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Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

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  • Anna
    The only difference is that fur consists of double hair, unlike in people and hairless dogs who have single hair. In fur you have a short downy hair
    Message 1 of 16 , Feb 17 10:30 PM
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      The only difference is that  fur consists of  double hair,  unlike in people and hairless dogs who have single hair.
      In fur you have a short downy hair overlaid with  thicker and longer  hair.  Still, it is  very superficial difference.
       
      Anna
       
      Sent: Sunday, February 17, 2013 9:17 PM
      To: Evol
      Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression
       

      That is strange. I fell for the reverse on Usenet years ago. I insisted "no difference" and I was kind of shouted down. Now I guess I need re- research.

      On Feb 17, 2013 10:48 PM, "Robert Karl Stonjek" <stonjek@...> wrote:
       

      RKS:
      The problem is that 'fur' and 'hair' are the same thing in biology.  The difference between chimp and, say, fox fur is the thickness and denseness of the hair follicles.  I fell into this trap myself in the past.  Someone suggested that 'underfur' had disappeared in the chimp but I'm not sure if that has scientific traction or if it was just an opinion :)
       
      Robert
       
      ----- Original Message -----
      To: Evol
      Sent: Monday, February 18, 2013 1:20 PM
      Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

      IT's a little bit more complicated. Chimps do not have hair; they have fur.
      Now we need an explanation of why fur was lost and replaced by hair and then why
      was the hair lost if it replaced fur (unless it did not replace fur at all).


      On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 7:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
       

      Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

      February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

      (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

      About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

      <snip>

      "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

      Posted by
      Robert Karl Stonjek

    • Stan Franklin
      Help! If Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool... why didn t it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same
      Message 2 of 16 , Feb 19 9:25 AM
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        Help!

        If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

        Stan


        On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
         


        Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

        February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

        (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

        About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

        "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

        Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

        Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

        "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

        While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

        "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

        Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

        Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

        Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

        "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

        Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

        While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

        Provided by Pennsylvania State University

        "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

        Posted by
        Robert Karl Stonjek




        --
        Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
        W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
        Institute for Intelligent Systems        
        FedEx Institute of Technology              
        The University of Memphis
        Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
        901-678-1341
        <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
        lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

      • Edgar Owen
        Stan, Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks
        Message 3 of 16 , Feb 19 5:01 PM
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          Stan,

          Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in humans as awareness increased.

          Edgar


          On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:

           

          Help!

          If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

          Stan


          On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
           


          Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

          February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

          (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

          About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

          "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

          Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

          Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

          "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

          While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

          "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

          Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

          Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

          Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

          "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

          Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

          While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

          Provided by Pennsylvania State University

          "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

          Posted by
          Robert Karl Stonjek





          --
          Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
          W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
          Institute for Intelligent Systems        
          FedEx Institute of Technology              
          The University of Memphis
          Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
          901-678-1341
          <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
          lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>



        • james kohl
          From: Edgar Owen To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com Sent: Tue, February 19, 2013 8:05:54 PM Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News:
          Message 4 of 16 , Feb 19 5:46 PM
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            From: Edgar Owen
            To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Tue, February 19, 2013 8:05:54 PM
            Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

            Stan,


            Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in humans as awareness increased.

            Edgar

            JK: Is there a model for that? We could compare it to the one where a single nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution changes thermoregulation of intranuclear interactions, protein synthesis, and cellular differentiation in cells and tissues of organisms from microbes to man. The result is changes in thermoregulation in a human population via an increase in eccrine glands accompanied by changes in apocrine glands (e.g., mammary tissue) that link nutrient metabolism to changes in pheromone production associated with phenotypic appeal of associated visual (e.g., female pendulous breasts) and other sensory input via the ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction required for adaptive evolution of sex differences in the human brain and behavior.� How and when did mate selection became more and more based on looks? I vaguely recall hearing that STORY before, but it's always one that is scientifically unsubstantiated. Perhaps that's why you're telling it again (i.e., you simply don't know any better).
            James V. Kohl
            Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
            Independent researcher
            Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


            On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:


            Help!

            If�"Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

            Stan


            On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:


            Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

            February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

            (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

            About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

            "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

            Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

            Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

            "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

            While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

            "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

            Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

            Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

            Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

            "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

            Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

            While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

            Provided by Pennsylvania State University

            "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

            Posted by
            Robert Karl Stonjek





            --
            Stan Franklin�� Professor�� Computer Science
            W. Harry� Feinstone� Interdisciplinary� Research�� Professor
            Institute for Intelligent Systems� � � ��
            FedEx Institute of Technology� � � � � � ��
            The University of Memphis
            Memphis, TN 38152 USA��
            901-678-1341
            <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/> �
            lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>



          • mark hubey
            Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest. ... Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest. On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, Stan Franklin
            Message 5 of 16 , Feb 19 7:35 PM
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              Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest.

