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Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

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  • Robert Karl Stonjek
    RKS: The problem is that fur and hair are the same thing in biology. The difference between chimp and, say, fox fur is the thickness and denseness of the
    Message 1 of 16 , Feb 17 7:47 PM
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      RKS:
      The problem is that 'fur' and 'hair' are the same thing in biology.  The difference between chimp and, say, fox fur is the thickness and denseness of the hair follicles.  I fell into this trap myself in the past.  Someone suggested that 'underfur' had disappeared in the chimp but I'm not sure if that has scientific traction or if it was just an opinion :)
       
      Robert
       
      ----- Original Message -----
      To: Evol
      Sent: Monday, February 18, 2013 1:20 PM
      Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

      IT's a little bit more complicated. Chimps do not have hair; they have fur.
      Now we need an explanation of why fur was lost and replaced by hair and then why
      was the hair lost if it replaced fur (unless it did not replace fur at all).


      On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 7:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
       

      Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

      February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

      (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

      About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

      <snip>

      "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

      Posted by
      Robert Karl Stonjek

    • mark hubey
      That is strange. I fell for the reverse on Usenet years ago. I insisted no difference and I was kind of shouted down. Now I guess I need re- research. On Feb
      Message 2 of 16 , Feb 17 8:17 PM
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        That is strange. I fell for the reverse on Usenet years ago. I insisted "no difference" and I was kind of shouted down. Now I guess I need re- research.

        On Feb 17, 2013 10:48 PM, "Robert Karl Stonjek" <stonjek@...> wrote:
         

        RKS:
        The problem is that 'fur' and 'hair' are the same thing in biology.  The difference between chimp and, say, fox fur is the thickness and denseness of the hair follicles.  I fell into this trap myself in the past.  Someone suggested that 'underfur' had disappeared in the chimp but I'm not sure if that has scientific traction or if it was just an opinion :)
         
        Robert
         
        ----- Original Message -----
        To: Evol
        Sent: Monday, February 18, 2013 1:20 PM
        Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

        IT's a little bit more complicated. Chimps do not have hair; they have fur.
        Now we need an explanation of why fur was lost and replaced by hair and then why
        was the hair lost if it replaced fur (unless it did not replace fur at all).


        On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 7:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
         

        Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

        February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

        (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

        About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

        <snip>

        "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

        Posted by
        Robert Karl Stonjek

      • james kohl
        Does the presence of terminal hair especially in the axillae and pubic area, but also on the chest and face in adult human males suggest evolution for visual
        Message 3 of 16 , Feb 17 9:07 PM
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          Does the presence of terminal hair especially in the axillae and pubic area, but also on the chest and face in adult human males suggest evolution for visual display?  If so, do the modified-apocrine-gland permanently pendulous breasts of  adult human females suggest they evolved due to the absence of chest hair? Are evolutionary theorists always going to tell silly stories?
           
          James V. Kohl
          Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
          Independent researcher
          Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.



          From: Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...>
          To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Sun, February 17, 2013 10:48:00 PM
          Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

           

          RKS:
          The problem is that 'fur' and 'hair' are the same thing in biology.  The difference between chimp and, say, fox fur is the thickness and denseness of the hair follicles.  I fell into this trap myself in the past.  Someone suggested that 'underfur' had disappeared in the chimp but I'm not sure if that has scientific traction or if it was just an opinion :)
           
          Robert
           
          ----- Original Message -----
          To: Evol
          Sent: Monday, February 18, 2013 1:20 PM
          Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

          IT's a little bit more complicated. Chimps do not have hair; they have fur.
          Now we need an explanation of why fur was lost and replaced by hair and then why
          was the hair lost if it replaced fur (unless it did not replace fur at all).


