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Re: [energyresources] Oceans Ten Times More Acidic Than Thought

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  • Francisco González
    Here are three articles on various aspects of this topic. http://www.co2science.org//articles/V8/N40/EDIT.php The Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions on
    Message 1 of 12 , Nov 30, 2008
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      Here are three articles on various aspects of this topic.

      http://www.co2science.org//articles/V8/N40/EDIT.php

      The Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions on Calcifying Marine Organisms
      Volume 8, Number 40: 5 October 2005

      A new study by 27 researchers from 8 countries published in the 29
      September 2005 issue of Nature (Orr et al., 2005) suggests that under
      a "business-as-usual" scenario of future anthropogenic CO2 emissions,
      "key marine organisms - such as corals and some plankton - will have
      difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons,"
      and that such conditions "could develop within decades, not centuries
      as suggested previously," leading the Editor of Nature to the even
      more dire conclusion that these organisms "will not be able to grow
      their calcium carbonate exoskeletons within decades."
      So what's the story here? Is there any real-world evidence that can
      be cited in support of these strident claims? Orr et al. certainly
      make it appear such exists, but a little sleuthing reveals nothing of
      substance.

      In support of this statement, we note that in response to increasing
      atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the 27 scientists say that "aqueous
      CO2 concentrations will increase and carbonate ion concentrations will
      decrease, making it more difficult for marine calcifying organisms to
      form biogenic calcium carbonate," whereupon they claim that
      "substantial experimental evidence indicates that calcification rates
      will decrease in low-latitude corals (Millero, 1995; Dickson, 1990;
      Dickson and Riley, 1979), which form reefs out of aragonite [a
      metastable form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3)], and in phytoplankton
      that form their tests (shells) out of calcite (Mucci, 1983; Bischoff
      et al., 1987), the stable form of CaCO3." In reviewing the five
      papers cited in support of these contentions, however, we find that
      none of them deal with living organisms, and, therefore, that none of
      them deal with the actual calcification process as driven by life
      processes. Rather, they deal exclusively with the lifeless world of
      chemistry and thermodynamics.

      We have previously written extensively about the importance of letting
      life enter the picture, noting that coral calcification is much more
      than a simple (or even complex) physical-chemical process that can be
      described by a set of well-defined equations and constants,
      reiterating the fact that coral calcification is a biologically-driven
      physical-chemical process that may not yet be amenable to explicit
      mathematical description. In this regard, we have reported (Idso et
      al., 2000) that "the photosynthetic activity of zooxanthellae is the
      chief source of energy for the energetically-expensive process of
      calcification," and we have stated that much evidence (for which we
      provided proper references) suggests that "long-term reef
      calcification rates generally rise in direct proportion to increases
      in rates of reef primary production," which suggests to us that "if an
      anthropogenic-induced increase in the transfer of CO2 from the
      atmosphere to the world's oceans were to lead to increases in coral
      symbiont photosynthesis - as atmospheric CO2 enrichment does for
      essentially all terrestrial plants - it is likely that increases in
      coral calcification rates would occur as well."

      We have also noted that the calcium carbonate saturation state of
      seawater actually rises with an increase in temperature, countering
      the adverse oceanic chemistry consequences of an increase in aqueous
      CO2 concentration, which is a matter that is also considered by Orr et
      al., but which they dismiss as having a rather small effect,
      "typically counteracting less than 10% of the decrease due to the
      geochemical effect." With this little problem thus dispatched, and
      ignoring the many ways in which life might enter the picture, they
      calculate that "relative to preindustrial conditions, invasion of
      anthropogenic CO2 has already reduced modern surface carbonate ion
      concentrations by more than 10%," while they calculate - "in agreement
      with previous predictions (Kleypas et al., 1999)" - that a 45%
      reduction relative to preindustrial levels may be reached by the end
      of the century, and that, ultimately, "rates of calcification could
      decline even further, to zero." We, on the other hand, suggest they
      are grossly in error.