              On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, "Stan Franklin" <franklin.stan@...> wrote:
               

              Help!

              If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

              Stan


              On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
               


              Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

              February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

              (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

              About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

              "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

              Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

              Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

              "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

              While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

              "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

              Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

              Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

              Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

              "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

              Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

              While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

              Provided by Pennsylvania State University

              "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

              Posted by
              Robert Karl Stonjek




              --
              Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
              W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
              Institute for Intelligent Systems        
              FedEx Institute of Technology              
              The University of Memphis
              Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
              901-678-1341
              <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
              lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

            • Stan Franklin
              Edgar, I d prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors were
              Message 6 of 16 , Feb 19 10:20 PM
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                Edgar,

                I'd prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors were shore dwellers (oceans, lakes, rivers). Tropical animals that are hairless are often water lovers (hippos, elephants, rhinos, pigs). Even the mainstream anthropologists are beginning to come around to this shoredweller theory. For example, please see Wrangham, R., Cheney, D., Seyfarth, R., & Sarmiento, E. (2009). Shallow-Water Habitats as Sources of Fallback Foods for Hominins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 140, 630–642.

                Stan


                On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 7:01 PM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                 

                Stan,


                Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in humans as awareness increased.

                Edgar


                On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:

                 

                Help!

                If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                Stan


                On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
                 


                Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                Posted by
                Robert Karl Stonjek





                --
                Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                FedEx Institute of Technology              
                The University of Memphis
                Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                901-678-1341
                <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>






                --
                Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                FedEx Institute of Technology              
                The University of Memphis
                Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                901-678-1341
                <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

              • Stan Franklin
                Mark, There are savannah primates, for example the olive baboon, and lot of other savannah animals, with plenty of hair. To uphold the forest to savannah
                Message 7 of 16 , Feb 19 10:29 PM
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                  Mark, There are savannah primates, for example the olive baboon, and lot of other savannah animals, with plenty of hair. To uphold the forest to savannah theory hairlessness, I would think that one must explain why these other species didn't lose their hair. Stan


                  On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 9:35 PM, mark hubey <hubeev@...> wrote:
                   

                  Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest.

                  On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, "Stan Franklin" <franklin.stan@...> wrote:
                   

                  Help!

                  If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                  Stan


                  On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
                   


                  Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                  February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                  (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                  About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                  "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                  Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                  Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                  "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                  While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                  "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                  Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                  Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                  Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                  "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                  Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                  While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                  Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                  "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                  Posted by
                  Robert Karl Stonjek




                  --
                  Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                  W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                  Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                  FedEx Institute of Technology              
                  The University of Memphis
                  Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                  901-678-1341
                  <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                  lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>




                  --
                  Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                  W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                  Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                  FedEx Institute of Technology              
                  The University of Memphis
                  Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                  901-678-1341
                  <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                  lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

                • Anna
                  It did not “evolve” in dogs and other animals, but was a spontaneous mutation. So what makes you think that this was not also a spontaneous mutation in
                  Message 8 of 16 , Feb 19 11:14 PM
                  • 0 Attachment
                    It did not “evolve” in dogs and other animals, but was a spontaneous mutation. So what makes you think that this was not also a spontaneous mutation in humans? A variety  of alopecia for example?
                     
                    Anna
                     
                     
                     
                     
                    Sent: Tuesday, February 19, 2013 8:35 PM
                    To: Evol
                    Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression
                     

                    Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest.

                    On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, "Stan Franklin" <franklin.stan@...> wrote:
                     

                    Help!

                    If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                    Stan


                    On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
                     


                    Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                    February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                    (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                    About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                    "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                    Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                    Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                    "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                    While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                    "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                    Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                    Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                    Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                    "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                    Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                    While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                    Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                    "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                    Posted by
                    Robert Karl Stonjek




                    --
                    Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                    W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                    Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                    FedEx Institute of Technology              
                    The University of Memphis
                    Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                    901-678-1341
                    <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                    lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

                  • Edgar Owen
                    Stan, There are monkeys which are regularly aquatic but which show NO loss of hair... Just wading around in the water even regularly is not going to do it...
                    Message 9 of 16 , Feb 20 4:21 AM
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Stan,

                      There are monkeys which are regularly aquatic but which show NO loss of hair... Just wading around in the water even regularly is not going to do it...

