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"fusion in a jar" looking real

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  • Roger Arnold
    EE Times July 25(?) print edition ran an article titled Trial backs criticized fusion in a jar effort . It s available online at
    Message 1 of 3 , Jul 31, 2005
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      EE Times July 25(?) print edition ran an article titled "Trial backs criticized 'fusion in a jar' effort". It's available online at http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=166400572, but subscription is required.

      The 'trial' referred to is a replication of the results obtained by a group that published the original research--and met with considerable skepticism. Their methodology was criticized. The new study, by a different group, used a tighter methodology, but got the same result: detectable levels of tritium apparently produced by fusion occurring when cavitation bubbles collapsed. The bubbles were produced by high intensity ultrasound in a solution of acetone that was synthesized using deuterium in place of hydrogen. As a control, the identical experiment was conducted using a solution of regular acetone. In the control, no tritium was detected.

      Unlike cold fusion, the fusion (apparently) observed in these experiments is "conventional"; it involves high instantaneous temperature and pressure achieved at the center of an imploding cavitation bubble. It's the same phenomenon responsible for "sonoluminescence". But it's a surprising and remarkable result. Nobody imagined that cavitation bubbles could have the degree of spherical symmetry needed to achieve temperatures and pressures sufficient for fusion. It was hard enough for researchers to accept that the flashes of blue light observed in sonoluminescence were, in fact, the result of a superheated plasma. And I'm sure many--myself included--remain at least a little skeptical of these results.

      Note that this type of fusion, even if it proves real, is not a prospective source of energy. The microbursts are far too tiny and short lived to produce usable energy. However, it may direct more attention to the capabilities of spherical implosions. A spherical implosion wave, as it propagates, increases in intensity. The energy in the shock wave front is compressed into a smaller and smaller area. In a perfect fluid, with a perfect spherical implosion wave, I believe the solution for the temperature and pressure has a singularity at r = 0 (i.e., it goes to infinity). In reality, of course, it's limited by the atomic nature of matter and by irregularities in the implosion wave front. But it may turn out to be possible to use conventional explosives to trigger small thermonuclear explosions without a fission trigger. If the explosions are of manageable size, they might conceivably be used to generate power. The danger is that they would instead be used as terror weapons.

      Caveat lector: all this is *extremely* speculative.

      Roger Arnold
      Sunnyvale, CA

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • mauk_mcamuk
      Please note the import of what Roger is saying here: If it is possible through exquisite finesse to compress a fuel mixture to fusion using conventional
      Message 2 of 3 , Aug 1, 2005
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        Please note the import of what Roger is saying here:

        If it is possible through exquisite finesse to compress a fuel
        mixture to fusion using conventional chemicals, then suddenly fusion
        looks hugely loomingly real. None of this "magnetic confinement"
        crap required, no lasers the size of football stadiums, just some
        high explosives and D-T fuel.

        Granted, as Roger points out, this is all HIGHLY speculative and will
        probably come to naught. But if the odds fall our way... :D




        --- In energyresources@yahoogroups.com, "Roger Arnold"
        <roger.arnold@g...> wrote:
        > EE Times July 25(?) print edition ran an article titled "Trial
        backs criticized 'fusion in a jar' effort". It's available online at
        http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle.jhtml?
        articleID=166400572, but subscription is required.
        >
        > The 'trial' referred to is a replication of the results obtained by
        a group that published the original research--and met with
        considerable skepticism. Their methodology was criticized. The new
        study, by a different group, used a tighter methodology, but got the
        same result: detectable levels of tritium apparently produced by
        fusion occurring when cavitation bubbles collapsed. The bubbles were
        produced by high intensity ultrasound in a solution of acetone that
        was synthesized using deuterium in place of hydrogen. As a control,
        the identical experiment was conducted using a solution of regular
        acetone. In the control, no tritium was detected.
        >
        > Unlike cold fusion, the fusion (apparently) observed in these
        experiments is "conventional"; it involves high instantaneous
        temperature and pressure achieved at the center of an imploding
        cavitation bubble. It's the same phenomenon responsible
        for "sonoluminescence". But it's a surprising and remarkable
        result. Nobody imagined that cavitation bubbles could have the
        degree of spherical symmetry needed to achieve temperatures and
        pressures sufficient for fusion. It was hard enough for researchers
        to accept that the flashes of blue light observed in sonoluminescence
        were, in fact, the result of a superheated plasma. And I'm sure many--
        myself included--remain at least a little skeptical of these results.
        >
        > Note that this type of fusion, even if it proves real, is not a
        prospective source of energy. The microbursts are far too tiny and
        short lived to produce usable energy. However, it may direct more
        attention to the capabilities of spherical implosions. A spherical
        implosion wave, as it propagates, increases in intensity. The energy
        in the shock wave front is compressed into a smaller and smaller
        area. In a perfect fluid, with a perfect spherical implosion wave, I
        believe the solution for the temperature and pressure has a
        singularity at r = 0 (i.e., it goes to infinity). In reality, of
        course, it's limited by the atomic nature of matter and by
        irregularities in the implosion wave front. But it may turn out to
        be possible to use conventional explosives to trigger small
        thermonuclear explosions without a fission trigger. If the
        explosions are of manageable size, they might conceivably be used to
        generate power. The danger is that they would instead be used as
        terror weapons.
        >
        > Caveat lector: all this is *extremely* speculative.
        >
        > Roger Arnold
        > Sunnyvale, CA
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • L. B. Crowell
        This sonoluminescence is a real physical effect. A violent process creates a vacuum bubble in a liquid. When the bubble recollapses energy is released in the
        Message 3 of 3 , Aug 1, 2005
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          This sonoluminescence is a real physical effect. A violent process creates a vacuum bubble in a liquid. When the bubble recollapses energy is released in the form of light and a shock wave. There are some crustaceans that use this effect by generating bubbles with trigger locked claws. This stuns their prey.

