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Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

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  • james kohl
    From: Edgar Owen To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com Sent: Tue, February 19, 2013 8:05:54 PM Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News:
    Message 1 of 16 , Feb 19, 2013
      From: Edgar Owen
      To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Tue, February 19, 2013 8:05:54 PM
      Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

      Stan,


      Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in humans as awareness increased.

      Edgar

      JK: Is there a model for that? We could compare it to the one where a single nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution changes thermoregulation of intranuclear interactions, protein synthesis, and cellular differentiation in cells and tissues of organisms from microbes to man. The result is changes in thermoregulation in a human population via an increase in eccrine glands accompanied by changes in apocrine glands (e.g., mammary tissue) that link nutrient metabolism to changes in pheromone production associated with phenotypic appeal of associated visual (e.g., female pendulous breasts) and other sensory input via the ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction required for adaptive evolution of sex differences in the human brain and behavior.� How and when did mate selection became more and more based on looks? I vaguely recall hearing that STORY before, but it's always one that is scientifically unsubstantiated. Perhaps that's why you're telling it again (i.e., you simply don't know any better).
      James V. Kohl
      Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
      Independent researcher
      Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


      On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:


      Help!

      If�"Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

      Stan


      On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:


      Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

      February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

      (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

      About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

      "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

      Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

      Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

      "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

      While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

      "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

      Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

      Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

      Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

      "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

      Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

      While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

      Provided by Pennsylvania State University

      "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

      Posted by
      Robert Karl Stonjek





      --
      Stan Franklin�� Professor�� Computer Science
      W. Harry� Feinstone� Interdisciplinary� Research�� Professor
      Institute for Intelligent Systems� � � ��
      FedEx Institute of Technology� � � � � � ��
      The University of Memphis
      Memphis, TN 38152 USA��
      901-678-1341
      <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/> �
      lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>



    • mark hubey
      Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest. ... Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest. On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, Stan Franklin
      Message 2 of 16 , Feb 19, 2013

        Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest.

        On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, "Stan Franklin" <franklin.stan@...> wrote:
         

        Help!

        If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

        Stan


        On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
         


        Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

        February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

        (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

        About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

        "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

        Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

        Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

        "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

        While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

        "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

        Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

        Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

        Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

        "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

        Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

        While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

        Provided by Pennsylvania State University

        "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

        Posted by
        Robert Karl Stonjek




        --
        Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
        W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
        Institute for Intelligent Systems        
        FedEx Institute of Technology              
        The University of Memphis
        Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
        901-678-1341
        <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
        lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

      • Stan Franklin
        Edgar, I d prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors were
        Message 3 of 16 , Feb 19, 2013
          Edgar,

          I'd prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors were shore dwellers (oceans, lakes, rivers). Tropical animals that are hairless are often water lovers (hippos, elephants, rhinos, pigs). Even the mainstream anthropologists are beginning to come around to this shoredweller theory. For example, please see Wrangham, R., Cheney, D., Seyfarth, R., & Sarmiento, E. (2009). Shallow-Water Habitats as Sources of Fallback Foods for Hominins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 140, 630–642.

          Stan


          On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 7:01 PM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
           

          Stan,


          Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in humans as awareness increased.

          Edgar


          On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:

           

          Help!

          If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

          Stan


          On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
           


          Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

          February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

          (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

          About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

          "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

          Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

          Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

          "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

          While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

          "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

          Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

          Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

          Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

          "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

          Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

          While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

          Provided by Pennsylvania State University

          "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

          Posted by
          Robert Karl Stonjek





          --
          Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
          W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
          Institute for Intelligent Systems        
          FedEx Institute of Technology              
          The University of Memphis
          Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
          901-678-1341
          <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
          lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>






          --
          Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
          W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
          Institute for Intelligent Systems        
          FedEx Institute of Technology              
          The University of Memphis
          Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
          901-678-1341
          <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
          lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

        • Stan Franklin
          Mark, There are savannah primates, for example the olive baboon, and lot of other savannah animals, with plenty of hair. To uphold the forest to savannah
          Message 4 of 16 , Feb 19, 2013
            Mark, There are savannah primates, for example the olive baboon, and lot of other savannah animals, with plenty of hair. To uphold the forest to savannah theory hairlessness, I would think that one must explain why these other species didn't lose their hair. Stan


            On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 9:35 PM, mark hubey <hubeev@...> wrote:
             

            Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest.

            On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, "Stan Franklin" <franklin.stan@...> wrote:
             

            Help!

            If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

            Stan


            On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
             


            Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

            February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

            (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

            About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

            "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

            Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

            Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

            "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

            While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

            "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

            Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

            Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

            Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

            "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

            Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

            While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

            Provided by Pennsylvania State University

            "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

            Posted by
            Robert Karl Stonjek




            --
            Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
            W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
            Institute for Intelligent Systems        
            FedEx Institute of Technology              
            The University of Memphis
            Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
            901-678-1341
            <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
            lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>




            --
            Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
            W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
            Institute for Intelligent Systems        
            FedEx Institute of Technology              
            The University of Memphis
            Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
            901-678-1341
            <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
            lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

          • Anna
            It did not “evolve” in dogs and other animals, but was a spontaneous mutation. So what makes you think that this was not also a spontaneous mutation in
            Message 5 of 16 , Feb 19, 2013
              It did not “evolve” in dogs and other animals, but was a spontaneous mutation. So what makes you think that this was not also a spontaneous mutation in humans? A variety  of alopecia for example?
               