      So what do studies of real-world corals and phytoplankton reveal about
      the various claims and counterclaims swirling about the issue? Has
      the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration experienced since the
      beginning of the Industrial Revolution, which is acknowledged to be
      unprecedented over the past 420,000 years (Petit et al., 1999), plus
      the 20th-century increase in temperature, which is claimed to be
      unprecedented over the past two millennia (Mann and Jones, 2003),
      seriously hampered coral and phytoplankton calcification rates? If
      these historical environmental changes are as unprecedented and
      dangerous as the world's climate alarmists claim they are, we should
      be able to find plenty of evidence of their negative consequences.
      But if we are right, we won't find any such evidence. So let's see
      what the world's scientific archives have to say about the matter.

      In a study of calcification rates of massive Porites coral colonies
      from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Lough and Barnes (1997) found that
      "the 20th century has witnessed the second highest period of above
      average calcification in the past 237 years." Intrigued by this
      observation, they went on to assemble and analyze the calcification
      characteristics of 245 similar-sized massive colonies of Porites
      corals obtained from 29 reef sites located along the length, and
      across the breadth, of the GBR, which data spanned a latitudinal range
      of approximately 9° and an annual average sea surface temperature
      (SST) range of 25-27°C. To these data they added other published data
      from the Hawaiian Archipelago (Grigg, 1981, 1997) and Phuket, Thailand
      (Scoffin et al., 1992), thereby extending the latitudinal range of the
      expanded data set to 20° and the annual average SST range to 23-29°C.

      Lough and Barnes' analysis indicated that the GBR calcification data
      were linearly related to the average annual SST data, such that "a 1°C
      rise in average annual SST increased average annual calcification by
      0.39 g cm-2 year-1." Results were much the same for the extended data
      set; they report that "the regression equation [calcification =
      0.33(SST) - 7.07] explained 83.6% of the variance in average annual
      calcification (F = 213.59, p less than 0.00)," noting that "this
      equation provides for a change in calcification rate of 0.33 g cm-2
      year-1 for each 1°C change in average annual SST."

      Noting that their results "allow assessment of possible impacts of
      global climate change on coral reef ecosystems," Lough and Barnes
      report that between the two 50-year periods 1780-1829 and 1930-1979,
      they calculated a mean calcification increase of 0.06 g cm-2 year-1;
      and they note that "this increase [our italics] of ~4% in
      calcification rate conflicts with the estimated decrease [our italics]
      in coral calcification rate of 6-14% over the same time period
      suggested by Kleypas et al. (1999) as a response to changes in ocean
      chemistry." Even more stunning was their observation that between the
      two 20-year periods 1903-1922 and 1979-1998, "the SST-associated
      increase in calcification is estimated to be less than 5% in the
      northern GBR, ~12% in the central GBR, ~20% in the southern GBR and to
      increase dramatically (up to ~50%) to the south of the GBR." In light
      of these real-world observations, and in stark contrast to the
      implications of the work of Kleypas et al. (1999) and Orr et al.
      (2005), Lough and Barnes concluded that coral calcification rates "may
      have already significantly increased [our italics] along the GBR in
      response to global climate change."

      Another pair of scientists to address the subject was Bessat and
      Buigues (2001), who worked with a core retrieved from a massive
      Porites coral on the French Polynesian island of Moorea that covered
      the period 1801-1990, saying they undertook the study because they
      thought it "may provide information about long-term variability in the
      performance of coral reefs, allowing unnatural changes to be
      distinguished from natural variability." This effort revealed that a
      1°C increase in water temperature increased coral calcification rate
      by 4.5%, and that "instead of a 6-14% decline in calcification over
      the past 100 years computed by the Kleypas group, the calcification
      has increased." They also observed patterns of "jumps or stages" in
      the record, which were characterized by an increase in the annual rate
      of calcification, particularly at the beginning of the past century
      "and in a more marked way around 1940, 1960 and 1976," stating once
      again that their results "do not confirm those predicted by the
      Kleypas et al. (1999) model," which is merely an earlier version of
      the Orr et al. model.

