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Re: [energyresources] Full spectrum solar cells possible

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  • gtyner
    Walukiewicz says. If it works, the cost should be on the same order of magnitude as traffic lights, Walukiewicz says. Maybe less. Solar cells so efficient
    Message 1 of 2 , Nov 21, 2002
      Walukiewicz says.
      "If it works, the cost should be on the same order of magnitude as traffic
      lights," Walukiewicz says. "Maybe less." Solar cells so efficient and so
      relatively cheap could revolutionize the use of solar power not just in
      space but also on Earth.

      Hmmmmmmmmmmmm? How cheap are traffic lights?
      See:
      Sources: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics and the American Chemical
      Society
      http://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/elements/49.html
      Info on Materials: INDIUM
      Indium For transistors.
      Atomic Number: 49
      Atomic Symbol: In
      Atomic Weight: 114.82
      Electron Configuration: [Kr]5s24d105p1

      History (from the brilliant indigo line in its spectrum) Discovered by Reich
      and Richter, who later isolated the metal. Until 1924, a gram or so
      constituted the world's supply of this element in isolated form. It is
      probably about as abundant as silver. About 4 million troy ounces of indium
      are now produced annually in the Free World. Canada is presently producing
      more than 1,000,000 troy ounces annually.

      Sources Indium is most frequently associated with zinc materials, and it is
      from these that most commercial indium is now obtained; however, it is also
      found in iron, lead, and copper ores.

      Cost The present cost of indium is about $1 to $5/g, depending on quantity
      and purity.

      Properties It is available in ultra pure form. Indium is a very soft,
      silvery-white metal with a brilliant luster. The pure metal gives a
      high-pitched "cry" when bent. It wets glass, as does gallium.

      Uses It has found application in making low-melting allows; an allow of 24%
      indium - 76% gallium is liquid at room temperature. It is used in making
      bearing alloys, germanium transistors, rectifiers, thermistors, and
      photoconductors. It can be plated onto metal and evaporated onto glass,
      forming a mirror as good as that made with silver but with more resistance
      to atmospheric corrosion.

      Handling There is evidence that indium has a low order of toxicity; however,
      care should be taken until further information is available.
      -----------------------
      GALLIUM
      http://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/elements/31.html
      Gallium For computer memory.

      Atomic Number: 31 Atomic Symbol: Ga
      Atomic Weight: 69.72
      Electron Configuration: [Ar]4s23d104p1

      History (L. Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq,
      a cock) Predicted and described by Mendeleev as ekaaluminum, and discovered
      spectroscopically by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875, who in the same year
      obtained the free metal by electrolysis of a solution of the hydroxide in
      KOH.

      Sources Gallium is often found as a trace element in diaspore, sphalerite,
      germanite, bauxite, and coal. Some flue dusts from burning coal have been
      shown to contain as much 1.5 percent gallium.

      Properties It is one of four metals -- mercury , cesium , and rubidium --
      which can be liquid near room temperature and, thus, can be used in
      high-temperature thermometers. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of
      any metal and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures.

      There is a strong tendency for gallium to supercool below its freezing
      point. Therefore, seeding may be necessary to initiate solidification.

      Ultra-pure gallium has a beautiful, silvery appearance, and the solid metal
      exhibits a conchoidal fracture similar to glass. The metal expands 3.1
      percent on solidifying; therefore, it should not be stored in glass or metal
      containers, because they may break as the metal solidifies.

      High-purity gallium is attacked only slowly by mineral acids.

      Uses Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is
      painted on glass. It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing
      solid-state devices such as transistors.

      Magnesium gallate containing divalent impurities, such as Mn+2, is finding
      use in commercial ultraviolet-activated powder phosphors. Gallium arsenide
      is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light. Gallium
      readily alloys with most metals, and has been used as a component in
      low-melting alloys.

      Handling Its toxicity appears to be of a low order, but should be handled
      with care until more data is available.

      Costs The metal can be supplied in ultra pure form (99.99999+%). The cost is
      about $3/g.
      Sources: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics and the American Chemical
      Society
      -------------------------------------
      Gene Tyner, Sr., Norman, OK
      ----- Original Message -----
      From: "mgraffis" <mgraffis@...>
      To: <energyresources@yahoogroups.com>
      Sent: Wednesday, November 20, 2002 7:39 AM
      Subject: [energyresources] Full spectrum solar cells possible


      > "It's as if nature designed this material on purpose to match the
      > solar spectrum"
      >
      > "If it works, the cost should be on the same order of magnitude as
      > traffic lights," Walukiewicz says. "Maybe less." Solar cells
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