              Anna
               
               
               
               
              Sent: Tuesday, February 19, 2013 8:35 PM
              To: Evol
              Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression
               

              Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest.

              On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, "Stan Franklin" <franklin.stan@...> wrote:
               

              Help!

              If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

              Stan


              On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
               


              Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

              February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

              (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

              About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

              "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

              Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

              Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

              "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

              While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

              "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

              Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

              Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

              Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

              "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

              Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

              While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

              Provided by Pennsylvania State University

              "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

              Posted by
              Robert Karl Stonjek




              --
              Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
              W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
              Institute for Intelligent Systems        
              FedEx Institute of Technology              
              The University of Memphis
              Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
              901-678-1341
              <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
              lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

            • Edgar Owen
              Stan, There are monkeys which are regularly aquatic but which show NO loss of hair... Just wading around in the water even regularly is not going to do it...
              Message 6 of 16 , Feb 20, 2013
                Stan,

                There are monkeys which are regularly aquatic but which show NO loss of hair... Just wading around in the water even regularly is not going to do it...

                Edgar



                On Feb 20, 2013, at 1:20 AM, Stan Franklin wrote:

                > Edgar,
                >
                > I'd prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the
                > aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors
                > were shore dwellers (oceans, lakes, rivers). Tropical animals that are
                > hairless are often water lovers (hippos, elephants, rhinos, pigs). Even the
                > mainstream anthropologists are beginning to come around to this
                > shoredweller theory. For example, please see Wrangham, R., Cheney, D.,
                > Seyfarth, R., & Sarmiento, E. (2009). Shallow-Water Habitats as Sources of
                > Fallback Foods for Hominins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY,
                > 140, 630–642.
                >
                > Stan
                >
                >
                > On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 7:01 PM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                >
                >> **
                >>
                >>
                >> Stan,
                >>
                >> Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the
                >> result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on
                >> looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in
                >> humans as awareness increased.
                >>
                >> Edgar
                >>
                >>
                >> On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >> Help!
                >>
                >> If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why
                >> didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the
                >> same times in the same environment?
                >>
                >> Stan
                >>
                >>
                >> On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <
                >> stonjek@...> wrote:
                >>
                >>> **
                >>>
                >>>
                >>> **
                >>> <http://phys.org/>
                >>> Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expressionFebruary
                >>> 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution
                >>>
                >>> *(Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep
                >>> cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a
                >>> Penn State anthropologist.*
                >>>
                >>> About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the
                >>> move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to
                >>> more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski,
                >>> Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate
                >>> skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among
                >>> other things, group identity.
                >>>
                >>> "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different
                >>> impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who
                >>> reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the
                >>> American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.
                >>>
                >>> Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of
                >>> self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as
                >>> tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and
                >>> body painting, according to the researcher.
                >>>
                >>> Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to
                >>> become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use
                >>> makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered
                >>> attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin
                >>> decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to
                >>> look more menacing and warrior-like.
                >>>
                >>> "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send
                >>> all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.
                >>>
                >>> While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo
                >>> designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put
                >>> considerable time and thought into the tattoos.
                >>>
                >>> "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk
                >>> to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years
                >>> choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."
                >>>
                >>> Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures,
                >>> not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not
                >>> be possible if humans were still covered with fur.
                >>>
                >>> Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few
                >>> thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.
                >>>
                >>> Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on
                >>> when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an
                >>> examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help
                >>> produce skin pigmentation.
                >>>
                >>> "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on
                >>> molecular genetics," said Jablonski.
                >>>
                >>> Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although
                >>> aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea
                >>> that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat,
                >>> some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a
                >>> common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often
                >>> referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil
                >>> and environmental evidence, she said.
                >>>
                >>> While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their
                >>> skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs
                >>> of tattooing.
                >>>
                >>> Provided by Pennsylvania State University
                >>>
                >>> **
                >>>
                >>> "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression."
                >>> February 17th, 2013.
                >>> http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html
                >>>
                >>> Posted by
                >>> Robert Karl Stonjek
                >>>
                >>>
                >>
                >>
                >> --
                >> Stan Franklin Professor Computer Science
                >> W. Harry Feinstone Interdisciplinary Research Professor
                >> Institute for Intelligent Systems
                >> FedEx Institute of Technology
                >> The University of Memphis
                >> Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                >> 901-678-1341
                >> <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                >> lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >
                >
                >
                > --
                > Stan Franklin Professor Computer Science
                > W. Harry Feinstone Interdisciplinary Research Professor
                > Institute for Intelligent Systems
                > FedEx Institute of Technology
                > The University of Memphis
                > Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                > 901-678-1341
                > <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                > lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>
              • Stan Franklin
                Edger, Yes, that s an issue that needs to be addressed. The only aquatic monkey I know of is the proboscis monkey that wades bipedally through the mangrove
                Message 7 of 16 , Feb 20, 2013
                  Edger,