      In spite of these real-world observations that refute the "lifeless"
      world view of Kleypas et al. and Orr et al., Buddemeier et al. (2004)
      have continued to claim that the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content
      and its predicted ability to lower surface ocean water pH (which is
      also a key claim of Orr et al.) will dramatically decrease coral
      calcification rates, which they say could lead to "a slow-down or
      reversal of reef-building and the potential loss of reef structures in
      the future." However, they have been forced to acknowledge that
      "temperature and calcification rates are correlated, and [real-world]
      corals have so far responded more to increases in water temperature
      (growing faster through increased metabolism and the increased
      photosynthetic rates of their zooxanthellae) than to decreases in
      carbonate ion concentration."

      At about the same time, and following in the footsteps of Lough and
      Barnes who worked in the Indo-Pacific, Carricart-Ganivet (2004)
      developed relationships between coral calcification rate and annual
      average SST based on data collected from colonies of the reef-building
      coral Montastraea annularis at twelve locations in the Gulf of Mexico
      and the Caribbean Sea. This work revealed that "calcification rate in
      the Gulf of Mexico increased 0.55 g cm-2 year-1 for each 1°C increase,
      while, in the Caribbean Sea, it increased 0.58 g cm-2 year-1 for each
      1°C increase," a result nearly twice as great as that obtained by
      Lough and Barnes for Porites corals. Further pooling these data "with
      those of M. annularis and M. faveolata, growing up to 10 m depth in
      Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, reported by Graus and Macintyre (1982), those
      of Dodge and Brass (1982) from all the reefs they studied at St.
      Croix, US Virgin Islands, and those of M. faveolata, growing up to 10
      m depth in Curacao, Netherlands, Antilles, reported by Bosscher
      (1993)," Carricart-Ganivet reports he obtained a relationship of ~0.5
      g cm-2 year-1 for each 1°C increase in annual average SST.

      To these papers can be added many others that also depict increasing
      coral calcification rates in the face of rising temperatures and
      atmospheric CO2 concentrations, including those of Clausen and Roth
      (1975), Coles and Coles (1977), Kajiwara et al. (1995), Nie et al.
      (1997) and Reynaud-Vaganay et al. (1999). As for why this is the way
      corals respond, McNeil et al. (2004) say that "observed increases in
      coral reef calcification with ocean warming are most likely due to an
      enhancement in coral metabolism and/or increases in photosynthetic
      rates of their symbiotic algae," just as we have done when noting over
      and over that coral calcification is a biologically-driven process
      that can overcome physical-chemical limitations that in the absence of
      life would appear to be insurmountable.

      A second good reason for not believing that the ongoing rise in the
      air's CO2 content will lead to reduced oceanic pH and, therefore,
      lower calcification rates in the world's coral reefs, is that the same
      phenomenon that powers the twin processes of coral calcification and
      phytoplanktonic growth (photosynthesis) tends to increase the pH of
      marine waters (Gnaiger et al., 1978; Santhanam et al., 1994; Brussaard
      et al., 1996; Lindholm and Nummelin, 1999; Macedo et al., 2001;
      Hansen, 2002); and this phenomenon has been shown to have the ability
      to dramatically increase the pH of marine bays, lagoons and tidal
      pools (Gnaiger et al., 1978; Santhanam, 1994; Macedo et al., 2001;
      Hansen, 2002) as well as significantly enhance the surface water pH of
      areas as large as the North Sea (Brussaard et al., 1996).

      Before concluding this editorial, we switch our focus from corals to
      phytoplankton in a review of the work of Riebesell (2004), who says
      that "doubling present-day atmospheric CO2 concentrations is predicted
      to cause a 20-40% reduction in biogenic calcification of the
      predominant calcifying organisms, the corals, coccolithophorids, and
      foraminifera." In a challenge to this dogma, however, he notes that a
      moderate increase in CO2 actually facilitates photosynthetic carbon
      fixation of some phytoplankton groups, including the coccolithophorids
      Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. In fact, Riebesell
      suggests that "CO2-sensitive taxa, such as the calcifying
      coccolithophorids, should therefore benefit more from the present
      increase in atmospheric CO2 compared to the non-calcifying diatoms."
      An additional fact of importance, according to Riebesell, is that "the
      mechanism of calcification by coccolithophores is not completely
      understood." This being the case, he feels it is definitely "too
      early ... to make any predictions regarding the physiological or
      ecological consequences of a CO2-related slow down in biogenic
      calcification."

