or other non-biologists attempt to fool you
                into
                > thinking that stochastic gene expression is something new and
                > "unnatural."
                >
                > --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "charles beck"
                > cbeck@ wrote:
                > >
                > > Thanks for the Interesting article by Vinuelas et al. 2013, James.
                > >
                > > Lots of references to random including "random variation" and
                > "pseudorandom
                > > generator". None to pheromones. I also read that "direct
                manipulation
                > of
                > > chromatin dynamics had a marked
                > >
                > > effect on the extent of stochastic gene expression'. I take this to
                > mean
                > > that changes in chromatin had random like effects on gene
                expression.
                > >
                > > Very helpful
                > >
                > > Charles
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > From: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                > > [mailto:evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of james
                > kohl
                > > Sent: Monday, March 04, 2013 4:43 AM
                > > To: human-ethology@yahoogroups.com
                > > Cc: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                > > Subject: [evol-psych] Proximate mechanisms: Random mutations cause
                > > transcriptional bursts and stochastic gene expression
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > I'll try a different approach:
                > >
                > > If random mutations are involved in adaptive evolution, please
                attempt
                > to
                > > explain how they cause the required transcriptional bursts, which
                > clearly
                > > link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via
                > chromatin
                > > remodeling. As an alternative, attempt to explain how the epigenetic
                > effects
                > > of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling can
                be
                > > eliminated. In my model, for example,
                > > the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled chromatin remodeling
                > enables the
                > > development of observable phenotypic characteristics of reproductive
                > fitness
                > > (e.g., in some species) that can be naturally selected. However,
                > selection
                > > for visual appeal is directly enabled by olfaction and odor
                receptors,
                > as it
                > > is for nutrient selection.
                > >
                > > Is there another model for that? Do random mutations play a role in
                > food
                > > choice?
                > >
                > > Here's more support for my model:
                > >
                > > Quantifying the contribution of chromatin dynamics to stochastic
                gene
                > > expression reveals long, locus-dependent periods between
                > transcriptional
                > > bursts http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/15/abstract>
                > > Vinuelas J, Kaneko G, Coulon A, Vallin E, Morin V, Mejia-Pous C,
                > Kupiec J,
                > > Beslon G, Gandrillon O
                > > BMC Biology 2013, 11:15 (25 February 2013)
                > > [Abstract http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/15/abstract> ]
                > > [Provisional PDF
                > > http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-11-15.pdf> ]
                > [PubMed
                > > http://www.biomedcentral.com/pubmed/23442824> ]
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > James V. Kohl
                > > Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                > > Independent researcher
                > > Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic
                > influences on
                > > the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors.
                > > http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/snp.v2i0.17338> Socioaffective
                > Neuroscience &
                > > Psychology, 2: 17338.
                > >
                >



                -- 
                James V. Kohl
                Medical laboratory scientist
                ASCP AMT ASCLS
                Independent researcher
                Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors...
                Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.
                http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/snp.v2i0.17338
                
                
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