          On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 7:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
           

          Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

          February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

          (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

          About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

          <snip>

          "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

          Posted by
          Robert Karl Stonjek

        • Robert Karl Stonjek
          RKS: Fur is a synonym for hair, used in reference to non-human animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fur I always thought the soft fluffy stuff was fur, but
          Message 4 of 16 , Feb 17 9:29 PM
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            RKS:
            "Fur is a synonym for hair, used in reference to non-human animals
            , "
             
            I always thought the soft fluffy stuff was fur, but apparantly I was also wrong.  I think it might have been usenet that howled me down (sci.bio.evolution).  Perhaps shouting down is a preoculation of the usenet users?
             
            Robert
             
             
            ----- Original Message -----
            To: Evol
            Sent: Monday, February 18, 2013 3:17 PM
            Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

            That is strange. I fell for the reverse on Usenet years ago. I insisted "no difference" and I was kind of shouted down. Now I guess I need re- research.

            On Feb 17, 2013 10:48 PM, "Robert Karl Stonjek" <stonjek@...> wrote:
             

            RKS:
            The problem is that 'fur' and 'hair' are the same thing in biology.  The difference between chimp and, say, fox fur is the thickness and denseness of the hair follicles.  I fell into this trap myself in the past.  Someone suggested that 'underfur' had disappeared in the chimp but I'm not sure if that has scientific traction or if it was just an opinion :)
             
            Robert
             
            ----- Original Message -----
            To: Evol
            Sent: Monday, February 18, 2013 1:20 PM
            Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

            IT's a little bit more complicated. Chimps do not have hair; they have fur.
            Now we need an explanation of why fur was lost and replaced by hair and then why
            was the hair lost if it replaced fur (unless it did not replace fur at all).


            On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 7:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
             

            Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

            February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

            (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

            About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

            <snip>

            "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

            Posted by
            Robert Karl Stonjek

          • Anna
            The only difference is that fur consists of double hair, unlike in people and hairless dogs who have single hair. In fur you have a short downy hair
            Message 5 of 16 , Feb 17 10:30 PM
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              The only difference is that  fur consists of  double hair,  unlike in people and hairless dogs who have single hair.
              In fur you have a short downy hair overlaid with  thicker and longer  hair.  Still, it is  very superficial difference.
               
              Anna
               
              Sent: Sunday, February 17, 2013 9:17 PM
              To: Evol
              Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression
               

              That is strange. I fell for the reverse on Usenet years ago. I insisted "no difference" and I was kind of shouted down. Now I guess I need re- research.

              On Feb 17, 2013 10:48 PM, "Robert Karl Stonjek" <stonjek@...> wrote:
               

              RKS:
              The problem is that 'fur' and 'hair' are the same thing in biology.  The difference between chimp and, say, fox fur is the thickness and denseness of the hair follicles.  I fell into this trap myself in the past.  Someone suggested that 'underfur' had disappeared in the chimp but I'm not sure if that has scientific traction or if it was just an opinion :)
               
              Robert
               
              ----- Original Message -----
              To: Evol
              Sent: Monday, February 18, 2013 1:20 PM
              Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

              IT's a little bit more complicated. Chimps do not have hair; they have fur.
              Now we need an explanation of why fur was lost and replaced by hair and then why
              was the hair lost if it replaced fur (unless it did not replace fur at all).


              On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 7:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
               

              Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

              February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

              (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

              About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

              <snip>

              "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

              Posted by
              Robert Karl Stonjek

            • Stan Franklin
              Help! If Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool... why didn t it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same
              Message 6 of 16 , Feb 19 9:25 AM
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                Help!

                If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                Stan


                On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
                 


                Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                Posted by
                Robert Karl Stonjek




                --
                Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                FedEx Institute of Technology              
                The University of Memphis
                Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                901-678-1341
                <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

              • Edgar Owen
                Stan, Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks
                Message 7 of 16 , Feb 19 5:01 PM
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                  Stan,

                  Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in humans as awareness increased.

                  Edgar


                  On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:

                   

                  Help!