      Most significant of all, Riebesell reports some results of CO2
      perturbation experiments conducted south of Bergen, Norway, where nine
      11-m3 enclosures moored to a floating raft were aerated in triplicate
      with CO2-depleted, normal, and CO2-enriched air to achieve CO2 levels
      of 190, 370 and 710 ppm, simulating glacial, present day, and
      predicted conditions for the end of the century, respectively. In the
      course of the study, a bloom consisting of a mixed phytoplankton
      community developed; and, in Riebesell's words, "significantly higher
      net community production was observed under elevated CO2 levels during
      the build-up of the bloom." He further reports that "CO2-related
      differences in primary production continued after nutrient exhaustion,
      leading to higher production of transparent exopolymer particles under
      high CO2 conditions," something that has also been observed by Engel
      (2002) in a natural plankton assemblage and by Heemann (2002) in
      monospecific cultures of both diatoms and coccolithophores. These
      particles, according to Riebesell, "accelerate particle aggregation
      and thereby enhance vertical particle flux," which he says may
      "provide an efficient pathway to channel dissolved and colloidal
      organic matter into the particulate pool."

      Another important finding of this experiment was the fact that the
      community that developed under the high CO2 conditions expected for
      the end of the 21st century was dominated by Emiliania huxleyi.
      Hence, Riebesell finds even more reason to believe that
      "coccolithophores may benefit from the present increase in atmospheric
      CO2 and related changes in seawater carbonate chemistry," in contrast
      to the many negative predictions that have been made about rising
      atmospheric CO2 concentrations in this regard. Finally, in further
      commentary on the topic, Riebesell states that "increasing CO2
      availability may improve the overall resource utilization of E.
      huxleyi and possibly of other fast-growing coccolithophore species,"
      and he suggests that "if this provides an ecological advantage for
      coccolithophores, rising atmospheric CO2 could potentially increase
      the contribution of calcifying phytoplankton to overall primary
      production."

      In spite of these several compelling observations, Riebesell says "it
      seems impossible at this point to provide a comprehensive and reliable
      forecast of large-scale and long-term biological responses to global
      environmental change," and that "any responsible consideration aiming
      to regulate or manipulate the earth system in an attempt to mitigate
      the greenhouse problem is presently hindered by the large gaps in our
      understanding of earth system regulation," implying (we presume) that
      proposed programs such as deep-ocean CO2 injection should not be
      implemented any time soon. We agree, suggesting that this warning
      should also be applied to plans designed to regulate anthropogenic CO2
      emissions, for there currently is no hard evidence from the real world
      of nature to suggest that calcifying organisms will be harmed by even
      a long-term continuation of the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content,
      while there is considerable evidence to suggest they may be benefited
      thereby.

      Clearly, we need to learn considerably more about these topics before
      we embark upon what could well be an ill-advised energy policy "course
      correction" that could actually work against our best interests, and
      against those of the rest of the biosphere as well. Studies such as
      those of Orr et al., which fail to reflect what we know about the real
      and living world, in no way reflect the preponderance of current
      scientific thought on this subject ... even if each of them is the
      product of 27 authors from 8 different countries.

      Sherwood, Keith and Craig Idso

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      Bischoff, W.W., Mackenzie, F.T. and Bishop, F.C. 1987. Stabilities
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      Brussaard, C.P.D., Gast, G.J., van Duyl, F.C. and Riegman, R. 1996.
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      web. Marine Ecology Progress Series 144: 211-221.

      Buddemeier, R.W., Lkeypas, J.A. and Aronson, R.B. 2004. Coral Reefs
      & Global Climate Change: Potential Contributions of Climate Change to
      Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems. The Pew Center on Global Climate
      Change, Arlington, VA, USA.