                      Edgar



                      On Feb 20, 2013, at 1:20 AM, Stan Franklin wrote:

                      > Edgar,
                      >
                      > I'd prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the
                      > aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors
                      > were shore dwellers (oceans, lakes, rivers). Tropical animals that are
                      > hairless are often water lovers (hippos, elephants, rhinos, pigs). Even the
                      > mainstream anthropologists are beginning to come around to this
                      > shoredweller theory. For example, please see Wrangham, R., Cheney, D.,
                      > Seyfarth, R., & Sarmiento, E. (2009). Shallow-Water Habitats as Sources of
                      > Fallback Foods for Hominins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY,
                      > 140, 630–642.
                      >
                      > Stan
                      >
                      >
                      > On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 7:01 PM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                      >
                      >> **
                      >>
                      >>
                      >> Stan,
                      >>
                      >> Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the
                      >> result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on
                      >> looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in
                      >> humans as awareness increased.
                      >>
                      >> Edgar
                      >>
                      >>
                      >> On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:
                      >>
                      >>
                      >>
                      >> Help!
                      >>
                      >> If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why
                      >> didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the
                      >> same times in the same environment?
                      >>
                      >> Stan
                      >>
                      >>
                      >> On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <
                      >> stonjek@...> wrote:
                      >>
                      >>> **
                      >>>
                      >>>
                      >>> **
                      >>> <http://phys.org/>
                      >>> Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expressionFebruary
                      >>> 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution
                      >>>
                      >>> *(Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep
                      >>> cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a
                      >>> Penn State anthropologist.*
                      >>>
                      >>> About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the
                      >>> move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to
                      >>> more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski,
                      >>> Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate
                      >>> skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among
                      >>> other things, group identity.
                      >>>
                      >>> "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different
                      >>> impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who
                      >>> reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the
                      >>> American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.
                      >>>
                      >>> Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of
                      >>> self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as
                      >>> tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and
                      >>> body painting, according to the researcher.
                      >>>
                      >>> Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to
                      >>> become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use
                      >>> makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered
                      >>> attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin
                      >>> decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to
                      >>> look more menacing and warrior-like.
                      >>>
                      >>> "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send
                      >>> all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.
                      >>>
                      >>> While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo
                      >>> designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put
                      >>> considerable time and thought into the tattoos.
                      >>>
                      >>> "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk
                      >>> to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years
                      >>> choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."
                      >>>
                      >>> Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures,
                      >>> not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not
                      >>> be possible if humans were still covered with fur.
                      >>>
                      >>> Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few
                      >>> thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.
                      >>>
                      >>> Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on
                      >>> when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an
                      >>> examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help
                      >>> produce skin pigmentation.
                      >>>
                      >>> "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on
                      >>> molecular genetics," said Jablonski.
                      >>>
                      >>> Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although
                      >>> aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea
                      >>> that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat,
                      >>> some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a
                      >>> common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often
                      >>> referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil
                      >>> and environmental evidence, she said.
                      >>>
                      >>> While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their
                      >>> skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs
                      >>> of tattooing.
                      >>>
                      >>> Provided by Pennsylvania State University
                      >>>
                      >>> **
                      >>>
                      >>> "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression."
                      >>> February 17th, 2013.
                      >>> http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html
                      >>>
                      >>> Posted by
                      >>> Robert Karl Stonjek
                      >>>
                      >>>
                      >>
                      >>
                      >> --
                      >> Stan Franklin Professor Computer Science
                      >> W. Harry Feinstone Interdisciplinary Research Professor
                      >> Institute for Intelligent Systems
                      >> FedEx Institute of Technology
                      >> The University of Memphis
                      >> Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                      >> 901-678-1341
                      >> <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                      >> lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>
                      >>
                      >>
                      >>
                      >>
                      >>
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > --
                      > Stan Franklin Professor Computer Science
                      > W. Harry Feinstone Interdisciplinary Research Professor
                      > Institute for Intelligent Systems
                      > FedEx Institute of Technology
                      > The University of Memphis
                      > Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                      > 901-678-1341
                      > <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                      > lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>
                    • Stan Franklin
                      Edger, Yes, that s an issue that needs to be addressed. The only aquatic monkey I know of is the proboscis monkey that wades bipedally through the mangrove
                      Message 10 of 16 , Feb 20 7:14 AM
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Edger,

                        Yes, that's an issue that needs to be addressed. The only aquatic monkey I know of is the proboscis monkey that wades bipedally through the mangrove swamps. I haven't been able to find any information about how long this species, or its ancestors, has been aquatic, but it's been long enough for them to evolve webbed fingers and toes. Maybe losing hair takes longer, though I don't see why it would. Also the proboscis monkey is an Asian species and a denizen of dense forests. Why any of this would make a difference, I don't know. The most likely explanation is that the proboscis monkey only travels through water, wading or swimming. It doesn't eat there, which I, and Wrangham, presume early hominids did. That would keep the hominids in the water longer than the monkeys, and make having hair more of a burden. I'm not sure I buy this explanation. For the moment I'll just have to file this issue away as a problem for the shore-dwelling hypothesis as an explanation of our hairlessness. Thanks for pointing it out.