                  If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                  Stan


                  On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
                   


                  Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                  February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                  (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                  About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                  "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                  Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                  Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                  "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                  While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                  "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                  Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                  Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                  Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                  "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                  Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                  While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                  Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                  "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                  Posted by
                  Robert Karl Stonjek





                  --
                  Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                  W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                  Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                  FedEx Institute of Technology              
                  The University of Memphis
                  Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                  901-678-1341
                  <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                  lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>



                • james kohl
                  From: Edgar Owen To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com Sent: Tue, February 19, 2013 8:05:54 PM Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News:
                  Message 8 of 16 , Feb 19 5:46 PM
                  • 0 Attachment
                    From: Edgar Owen
                    To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Tue, February 19, 2013 8:05:54 PM
                    Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                    Stan,


                    Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in humans as awareness increased.

                    Edgar

                    JK: Is there a model for that? We could compare it to the one where a single nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution changes thermoregulation of intranuclear interactions, protein synthesis, and cellular differentiation in cells and tissues of organisms from microbes to man. The result is changes in thermoregulation in a human population via an increase in eccrine glands accompanied by changes in apocrine glands (e.g., mammary tissue) that link nutrient metabolism to changes in pheromone production associated with phenotypic appeal of associated visual (e.g., female pendulous breasts) and other sensory input via the ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction required for adaptive evolution of sex differences in the human brain and behavior.� How and when did mate selection became more and more based on looks? I vaguely recall hearing that STORY before, but it's always one that is scientifically unsubstantiated. Perhaps that's why you're telling it again (i.e., you simply don't know any better).
                    James V. Kohl
                    Medical laboratory scientist (ASCP)
                    Independent researcher
                    Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338.


                    On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:


                    Help!

                    If�"Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                    Stan


                    On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:


                    Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                    February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                    (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                    About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                    "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                    Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                    Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                    "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                    While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                    "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                    Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                    Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                    Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                    "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                    Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                    While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                    Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                    "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                    Posted by
                    Robert Karl Stonjek





                    --
                    Stan Franklin�� Professor�� Computer Science
                    W. Harry� Feinstone� Interdisciplinary� Research�� Professor
                    Institute for Intelligent Systems� � � ��
                    FedEx Institute of Technology� � � � � � ��
                    The University of Memphis
                    Memphis, TN 38152 USA��
                    901-678-1341
                    <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/> �
                    lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>



                  • mark hubey
                    Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest. ... Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest. On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, Stan Franklin
                    Message 9 of 16 , Feb 19 7:35 PM
                    • 0 Attachment

                      Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest.

                      On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, "Stan Franklin" <franklin.stan@...> wrote:
                       

                      Help!

                      If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                      Stan


                      On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
                       


                      Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                      February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                      (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                      About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                      "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                      Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                      Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                      "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                      While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                      "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                      Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                      Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                      Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                      "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                      Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                      While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                      Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                      "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                      Posted by
                      Robert Karl Stonjek




                      --
                      Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                      W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                      Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                      FedEx Institute of Technology              
                      The University of Memphis
                      Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                      901-678-1341
                      <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                      lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

                    • Stan Franklin
                      Edgar, I d prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors were
                      Message 10 of 16 , Feb 19 10:20 PM
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Edgar,

                        I'd prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors were shore dwellers (oceans, lakes, rivers). Tropical animals that are hairless are often water lovers (hippos, elephants, rhinos, pigs). Even the mainstream anthropologists are beginning to come around to this shoredweller theory. For example, please see Wrangham, R., Cheney, D., Seyfarth, R., & Sarmiento, E. (2009). Shallow-Water Habitats as Sources of Fallback Foods for Hominins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 140, 630–642.

                        Stan


                        On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 7:01 PM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                         

                        Stan,


                        Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in humans as awareness increased.

                        Edgar


                        On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:

                         

                        Help!

