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Extension before & after Toba volcanic eruption 74,000 years ago

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  • Julienne
    November 08, 2012 Scientists Debate Toba Super-Eruption 74,000 Years Ago --Did It Lead to Near Extinction of Homo-Sapiens? Emacs! Archaeological sites in
    Message 1 of 3 , Nov 9, 2012

      November 08, 2012

      Scientists Debate Toba Super-Eruption 74,000 Years Ago --Did It Lead to Near Extinction of Homo-Sapiens?

       
      Emacs!
       
       

      Archaeological sites in southern and northern India revealed how people lived before and after the colossal Toba volcanic eruption 74,000 years ago.

      Several theories suggested that the Toba eruption plunged the planet into a 6 to 10 year volcanic winter that endangered the world's human population, reducing it to 10,000 or a mere 1,000 breeding pairs.

      Some researchers argue that the Toba eruption produced a 1,000 year cooling episode. Some studies suggest it was the largest volcanic eruption of the last two million years—an estimated 5,000 times more powerful than Mount St. Helens's 1980 blast.

      In 2010, an international, multidisciplinary research team, led by Oxford University in collaboration with Indian institutions, unveiled what it calls 'Pompeii-like excavations' beneath the Toba ash. The seven-year project examined the environment that humans lived in, their stone tools, as well as the plants and animal bones of the time. The team has concluded that many forms of life survived the super-eruption, contrary to other research which has suggested significant animal extinctions and genetic bottlenecks. According to the team, a potentially ground-breaking implication of the new work is that the species responsible for making the stone tools in India was Homo sapiens. Stone tool analysis has revealed that the artifacts consist of cores and flakes, which are classified in India as Middle Palaeolithic and are similar to those made by modern humans in Africa.

      Now, a new study published in the journal Climate of the Past based on acid rain-tainted ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland, suggests Toba's wasn't effect quite as catastrophic as might be expected. The Antarctic ice core shows traces of a warming event soon after the Toba eruption in contrast to vivid cooling signs found in the Greenland ice cores.

      "That means there's no long-term global cooling caused by the eruption," study co-author Anders Svensson of the Niels Bohr Institute's Centre for Ice and Climate in Copenhagen said. If there had been, you'd expect to see evidence of a chill at both Poles. There may have been shorter cooling of a duration of maybe 10 or 20 years, like we see for more recent and much less powerful volcanoes."

      The Daily Galaxy via http://www.clim-past.net, nationalgeographic.com, and University of Oxford.*


      To blame the poor for subsisting on welfare has no justice unless we are also willing to judge every rich member of society by how productive he or she is. Taken individual by individual, it is likely that there's more idleness and abuse of government favors among the economically privileged than among the ranks of the disadvantaged. -Norman Mailer, author (1923-2007)

    • clarence_sonny_williams
      Thanks, Julienne! Here s a link to the original article: Link I knew those tea leaves and
      Message 2 of 3 , Nov 9, 2012
        Thanks, Julienne!  Here's a link to the original article: Link

        I knew those "tea leaves and palm lines" journals were good for something! :)
         
        --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, Julienne <julienne@...> wrote:
        >
        >
        > November 08, 2012
        >
        > Scientists Debate Toba Super-Eruption 74,000
        > Years Ago --Did It Lead to Near Extinction of Homo-Sapiens?
        >
        >
        > Emacs!
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Archaeological sites in southern and northern
        > India revealed how people lived before and after
        > the colossal Toba volcanic eruption 74,000 years ago.
        >
        > Several theories suggested that the Toba eruption
        > plunged the planet into a 6 to 10 year volcanic
        > winter that endangered the world's human
        > population, reducing it to 10,000 or a mere 1,000 breeding pairs.
        >
        > Some researchers argue that the Toba eruption
        > produced a 1,000 year cooling episode. Some
        > studies suggest it was the largest volcanic
        > eruption of the last two million years—an
        > estimated 5,000 times more powerful than Mount St. Helens's 1980 blast.
        >
        > In 2010, an international, multidisciplinary
        > research team, led by Oxford University in
        > collaboration with Indian institutions, unveiled
        > what it calls 'Pompeii-like excavations' beneath
        > the Toba ash. The seven-year project examined the
        > environment that humans lived in, their stone
        > tools, as well as the plants and animal bones of
        > the time. The team has concluded that many forms
        > of life survived the super-eruption, contrary to
        > other research which has suggested significant
        > animal extinctions and genetic bottlenecks.
        > According to the team, a potentially
        > ground-breaking implication of the new work is
        > that the species responsible for making the stone
        > tools in India was Homo sapiens. Stone tool
        > analysis has revealed that the artifacts consist
        > of cores and flakes, which are classified in
        > India as Middle Palaeolithic and are similar to
        > those made by modern humans in Africa.
        >
        > Now, a new study published in the journal Climate
        > of the Past based on acid rain-tainted ice cores
        > from Antarctica and Greenland, suggests Toba's
        > wasn't effect quite as catastrophic as might be
        > expected. The Antarctic ice core shows traces of
        > a warming event soon after the Toba eruption in
        > contrast to vivid cooling signs found in the Greenland ice cores.
        >
        > "That means there's no long-term global cooling
        > caused by the eruption," study co-author Anders
        > Svensson of the Niels Bohr Institute's Centre for
        > Ice and Climate in Copenhagen said. If there had
        > been, you'd expect to see evidence of a chill at
        > both Poles. There may have been shorter cooling
        > of a duration of maybe 10 or 20 years, like we
        > see for more recent and much less powerful volcanoes."
        >
        > The Daily Galaxy via http://www.clim-past.net,
        > nationalgeographic.com, and University of Oxford.*
        >
        >
        >
        > To blame the poor for subsisting on welfare has
        > no justice unless we are also willing to judge
        > every rich member of society by how productive he
        > or she is. Taken individual by individual, it is
        > likely that there's more idleness and abuse of
        > government favors among the economically
        > privileged than among the ranks of the
        > disadvantaged. -Norman Mailer, author (1923-2007)
        >
      • Julienne
        ... Grrrr. :))) Well - now I can really put my foot in it. I am not a palmist - but medical doctors use the hands for many points of diagnosis for diseases.
        Message 3 of 3 , Nov 9, 2012
          At 04:06 PM 11/9/2012, clarence_sonny_williams wrote:


          Thanks, Julienne!  Here's a link to the original article: Link

          I knew those "tea leaves and palm lines" journals were good for something! :)


          Grrrr. :)))


          Well - now I can really put my foot in it. I am not a palmist - but medical doctors
          use the hands for many points of diagnosis for diseases. :)))

          Julienne

          PS - I have corrected the Subject Line - it should have been "Existence".


          --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, Julienne <julienne@...> wrote:
          >
          >
          > November 08, 2012
          >
          > Scientists Debate Toba Super-Eruption 74,000
          > Years Ago --Did It Lead to Near Extinction of Homo-Sapiens?
          >
          >
          > Emacs!

          To blame the poor for subsisting on welfare has no justice unless we are also willing to judge every rich member of society by how productive he or she is. Taken individual by individual, it is likely that there's more idleness and abuse of government favors among the economically privileged than among the ranks of the disadvantaged. -Norman Mailer, author (1923-2007)

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