                        Stan


                        On Wed, Feb 20, 2013 at 6:21 AM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                        Stan,

                        There are monkeys which are regularly aquatic but which show NO loss of hair... Just wading around in the water even regularly is not going to do it...

                        Edgar



                        On Feb 20, 2013, at 1:20 AM, Stan Franklin wrote:

                        > Edgar,
                        >
                        > I'd prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the
                        > aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors
                        > were shore dwellers (oceans, lakes, rivers). Tropical animals that are
                        > hairless are often water lovers (hippos, elephants, rhinos, pigs). Even the
                        > mainstream anthropologists are beginning to come around to this
                        > shoredweller theory. For example, please see Wrangham, R., Cheney, D.,
                        > Seyfarth, R., & Sarmiento, E. (2009). Shallow-Water Habitats as Sources of
                        > Fallback Foods for Hominins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY,
                        > 140, 630–642.
                        >
                        > Stan
                        >
                        >
                        > On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 7:01 PM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                        >
                        >> **
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> Stan,
                        >>
                        >> Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the
                        >> result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on
                        >> looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in
                        >> humans as awareness increased.
                        >>
                        >> Edgar
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> Help!
                        >>
                        >> If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why
                        >> didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the
                        >> same times in the same environment?
                        >>
                        >> Stan
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <
                        >> stonjek@...> wrote:
                        >>
                        >>> **
                        >>>
                        >>>
                        >>> **
                        >>> <http://phys.org/>
                        >>> Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expressionFebruary
                        >>> 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution
                        >>>
                        >>> *(Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep
                        >>> cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a
                        >>> Penn State anthropologist.*
                        >>>
                        >>> About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the
                        >>> move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to
                        >>> more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski,
                        >>> Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate
                        >>> skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among
                        >>> other things, group identity.
                        >>>
                        >>> "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different
                        >>> impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who
                        >>> reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the
                        >>> American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.
                        >>>
                        >>> Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of
                        >>> self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as
                        >>> tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and
                        >>> body painting, according to the researcher.
                        >>>
                        >>> Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to
                        >>> become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use
                        >>> makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered
                        >>> attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin
                        >>> decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to
                        >>> look more menacing and warrior-like.
                        >>>
                        >>> "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send
                        >>> all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.
                        >>>
                        >>> While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo
                        >>> designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put
                        >>> considerable time and thought into the tattoos.
                        >>>
                        >>> "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk
                        >>> to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years
                        >>> choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."
                        >>>
                        >>> Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures,
                        >>> not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not
                        >>> be possible if humans were still covered with fur.
                        >>>
                        >>> Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few
                        >>> thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.
                        >>>
                        >>> Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on
                        >>> when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an
                        >>> examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help
                        >>> produce skin pigmentation.
                        >>>
                        >>> "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on
                        >>> molecular genetics," said Jablonski.
                        >>>
                        >>> Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although
                        >>> aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea
                        >>> that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat,
                        >>> some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a
                        >>> common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often
                        >>> referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil
                        >>> and environmental evidence, she said.
                        >>>
                        >>> While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their
                        >>> skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs
                        >>> of tattooing.
                        >>>
                        >>> Provided by Pennsylvania State University
                        >>>
                        >>> **
                        >>>
                        >>> "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression."
                        >>> February 17th, 2013.
                        >>> http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html
                        >>>
                        >>> Posted by
                        >>> Robert Karl Stonjek
                        >>>
                        >>>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> --
                        >> Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                        >> W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                        >> Institute for Intelligent Systems
                        >> FedEx Institute of Technology
                        >> The University of Memphis
                        >> Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                        >> 901-678-1341
                        >> <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                        >> lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > --
                        > Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                        > W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                        > Institute for Intelligent Systems
                        > FedEx Institute of Technology
                        > The University of Memphis
                        > Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                        > 901-678-1341
                        > <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                        > lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>



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                        --
                        Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                        W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                        Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                        FedEx Institute of Technology              
                        The University of Memphis
                        Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                        901-678-1341
                        <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                        lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

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