                  Yes, that's an issue that needs to be addressed. The only aquatic monkey I know of is the proboscis monkey that wades bipedally through the mangrove swamps. I haven't been able to find any information about how long this species, or its ancestors, has been aquatic, but it's been long enough for them to evolve webbed fingers and toes. Maybe losing hair takes longer, though I don't see why it would. Also the proboscis monkey is an Asian species and a denizen of dense forests. Why any of this would make a difference, I don't know. The most likely explanation is that the proboscis monkey only travels through water, wading or swimming. It doesn't eat there, which I, and Wrangham, presume early hominids did. That would keep the hominids in the water longer than the monkeys, and make having hair more of a burden. I'm not sure I buy this explanation. For the moment I'll just have to file this issue away as a problem for the shore-dwelling hypothesis as an explanation of our hairlessness. Thanks for pointing it out.

                  Stan


                  On Wed, Feb 20, 2013 at 6:21 AM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                  Stan,

                  There are monkeys which are regularly aquatic but which show NO loss of hair... Just wading around in the water even regularly is not going to do it...

                  Edgar



                  On Feb 20, 2013, at 1:20 AM, Stan Franklin wrote:

                  > Edgar,
                  >
                  > I'd prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the
                  > aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors
                  > were shore dwellers (oceans, lakes, rivers). Tropical animals that are
                  > hairless are often water lovers (hippos, elephants, rhinos, pigs). Even the
                  > mainstream anthropologists are beginning to come around to this
                  > shoredweller theory. For example, please see Wrangham, R., Cheney, D.,
                  > Seyfarth, R., & Sarmiento, E. (2009). Shallow-Water Habitats as Sources of
                  > Fallback Foods for Hominins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY,
                  > 140, 630–642.
                  >
                  > Stan
                  >
                  >
                  > On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 7:01 PM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                  >
                  >> **
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> Stan,
                  >>
                  >> Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the
                  >> result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on
                  >> looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in
                  >> humans as awareness increased.
                  >>
                  >> Edgar
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> Help!
                  >>
                  >> If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why
                  >> didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the
                  >> same times in the same environment?
                  >>
                  >> Stan
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <
                  >> stonjek@...> wrote:
                  >>
                  >>> **
                  >>>
                  >>>
                  >>> **
                  >>> <http://phys.org/>
                  >>> Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expressionFebruary
                  >>> 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution
                  >>>
                  >>> *(Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep
                  >>> cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a
                  >>> Penn State anthropologist.*
                  >>>
                  >>> About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the
                  >>> move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to
                  >>> more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski,
                  >>> Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate
                  >>> skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among
                  >>> other things, group identity.
                  >>>
                  >>> "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different
                  >>> impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who
                  >>> reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the
                  >>> American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.
                  >>>
                  >>> Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of
                  >>> self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as
                  >>> tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and
                  >>> body painting, according to the researcher.
                  >>>
                  >>> Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to
                  >>> become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use
                  >>> makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered
                  >>> attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin
                  >>> decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to
                  >>> look more menacing and warrior-like.
                  >>>
                  >>> "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send
                  >>> all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.
                  >>>
                  >>> While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo
                  >>> designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put
                  >>> considerable time and thought into the tattoos.
                  >>>
                  >>> "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk
                  >>> to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years
                  >>> choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."
                  >>>
                  >>> Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures,
                  >>> not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not
                  >>> be possible if humans were still covered with fur.
                  >>>
                  >>> Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few
                  >>> thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.
                  >>>
                  >>> Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on
                  >>> when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an
                  >>> examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help
                  >>> produce skin pigmentation.
                  >>>
                  >>> "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on
                  >>> molecular genetics," said Jablonski.
                  >>>
                  >>> Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although
                  >>> aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea
                  >>> that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat,
                  >>> some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a
                  >>> common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often
                  >>> referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil
                  >>> and environmental evidence, she said.
                  >>>
                  >>> While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their
                  >>> skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs
                  >>> of tattooing.
                  >>>
                  >>> Provided by Pennsylvania State University
                  >>>
                  >>> **
                  >>>
                  >>> "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression."
                  >>> February 17th, 2013.
                  >>> http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html
                  >>>
                  >>> Posted by
                  >>> Robert Karl Stonjek
                  >>>
                  >>>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> --
                  >> Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                  >> W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                  >> Institute for Intelligent Systems
                  >> FedEx Institute of Technology
                  >> The University of Memphis
                  >> Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                  >> 901-678-1341
                  >> <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                  >> lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > --
                  > Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                  > W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                  > Institute for Intelligent Systems
                  > FedEx Institute of Technology
                  > The University of Memphis
                  > Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                  > 901-678-1341
                  > <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                  > lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>



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                  --
                  Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                  W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                  Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                  FedEx Institute of Technology              
                  The University of Memphis
                  Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                  901-678-1341
                  <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                  lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

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