                        If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                        Stan


                        On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
                         


                        Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                        February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                        (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                        About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                        "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                        Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                        Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                        "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                        While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                        "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                        Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                        Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                        Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                        "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                        Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                        While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                        Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                        "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                        Posted by
                        Robert Karl Stonjek





                        --
                        Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                        W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                        Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                        FedEx Institute of Technology              
                        The University of Memphis
                        Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                        901-678-1341
                        <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                        lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>






                        --
                        Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                        W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                        Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                        FedEx Institute of Technology              
                        The University of Memphis
                        Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                        901-678-1341
                        <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                        lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

                      • Stan Franklin
                        Mark, There are savannah primates, for example the olive baboon, and lot of other savannah animals, with plenty of hair. To uphold the forest to savannah
                        Message 11 of 16 , Feb 19 10:29 PM
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Mark, There are savannah primates, for example the olive baboon, and lot of other savannah animals, with plenty of hair. To uphold the forest to savannah theory hairlessness, I would think that one must explain why these other species didn't lose their hair. Stan


                          On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 9:35 PM, mark hubey <hubeev@...> wrote:
                           

                          Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest.

                          On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, "Stan Franklin" <franklin.stan@...> wrote:
                           

                          Help!

                          If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                          Stan


                          On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
                           


                          Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                          February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                          (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                          About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                          "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                          Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                          Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                          "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                          While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                          "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                          Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                          Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                          Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                          "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                          Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                          While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                          Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                          "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                          Posted by
                          Robert Karl Stonjek




                          --
                          Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                          W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                          Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                          FedEx Institute of Technology              
                          The University of Memphis
                          Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                          901-678-1341
                          <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                          lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>




                          --
                          Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                          W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                          Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                          FedEx Institute of Technology              
                          The University of Memphis
                          Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                          901-678-1341
                          <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                          lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

                        • Anna
                          It did not “evolve” in dogs and other animals, but was a spontaneous mutation. So what makes you think that this was not also a spontaneous mutation in
                          Message 12 of 16 , Feb 19 11:14 PM
                          • 0 Attachment
                            It did not “evolve” in dogs and other animals, but was a spontaneous mutation. So what makes you think that this was not also a spontaneous mutation in humans? A variety  of alopecia for example?
                             
                            Anna
                             
                             
                             
                             
                            Sent: Tuesday, February 19, 2013 8:35 PM
                            To: Evol
                            Subject: Re: [evol-psych] News: Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression
                             

                            Environment change e.g. savannah instead of forest.

                            On Feb 19, 2013 7:10 PM, "Stan Franklin" <franklin.stan@...> wrote:
                             

                            Help!

                            If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the same times in the same environment?

                            Stan


                            On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <stonjek@...> wrote:
                             


                            Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression

                            February 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution

                            (Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a Penn State anthropologist.

                            About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among other things, group identity.

                            "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.

                            Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and body painting, according to the researcher.

                            Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to look more menacing and warrior-like.

                            "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.

                            While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put considerable time and thought into the tattoos.

                            "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."

                            Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures, not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not be possible if humans were still covered with fur.

                            Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.

                            Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help produce skin pigmentation.

                            "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on molecular genetics," said Jablonski.

                            Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat, some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil and environmental evidence, she said.

                            While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs of tattooing.

                            Provided by Pennsylvania State University

                            "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression." February 17th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html

                            Posted by
                            Robert Karl Stonjek




                            --
                            Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                            W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                            Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                            FedEx Institute of Technology              
                            The University of Memphis
                            Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                            901-678-1341
                            <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                            lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

                          • Edgar Owen
                            Stan, There are monkeys which are regularly aquatic but which show NO loss of hair... Just wading around in the water even regularly is not going to do it...
                            Message 13 of 16 , Feb 20 4:21 AM
                            • 0 Attachment
                              Stan,

                              There are monkeys which are regularly aquatic but which show NO loss of hair... Just wading around in the water even regularly is not going to do it...

