RE: [evol-psych] Re: New species appear to arise from sudden changes
In 1972, paleontologists Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould published a landmark paper developing this theory and called it punctuated equilibria. Their paper built upon Ernst Mayr's theory of geographic speciation, I. Michael Lerner's theories of developmental and genetic homeostasis, as well as their own empirical research. Eldredge and Gould proposed that the degree of gradualism commonly attributed to Charles Darwin is virtually nonexistent in the fossil record, and that stasis dominates the history of most fossil species.
"Polar bears have the same body temperature as a camel in the desert, despite their differences in living environments."
Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2013-02-species-sudden.html#jCp
Camels body temperature can rise way above what other warm blooded animals can tolerate and can fall below thus the statement regarding consistent body temperature among warm blooded animals is false.
"Their temperature ranges from 34 °C (93 °F) at dawn and steadily increases to 40 °C (104 °F) by sunset, before they cool off at night again."
Hibernation is another example of body temperature adaptation:
"Hibernation refers to a season of heterothermy that is characterized by low body temperature,.."
...and why is Gould's name and 'Punctuated Evolution' become taboo?? Or are these people pretending to have discovered it?
----- Original Message -----
From: Robert Karl Stonjek
Sent: Wednesday, February 20, 2013 2:08 PM
Subject: News: New species appear to arise from sudden changes
New species appear to arise from sudden changes
February 19th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution
(Phys.org)—Folmer Bokma, researcher at Umeå University, explains that living species have a limited ability to adapt to the environment. His results suggest that species do not change gradually, as the modern evolutionary theory assumes, but suddenly when a new species arises.
Evolutionary stasis is an alternative scientific interpretation to the widely accepted Neo-Darwinism. It means that most species show little evolutionary change through history, instead, evolution occurs more abruptly and it can result in one species becoming two different species. The theory originated among paleontologists who study fossils. They found that no intermediate forms of fossils exist. However, it is relatively difficult to determine the species of fossil organisms.
"I have developed algorithms to discover how evolution stasis occurs among contemporary, existing species' characteristics, in groups of species that do not leave fossils," says Folmer Bokma, researcher at the Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, who was a guest speaker at the 2013 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) annual meeting in Boston on February 17th.
The method is based on that one first uses DNA to reconstruct the species' relationship to each other in the form of a family tree. Thereafter, one uses statistical techniques to reconstruct how the evolution of traits has been like, such as body size.
Folmer Bokma has analyzed various animal groups, such as the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and body size in birds and mammals. His results suggest that species do not change gradually, as Neo-Darwinism predicted, but suddenly when a new species arises. This means that when the animals' environment changes, the species do not respond to adapt and can become extinct, even though there are more than enough genetic variations at the individual level to make adaption possible. This is the paradox.
"I believe that the explanation for the paradox is that many features are designed primarily to each other within the species," says Folmer Bokma and further exemplifies what he means:
"Proteins in polar bears are not adapted to the temperature at the North Pole, but the body temperature is 37 degrees Celsius. Polar bears have the same body temperature as a camel in the desert, despite their differences in living environments. In order for body temperature to adjust, it requires many genetic changes simultaneously affecting all proteins in the right direction and it's very unlikely to happen. Therefore, species do not adapt their body temperature to their surroundings, but polar bears and camels have about the same body temperature as all other mammals. "
Evolution then becomes limited to the characteristics which are outside such complex of properties which are adapted to each other. Thus, polar bears get a thick white fur instead, which provides the isolation required for invariable high body temperature.
Folmer Bokma also discussed the extent to which this pattern is a general feature of complex systems that can be used in completely different contexts. A concrete example is the university that falls behind due to societal changes because they have created a complex regulatory framework that makes it impossible to change some routines without re-writing about half the regulations.
Provided by Umea University
"New species appear to arise from sudden changes." February 19th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-species-sudden.html
...no longer mentioning Gould by name, nor his 'punctuated evolution'??
Robert Karl Stonjek
- Dear Steve, dear All!
In 1972, paleontologists Niles Eldredge
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niles_Eldredge> and Stephen Jay Gould
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Jay_Gould> published a landmark paper
This paper is NOT a landmark paper. It's a worthless, empty paper.
Mainstream researchers do not agree with Gould. This unserious paper
is commented on by the greatest evolution researchers. The popular
writer and well known "atheist", Richard Dawkins, has attacked Gould's
speculations very hard. In my book Why Gould Was Wrong, you will find
historical and biographical overviews in addition to my own comments
on Gould's "creation-like" speculations.
It's nothing new that the fossil record lacks proper links between
species and larger genetic groups (Sic). It starts with the Cambrian
Explosion not long ago (less than 800 million years ago). Suddenly,
after Snowball Earth, the oceans are filled with advanced and diverse
life with no proper linking prehistory in the fossil record.
Shockingly, this explosion lasted ONLY some 12 million years, which
is nothing in this perspective. The different advanced life-forms
popped up all the time during this short time span. This is crazy.
Explanation seems impossible, even if researchers from time to time
are bluffing their way in these matters.
By the way: These mysteries are not the only unsolvable mysteries of
biological evolution. The impossible math of mutations/selection is
a just as big and unsolvable mystery.
For a listing of honest mysteries of creation (including evolution),
it's indeed smart to browse modern and advanced "creationist" sites
and books. Such an activity will truly work as an interesting and
productive brainstorming for mainstream scientific researchers.