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Re: [evol-psych] Re: News: German court rules religious circumcision on boys an assault

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  • Robert Karl Stonjek
    ... From: artemistroy To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com Sent: Sunday, July 01, 2012 2:54 PM Subject: [evol-psych] Re: News: German court rules
    Message 1 of 66 , Jun 30, 2012
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      ----- Original Message -----
      Sent: Sunday, July 01, 2012 2:54 PM
      Subject: [evol-psych] Re: News: German court rules religious circumcision on boys an assault

      There's an informative documentary where an archaeologist and engineers attempt to replicate the building of the pyramids. They wanted to learn how the Egyptians hauled 20 ton stones to the upper levels of the pyramids. They could not do it with all kinds of modern equipment, flatbed trucks, etc. 

      Perhaps Edgar has figured it out and will share his knowledge with us.

      Artemis
      RKS:
      There are several ways that the stones can be elevated, the most probably is the use of progressive elevation using wooden blocks.  The stone is elevated slightly at one end and a wooden block placed underneath.  Then the other end is lifted and so it goes on.  I have seen this technique demonstrated.  It is labour intensive.
       

      NOVA pyramid building experiment

      In 1997 Mark Lehner and Roger Hopkins, a stonemason from Sudbury, Massachusetts, teamed up to conduct a pyramid building experiment for a NOVA television episode. They built a pyramid 6 metres (20 ft) high by 9 metres (30 ft) wide. A total of 162 cubic metres (5,700 cu ft), or about 405 tons. It was made out of 186 stones weighing an average of 2.2 tons each. They had a total of just over 3 weeks to build it due to their filming schedule. 12 quarrymen carved 186 stones in 22 days. They were able to erect it using 44 men. They used iron hammers, chisels and levers (this is a modern short-cut, the ancient Egyptians were limited to using copper (and later bronze and wood. [44] But they did experiments with copper tools, noting that they were adequate for the job in hand, only provided that additional manpower was available to constantly re-sharpen the ancient tools. They estimated they would have needed around 20 extra men for this maintenance. Another short-cut taken was the use of a front end loader or fork lift truck. However, modern machinery was not and could not be used to finish the construction. They used levers to lift the capstone to a height of 20 feet (6.1 m). Four or five men were able to use levers on stones less than 1 ton to flip them over and transport them by rolling them. For the larger stones they had to tow them. They found that by putting the stones on wooden sledges and sliding the sledges on wooden tracks they were able to tow a 2 ton stone with 12 to 20 men. The wood for these sledges and tracks would have to have been imported from Lebanon at great cost since there was little, if any, wood in ancient Egypt. While the builders failed to duplicate the precise jointing created by the ancient Egyptians, Hopkins was confident this could have been achieved with more practice.[

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyramid_construction_techniques

      So much for that mystery...

      Robert

    • artemistroy
      But it didn t take 400,000 laborers and 30 years time. The architects, designers, engineers, and laborers who worked on the Towers had numerous skyscrapers
      Message 66 of 66 , Jul 3, 2012
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        But it didn't take 400,000 laborers and 30 years' time. The architects, designers, engineers, and laborers who worked on the Towers had numerous skyscrapers previously built to use as examples, in addition to modern tools and equipment. Prior to the construction of the pyramids, what kinds of tall edifices had the Egyptians erected to use as examples to gain some experience? -- Artemis

        RKS: The World trade centre takes years to build because welding takes time and the movement of materials takes even more time. Just testing the electrical system takes months, let alone installing it...or were you thinking of making the towers out of limestone blocks?

        Robert

        --- In evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com, "Robert Karl Stonjek" <stonjek@...> wrote:
        >
        > ----- Original Message -----
        > From: artemistroy
        > To: evolutionary-psychology@yahoogroups.com
        > Sent: Monday, July 02, 2012 7:16 PM
        > Subject: [evol-psych] Re: News: German court rules religious circumcision on boys an assault
        >
        >
        > "and with modern equipment..." They didn't have modern equipment, and no previous pyramids to use as examples. Theoretically, the World Trade Center towers could be built every five minutes with today's technology and experience.
        >
        > Ask a New York State Indian steelworker what it's like to work on the 120th floor of a building under construction.
        >
        > Do you think you could haul a 2.5 ton stone to the top of a pyramid?
        >
        > Talk about mental density...
        >
        > Artemis
        >
        > RKS:
        > No-one, then or now can do that. But a large group of people can elevate a 2.5 tonne block three metres, which is about all you ever have to do. When you succeed in that step you must haul it up the next step. Remember that the pyramids are stepped (underneath) and this allowed a fairly easy path between levels.
        >
        > I recall a car accident in Hobart, Tasmania, I think last year, in the middle of the city. A woman was trapped under a car. People gathered around the car and lifted it off her, rolling the car onto its roof in the process.
        >
        > Flabby westerners, untrained, less than 5 minutes, 1.5 tonnes...
        >
        > The World trade centre takes years to build because welding takes time and the movement of materials takes even more time. Just testing the electrical system takes months, let alone installing it...or were you thinking of making the towers out of limestone blocks?
        >
        > Robert
        >
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