                              Edgar



                              On Feb 20, 2013, at 1:20 AM, Stan Franklin wrote:

                              > Edgar,
                              >
                              > I'd prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the
                              > aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors
                              > were shore dwellers (oceans, lakes, rivers). Tropical animals that are
                              > hairless are often water lovers (hippos, elephants, rhinos, pigs). Even the
                              > mainstream anthropologists are beginning to come around to this
                              > shoredweller theory. For example, please see Wrangham, R., Cheney, D.,
                              > Seyfarth, R., & Sarmiento, E. (2009). Shallow-Water Habitats as Sources of
                              > Fallback Foods for Hominins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY,
                              > 140, 630–642.
                              >
                              > Stan
                              >
                              >
                              > On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 7:01 PM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                              >
                              >> **
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> Stan,
                              >>
                              >> Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the
                              >> result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on
                              >> looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in
                              >> humans as awareness increased.
                              >>
                              >> Edgar
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> Help!
                              >>
                              >> If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why
                              >> didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the
                              >> same times in the same environment?
                              >>
                              >> Stan
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <
                              >> stonjek@...> wrote:
                              >>
                              >>> **
                              >>>
                              >>>
                              >>> **
                              >>> <http://phys.org/>
                              >>> Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expressionFebruary
                              >>> 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution
                              >>>
                              >>> *(Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep
                              >>> cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a
                              >>> Penn State anthropologist.*
                              >>>
                              >>> About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the
                              >>> move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to
                              >>> more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski,
                              >>> Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate
                              >>> skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among
                              >>> other things, group identity.
                              >>>
                              >>> "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different
                              >>> impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who
                              >>> reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the
                              >>> American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.
                              >>>
                              >>> Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of
                              >>> self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as
                              >>> tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and
                              >>> body painting, according to the researcher.
                              >>>
                              >>> Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to
                              >>> become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use
                              >>> makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered
                              >>> attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin
                              >>> decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to
                              >>> look more menacing and warrior-like.
                              >>>
                              >>> "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send
                              >>> all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.
                              >>>
                              >>> While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo
                              >>> designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put
                              >>> considerable time and thought into the tattoos.
                              >>>
                              >>> "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk
                              >>> to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years
                              >>> choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."
                              >>>
                              >>> Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures,
                              >>> not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not
                              >>> be possible if humans were still covered with fur.
                              >>>
                              >>> Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few
                              >>> thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.
                              >>>
                              >>> Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on
                              >>> when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an
                              >>> examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help
                              >>> produce skin pigmentation.
                              >>>
                              >>> "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on
                              >>> molecular genetics," said Jablonski.
                              >>>
                              >>> Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although
                              >>> aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea
                              >>> that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat,
                              >>> some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a
                              >>> common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often
                              >>> referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil
                              >>> and environmental evidence, she said.
                              >>>
                              >>> While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their
                              >>> skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs
                              >>> of tattooing.
                              >>>
                              >>> Provided by Pennsylvania State University
                              >>>
                              >>> **
                              >>>
                              >>> "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression."
                              >>> February 17th, 2013.
                              >>> http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html
                              >>>
                              >>> Posted by
                              >>> Robert Karl Stonjek
                              >>>
                              >>>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> --
                              >> Stan Franklin Professor Computer Science
                              >> W. Harry Feinstone Interdisciplinary Research Professor
                              >> Institute for Intelligent Systems
                              >> FedEx Institute of Technology
                              >> The University of Memphis
                              >> Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                              >> 901-678-1341
                              >> <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                              >> lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > --
                              > Stan Franklin Professor Computer Science
                              > W. Harry Feinstone Interdisciplinary Research Professor
                              > Institute for Intelligent Systems
                              > FedEx Institute of Technology
                              > The University of Memphis
                              > Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                              > 901-678-1341
                              > <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                              > lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>
                            • Stan Franklin
                              Edger, Yes, that s an issue that needs to be addressed. The only aquatic monkey I know of is the proboscis monkey that wades bipedally through the mangrove
                              Message 14 of 16 , Feb 20 7:14 AM
                              • 0 Attachment
                                Edger,