      Carricart-Ganivet, J.P. 2004. Sea surface temperature and the growth
      of the West Atlantic reef-building coral Montastraea annularis.
      Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 302: 249-260.

      Clausen, C.D. and Roth, A.A. 1975. Effect of temperature and
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      Coles, S.L. and Coles. P.L. 1977. Effects of temperature on
      photosynthesis and respiration in hermatypic corals. Marine Biology
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      Dickson, A.G. 1990. Thermodynamics of the dissociation of boric acid
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      Dickson, A.G. and Riley, J.P. 1979. The estimation of acid
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      Gnaiger, E., Gluth, G. and Weiser, W. 1978. pH fluctuations in an
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      Grigg, R.W. 1981. Coral reef development at high latitudes in
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      Grigg, R.W. 1997. Paleoceanography of coral reefs in the
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      Hansen, P.J. 2002. The effect of high pH on the growth and survival
      of marine phytoplankton: implications for species succession. Aquatic
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      Idso, S.B., Idso, C.D. and Idso, K.E. 2000. CO2, global warming and
      coral reefs: Prospects for the future. Technology 7S: 71-94.

      Kajiwara, K., Nagai, A. and Ueno, S. 1995. Examination of the effect
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      Kleypas, J.A., Buddemeier, R.W., Archer, D., Gattuso, J-P., Langdon,
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      Lindholm, T. and Nummelin, C. 1999. Red tide of the dinoflagellate
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      Lough, J.M. and Barnes, D.J. 1997. Several centuries of variation in
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      Lough, J.B. and Barnes, D.J. 2000. Environmental controls on growth
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      Macedo, M.F., Duarte, P., Mendes, P. and Ferreira, G. 2001. Annual
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      ====================
      http://www.co2science.org//articles/V11/N29/B2.php

      Marine Ecosystem Response to "Ocean Acidification" Due to Atmospheric
      CO2 Enrichment
      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Reference
      Vogt, M., Steinke, M., Turner, S., Paulino, A., Meyerhofer, M.,
      Riebesell, U., LeQuere, C. and Liss, P. 2008. Dynamics of
      dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethylsulphide under different CO2
      concentrations during a mesocosm experiment. Biogeosciences 5:
      407-419.
      Background
      The authors write that "ocean acidification is one of the effects of
      increased anthropogenic CO2," that "oceanic DMS [dimethylsulphide]
      production is a result of complex interactions within the marine
      food-web," and that "ocean acidification may affect DMS concentrations
      and fluxes by altering one or more of the various pathways or
      impacting some of the species involved," with the reason for concern
      being the fact that the particulate atmospheric oxidation products of
      DMS can act as cloud condensation nuclei and lead to the creation of
      more numerous and more reflective clouds that can cool the planet by
      reflecting more incoming solar radiation back to space, which would
      tend to mute the greenhouse effect of rising atmospheric CO2
      concentrations and keep the planet from getting too warm.

      What was done
      Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on various marine microorganisms
      and DMS production were studied in nine marine mesocosms maintained
      within 2-meter-diameter polyethylene bags submerged to a depth of ten
      meters in a fjord adjacent to the Large-Scale Facilities of the
      Biological Station of the University of Bergen in Espegrend, Norway.
      Three of the mesocosms were maintained at ambient levels of CO2 (~375
      ppm), three were maintained at levels expected to prevail at the end
      of the current century (760 ppm or 2x CO2), and three were maintained
      at levels predicted for the middle of the next century (1150 ppm or 3x
      CO2), while measurements of numerous ecosystem parameters were made
      over a period of 24 days.

      What was learned
      Vogt et al. report that they detected no significant phytoplankton
      species shifts between treatments, and that "the ecosystem
      composition, bacterial and phytoplankton abundances and productivity,
      grazing rates and total grazer abundance and reproduction were not
      significantly affected by CO2 induced effects," citing in support of
      this statement the work of Riebesell et al. (2007), Riebesell et al.
      (2008), Egge et al. (2007), Paulino et al. (2007), Larsen et al.
      (2007), Suffrian et al. (2008) and Carotenuto et al. (2007). In
      addition, they say that "while DMS stayed elevated in the treatments
      with elevated CO2, we observed a steep decline in DMS concentration in
      the treatment with low CO2," i.e., the ambient CO2 treatment.