          As yet the physical understanding of this is incomplete. My sense is that this involves the Casimir effect of a confined vacuum. The Quantum ElectroDynamic (QED) vacuum in the bubble is confined by the boundary conditions of the bubble. The conductivity and index of refraction changes across the boundary. For a perfect conductor the confined vacuum has a discrete number of modes, just as a guitar string has a set of vibrational frequencies that can exist between the fret and nut. This means the confined vacuum as a rule has a lower vacuum energy than the vacuum outside where an arbitary number of modes may exist. For a bubble the boundary conditions are "leaky," but existent. So the QED vacuum inside has a lower energy than the vacuum outside the bubble. As the bubble collapses the virtual quantum modes are excited by the implosion and light is produced. In effect some of the work exerted on the bubble by outside pressure is converted to light energy. In principle as the radius of the bubble goes to zero there should be photons produced that are in the X-ray and gamma ray portion of the spectrum.

          This is my theoretical take on this. Other people site hydrodynamic causes and so forth.

          However, there are problems here for this to be a source of fusion. The big problem is that the bubble radius cuts off at the diameter of an atom ~ 10^{-8}meters. The radius of the bubble can't be smaller than the atoms that make up the medium the bubble is in. This means that the photon energy should cut off at around the KeV ~ thousand electron volts energy scale. In order to initiate fusion one needs MeV input of energy ~ million electron volts. It is beyond my reconning on how MeV photons could be produced here. KeV photons would by Boltzmann statistics have about a

          P ~ exp(-10^3)

          probability of causing a nuclear event, which is essentially zero. This would go for hydrodynamic explanations for this as well, if these turn out to be the reason for sonoluminescense. Colliding fluids at 1000km/sec could cause photons, but this energy per atom is very small compared to the MeV scale. It is not likely for much the same reasons given above to initiate fusion.

          After the hoopla over this some years ago experimental tests to repeat these results were conducted. The results were null --- no fusion found. One needs to get neutrons out of a process to declare that fusion or a nuclear process is involved. So far fusion in a jar appears to be mostly confusion in a jar. In fact if cold fusion were real the neutron flux from this process would have killed the investigators.

          Lawrence B. Crowell

          ----- Original Message -----
          From: Roger Arnold <roger.arnold@...>
          To: <energyresources@yahoogroups.com>
          Sent: Sunday, July 31, 2005 8:20 PM
          Subject: [energyresources] "fusion in a jar" looking real


          > EE Times July 25(?) print edition ran an article titled "Trial backs criticized 'fusion in a jar' effort". It's available online at http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=166400572, but subscription is required.
          >
          > The 'trial' referred to is a replication of the results obtained by a group that published the original research--and met with considerable skepticism. Their methodology was criticized. The new study, by a different group, used a tighter methodology, but got the same result: detectable levels of tritium apparently produced by fusion occurring when cavitation bubbles collapsed. The bubbles were produced by high intensity ultrasound in a solution of acetone that was synthesized using deuterium in place of hydrogen. As a control, the identical experiment was conducted using a solution of regular acetone. In the control, no tritium was detected.
          >
          > Unlike cold fusion, the fusion (apparently) observed in these experiments is "conventional"; it involves high instantaneous temperature and pressure achieved at the center of an imploding cavitation bubble. It's the same phenomenon responsible for "sonoluminescence". But it's a surprising and remarkable result. Nobody imagined that cavitation bubbles could have the degree of spherical symmetry needed to achieve temperatures and pressures sufficient for fusion. It was hard enough for researchers to accept that the flashes of blue light observed in sonoluminescence were, in fact, the result of a superheated plasma. And I'm sure many--myself included--remain at least a little skeptical of these results.
          >
          > Note that this type of fusion, even if it proves real, is not a prospective source of energy. The microbursts are far too tiny and short lived to produce usable energy. However, it may direct more attention to the capabilities of spherical implosions. A spherical implosion wave, as it propagates, increases in intensity. The energy in the shock wave front is compressed into a smaller and smaller area. In a perfect fluid, with a perfect spherical implosion wave, I believe the solution for the temperature and pressure has a singularity at r = 0 (i.e., it goes to infinity). In reality, of course, it's limited by the atomic nature of matter and by irregularities in the implosion wave front. But it may turn out to be possible to use conventional explosives to trigger small thermonuclear explosions without a fission trigger. If the explosions are of manageable size, they might conceivably be used to generate power. The danger is that they would instead be used as terror weap
          > ons.
          >
          > Caveat lector: all this is *extremely* speculative.
          >
          > Roger Arnold
          > Sunnyvale, CA
          >

          This result shows that everything in the universe is governed by the laws of physics. Stephen Hawking @ GR17 2004



          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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