                                Yes, that's an issue that needs to be addressed. The only aquatic monkey I know of is the proboscis monkey that wades bipedally through the mangrove swamps. I haven't been able to find any information about how long this species, or its ancestors, has been aquatic, but it's been long enough for them to evolve webbed fingers and toes. Maybe losing hair takes longer, though I don't see why it would. Also the proboscis monkey is an Asian species and a denizen of dense forests. Why any of this would make a difference, I don't know. The most likely explanation is that the proboscis monkey only travels through water, wading or swimming. It doesn't eat there, which I, and Wrangham, presume early hominids did. That would keep the hominids in the water longer than the monkeys, and make having hair more of a burden. I'm not sure I buy this explanation. For the moment I'll just have to file this issue away as a problem for the shore-dwelling hypothesis as an explanation of our hairlessness. Thanks for pointing it out.

                                Stan


                                On Wed, Feb 20, 2013 at 6:21 AM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                                Stan,

                                There are monkeys which are regularly aquatic but which show NO loss of hair... Just wading around in the water even regularly is not going to do it...

                                Edgar



                                On Feb 20, 2013, at 1:20 AM, Stan Franklin wrote:

                                > Edgar,
                                >
                                > I'd prefer to attribute our hairlessness to what used to be called the
                                > aquatic ape hypothesis, but not seemed to be that our hominid ancestors
                                > were shore dwellers (oceans, lakes, rivers). Tropical animals that are
                                > hairless are often water lovers (hippos, elephants, rhinos, pigs). Even the
                                > mainstream anthropologists are beginning to come around to this
                                > shoredweller theory. For example, please see Wrangham, R., Cheney, D.,
                                > Seyfarth, R., & Sarmiento, E. (2009). Shallow-Water Habitats as Sources of
                                > Fallback Foods for Hominins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY,
                                > 140, 630–642.
                                >
                                > Stan
                                >
                                >
                                > On Tue, Feb 19, 2013 at 7:01 PM, Edgar Owen <edgarowen@...> wrote:
                                >
                                >> **
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> Stan,
                                >>
                                >> Yes, I agree. Obviously that theory is nonsense. Much more likely the
                                >> result of sexual selection as mate selection became more and more based on
                                >> looks with the increasing conscious conceptualization of the world in
                                >> humans as awareness increased.
                                >>
                                >> Edgar
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> On Feb 19, 2013, at 12:25 PM, Stan Franklin wrote:
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> Help!
                                >>
                                >> If "Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep cool..." why
                                >> didn't it evolve in any of the several other primates living during the
                                >> same times in the same environment?
                                >>
                                >> Stan
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> On Sun, Feb 17, 2013 at 6:44 PM, Robert Karl Stonjek <
                                >> stonjek@...> wrote:
                                >>
                                >>> **
                                >>>
                                >>>
                                >>> **
                                >>> <http://phys.org/>
                                >>> Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expressionFebruary
                                >>> 17th, 2013 in Biology / Evolution
                                >>>
                                >>> *(Phys.org)—Hairless skin first evolved in humans as a way to keep
                                >>> cool—and then turned into a canvas to help them look cool, according to a
                                >>> Penn State anthropologist.*
                                >>>
                                >>> About 1.5 to 2 million years ago, early humans, who were regularly on the
                                >>> move as hunters and scavengers, evolved into nearly hairless creatures to
                                >>> more efficiently sweat away excess body heat, said Nina Jablonski,
                                >>> Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. Later, humans began to decorate
                                >>> skin to increase attractiveness to the opposite sex and to express, among
                                >>> other things, group identity.
                                >>>
                                >>> "We can make a visual impact and present a completely different
                                >>> impression than we can with regular, undecorated skin," said Jablonski, who
                                >>> reports on her research today (Feb. 16) at the annual meeting of the
                                >>> American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.
                                >>>
                                >>> Over the millennia, people turned their skin into canvases of
                                >>> self-expression in different ways, including permanent methods, such as
                                >>> tattooing and branding, as well as temporary ones, including cosmetics and
                                >>> body painting, according to the researcher.
                                >>>
                                >>> Jablonski said both males and females use forms of skin decoration to