      What it means
      With respect to their many findings, the eight researchers say their
      observations suggest that "the system under study was surprisingly
      resilient to abrupt and large pH changes," which is just the opposite
      of what the world's climate alarmists characteristically predict about
      CO2-induced "ocean acidification." And that may be why Vogt et al.
      described the marine ecosystem they studied as "surprisingly
      resilient" to such change: it may have been a little unexpected.

      References
      Carotenuto, Y., Putzeys, S., Simonelli, P., Paulino, A., Meyerhofer,
      M., Suffrian, K., Antia, A. and Nejstgaard, J.C. 2007. Copepod feeding
      and reproduction in relation to phytoplankton development during the
      PeECE III mesocosm experiment. Biogeosciences Discussions 4:
      3913-3936.

      Egge, J., Thingstad, F., Engel, A., Bellerby, R.G.J. and Riebesell, U.
      2007. Primary production at elevated nutrient and pCO2 levels.
      Biogeosciences Discussions 4: 4385-4410.

      Larsen, J.B., Larsen, A., Thyrhaug, R., Bratbak, G. and Sandaa R.-A.
      2007. Marine viral populations detected during a nutrient induced
      phytoplankton bloom at elevated pCO2 levels. Biogeosciences
      Discussions 4: 3961-3985.

      Paulino, A.I., Egge, J.K. and Larsen, A. 2007. Effects of increased
      atmospheric CO2 on small and intermediate sized osmotrophs during a
      nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom. Biogeosciences Discussions 4:
      4173-4195.

      Riebesell, U., Bellerby, R.G.J., Grossart, H.-P. and Thingstad, F.
      2008. Mesocosm CO2 perturbation studies: from organism to community
      level. Biogeosciences Discussions 5: 641-659.

      Riebesell, U., Schulz, K., Bellerby, R., Botros, M., Fritsche, P.,
      Meyerhofer, M., Neill, C., Nondal, G., Oschlies, A., Wohlers, J. and
      Zollner, E. 2007. Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2
      ocean. Nature 450: 10.1038/nature06267.

      Suffrian, K., Simonelli, P., Nejstgaard, J.C., Putzeys, S.,
      Carotenuto, Y. and Antia, A.N. 2008. Microzooplankton grazing and
      phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels.
      Biogeosciences Discussions 5: 411-433.

      =================

      http://www.co2science.org//articles/V11/N48/EDIT.php
      Ocean Acidification and Jellyfish Abundance
      Volume 11, Number 48: 26 November 2008

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      In a paper recently published in Limnology and Oceanography,
      Richardson and Gibbons (2008) say there has been a drop of 0.1 pH unit
      in the global ocean since the start of the Industrial Revolution, and
      that "such acidification of the ocean may make calcification more
      difficult for calcareous organisms," resulting in the "opening [of]
      ecological space for non-calcifying species." In line with this
      thinking, they report that Attrill et al. (2007) have argued that
      "jellyfish may take advantage of the vacant niches made available by
      the negative effects of acidification on calcifying plankton," causing
      jellyfish to become more abundant; and they note that the latter
      researchers provided some evidence for this effect in the west-central
      North Sea over the period 1971-1995. Hence, they undertook a study to
      see if Attrill et al.'s findings (which were claimed to be the first
      of their kind) could be replicated on a much larger scale.
      Working with data from a larger portion of the North Sea, as well as
      throughout most of the much vaster Northeast Atlantic Ocean,
      Richardson and Gibbons used coelenterate (jellyfish) records from the
      Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) and pH data from the International
      Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) for the period 1946-2003
      to explore the possibility of a relationship between jellyfish
      abundance and acidic ocean conditions. This work revealed that there
      were, as they describe it, "no significant relationships between
      jellyfish abundance and acidic conditions in any of the regions
      investigated."

      In harmony with their findings, the two researchers note that "no
      observed declines in the abundance of calcifiers with lowering pH have
      yet been reported." In addition, they write that the "larvae of sea
      urchins form skeletal parts comprising magnesium-bearing calcite,
      which is 30 times more soluble than calcite without magnesium," and,
      therefore, that "lower ocean pH should drastically inhibit [our
      italics] the formation of these soluble calcite precursors." Yet they
      report "there is no observable negative effect of pH." In fact, they
      say that echinoderm larvae in the North Sea have actually exhibited "a
      10-fold increase [our italics] in recent times," which they say has
      been "linked predominantly to warming (Kirby et al., 2007)." Likewise,
      they further note that even in the most recent IPCC report, "there was
      no empirical evidence reported for the effect of acidification on
      marine biological systems (Rosenzweig et al., 2007)," in spite of all
      the concern that has been raised by climate alarmists claiming that
      such is, or should be, occurring.

      In light of this body of real-world evidence, or non-evidence,
      Richardson and Gibbons conclude (rather generously, we might add) that
      "the role of pH in structuring zooplankton communities in the North
      Sea and further afield at present is tenuous."

      Sherwood, Keith and Craig Idso

      References
      Attrill, M.J., Wright, J. and Edwards, M. 2007. Climate-related
      increases in jellyfish frequency suggest a more gelatinous future for
      the North Sea. Limnology and Oceanography 52: 480-485.

      Kirby, R.R., Beaugrand, G., Lindley, J.A., Richardson, A.J., Edwards,
      M. and Reid, P.C. 2007. Climate effects and benthic-pelagic coupling
      in the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 330: 31-38.

      Richardson, A.J. and Gibbons, M.J. 2008. Are jellyfish increasing in
      response to ocean acidification? Limnology and Oceanography 53:
      2040-2045.

      Rosenzweig, C. and others. 2007. Assessment of observed changes and
      responses in natural and managed systems. In Parry, M.L., Canziani,
      O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E. (Eds.)
      Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.
      Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of
      the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University
      Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 79-131.
    • joedoves
      ... what nonsense it is to say the ocean is ten times more acidic than thought . Acidity is measured as one over the log to the base ten of the hydrogen ion
      Message 2 of 12 , Nov 30, 2008
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        > Come on folks. This is basic chemistry. Does nobody understand
        what nonsense it is to say the ocean is "ten times more acidic than
        thought". Acidity is measured as one over the log to the base ten of
        the hydrogen ion concentration.-CM

        Increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may make Earth's
        oceans more acidic faster than previously thoughtâ€"unbalancing
        ecosystems in the process, a new study says.
        Increased carbon dioxide emissions from human activities have led to a
        30 percent rise in ocean acidity in the past 200 years.
        -------------------------------------------------------------------
        The article says ten times more acidic than current models had
        perdicted, not that the pH has dropped by 30%.

        If the current ocean pH is 8 or 1 x 10^-8 moles per liter of H+, then
        1.3 x 10^-8 moles per liter of H+=7.88 pH.

        This is very serious because it means the capacity of the oceans to
        absorb excess CO2 is much lower than was expected.

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_acidification
      • Frank Holland
        ... Mark, excellent! You could be FG s script writer!! -- Frank 53.22N 2.07W
        Message 3 of 12 , Dec 1, 2008
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          On Sat, 2008-11-29 at 22:40 -0800, Mark Knapp wrote:
          > I am much
          > more inclined to believe the guy who works at the gas station
          > down the street. He said that global warming was just a
          > government conspiracy to generate more tax revenue for the
          > Illuminati and the Free Masons.

          Mark, excellent! You could be FG's script writer!!