                                >>> become more attractive to the opposite sex. Women, for example, may use
                                >>> makeup to increase the size of their eyes, a cue that is considered
                                >>> attractive in most cultures. Males in some cultures also use skin
                                >>> decoration as a way to bring out facial features to appeal to women, or to
                                >>> look more menacing and warrior-like.
                                >>>
                                >>> "We can paint a great design on our bodies and use those designs to send
                                >>> all sorts of messages or express group memberships," said Jablonski.
                                >>>
                                >>> While parents may still fret that their children are choosing tattoo
                                >>> designs frivolously, Jablonski said people have traditionally put
                                >>> considerable time and thought into the tattoos.
                                >>>
                                >>> "Usually it is something with deep meaning," Jablonski said. "When I talk
                                >>> to people about their tattoos they, tell me they've spent months or years
                                >>> choosing a design that is incredibly meaningful and salient to them."
                                >>>
                                >>> Prior to the evolution of mostly naked skin, humans were furry creatures,
                                >>> not unlike chimpanzees are now, Jablonski said. Skin decoration would not
                                >>> be possible if humans were still covered with fur.
                                >>>
                                >>> Studying skin is difficult because it can be preserved only for a few
                                >>> thousand years, unlike bones and fossils, which last millions of years.
                                >>>
                                >>> Jablonski said that she and other researchers based their estimate on
                                >>> when humans evolved hairless skin on the study of the fossil record and an
                                >>> examination of the molecular history of genes that code proteins that help
                                >>> produce skin pigmentation.
                                >>>
                                >>> "We find a lot of evidence of when humans began to lose hair based on
                                >>> molecular genetics," said Jablonski.
                                >>>
                                >>> Humans are the only primates that are essentially hairless, although
                                >>> aquatic mammals, like whales and dolphins, have no hair. Prior to the idea
                                >>> that humans evolved hairlessness as a mechanism to cope with body heat,
                                >>> some researchers believed that hairlessness resulted from evolution from a
                                >>> common aquatic ancestor, Jablonski said. However, the theory, often
                                >>> referred to as the aquatic ape theory, does not match the genetic, fossil
                                >>> and environmental evidence, she said.
                                >>>
                                >>> While it is difficult to exactly say when humans began to decorate their
                                >>> skin, Jablonski said that some of the earliest preserved skin shows signs
                                >>> of tattooing.
                                >>>
                                >>> Provided by Pennsylvania State University
                                >>>
                                >>> **
                                >>>
                                >>> "Evolution helped turn hairless skin into a canvas for self-expression."
                                >>> February 17th, 2013.
                                >>> http://phys.org/news/2013-02-evolution-hairless-skin-canvas-self-expression.html
                                >>>
                                >>> Posted by
                                >>> Robert Karl Stonjek
                                >>>
                                >>>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> --
                                >> Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                                >> W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                                >> Institute for Intelligent Systems
                                >> FedEx Institute of Technology
                                >> The University of Memphis
                                >> Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                                >> 901-678-1341
                                >> <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                                >> lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                > --
                                > Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                                > W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                                > Institute for Intelligent Systems
                                > FedEx Institute of Technology
                                > The University of Memphis
                                > Memphis, TN 38152 USA
                                > 901-678-1341
                                > <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>
                                > lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>



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                                --
                                Stan Franklin   Professor   Computer Science
                                W. Harry  Feinstone  Interdisciplinary  Research   Professor
                                Institute for Intelligent Systems        
                                FedEx Institute of Technology              
                                The University of Memphis
                                Memphis, TN 38152 USA  
                                901-678-1341
                                <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/~franklin/>  
                                lab <http://ccrg.cs.memphis.edu/>

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