          --

          Frank
          53.22N 2.07W
        • L. B. Crowell
          ... From: Francisco González To: energyresources@yahoogroups.com Sent: Sunday, November 30, 2008 9:00 PM Subject: Re: [energyresources] Oceans Ten Times More
          Message 4 of 12 , Dec 1, 2008
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            ----- Original Message -----
            From: Francisco González
            To: energyresources@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Sunday, November 30, 2008 9:00 PM
            Subject: Re: [energyresources] Oceans Ten Times More Acidic Than Thought

            Here are three articles on various aspects of this topic.

            http://www.co2science.org//articles/V8/N40/EDIT.php

            The Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions on Calcifying Marine Organisms
            Volume 8, Number 40: 5 October 2005

            -------------------------------------

            This is a new area of study at this time. As yet it is hard to draw conclusions about this. However, I have read a couple of short in "Science" which suggest this might be a problem. There is a large CO_2 exchange mechanism with the oceans, which clearly is going to be perturbed by increased CO_2 and warming. There have been periods in the past with higher CO_2 levels and clearly animals which produce CaCO_3 shells survived. However, CO_2 increases back then was likely slower giving the system time to homeostatically adjust.

            Lawrence B. Crowell

            A single snowflake never sees itself as responsible for the avalanche.



            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • L. B. Crowell
            ... From: Frank Holland To: energyresources@yahoogroups.com Sent: Monday, December 01, 2008 2:40 AM Subject: Re: [energyresources] Re: Oceans Ten Times More
            Message 5 of 12 , Dec 1, 2008
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              ----- Original Message -----
              From: Frank Holland
              To: energyresources@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Monday, December 01, 2008 2:40 AM
              Subject: Re: [energyresources] Re: Oceans Ten Times More Acidic Than Thought

              On Sat, 2008-11-29 at 22:40 -0800, Mark Knapp wrote:
              > I am much
              > more inclined to believe the guy who works at the gas station
              > down the street. He said that global warming was just a
              > government conspiracy to generate more tax revenue for the
              > Illuminati and the Free Masons.

              Mark, excellent! You could be FG's script writer!!

              -----------------------

              Of course FG would want some sort of 9/11 conspiracy threaded into it as well :-) It is of course similar thinking, which appeals to people unclear of mind or with other motives.

              Lawrence B. Crowell

              A single snowflake never sees itself as responsible for the avalanche.




              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Eric Pfeiffer
              Excellent detailed discussion and response. I would like to read a critique, challenge, to this presenting a counter argument with similar attention to detail
              Message 6 of 12 , Dec 1, 2008
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                Excellent detailed discussion and response. I would like to
                read a critique, challenge, to this presenting a counter
                argument with similar attention to detail and overall
                view. EP

                --- On Sun, 11/30/08, Francisco González <franjagonzalez@...> wrote:

                From: Francisco González <franjagonzalez@...>
                Subject: Re: [energyresources] Oceans Ten Times More Acidic Than Thought
                To: energyresources@yahoogroups.com
                Date: Sunday, November 30, 2008, 10:00 PM






                Here are three articles on various aspects of this topic.

                http://www.co2scien ce.org//articles /V8/N40/EDIT. php

                The Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions on Calcifying Marine Organisms
                Volume 8, Number 40: 5 October 2005

                A new study by 27 researchers from 8 countries published in the 29
                September 2005 issue of Nature (Orr et al., 2005) suggests that under
                a "business-as- usual" scenario of future anthropogenic CO2 emissions,
                "key marine organisms - such as corals and some plankton - will have
                difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons,"
                and that such conditions "could develop within decades, not centuries
                as suggested previously," leading the Editor of Nature to the even
                more dire conclusion that these organisms "will not be able to grow
                their calcium carbonate exoskeletons within decades."
                So what's the story here? Is there any real-world evidence that can
                be cited in support of these strident claims? Orr et al. certainly
                make it appear such exists, but a little sleuthing reveals nothing of
                substance.

                In support of this statement, we note that in response to increasing
                atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the 27 scientists say that "aqueous
                CO2 concentrations will increase and carbonate ion concentrations will
                decrease, making it more difficult for marine calcifying organisms to
                form biogenic calcium carbonate," whereupon they claim that
                "substantial experimental evidence indicates that calcification rates
                will decrease in low-latitude corals (Millero, 1995; Dickson, 1990;
                Dickson and Riley, 1979), which form reefs out of aragonite [a
                metastable form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3)], and in phytoplankton
                that form their tests (shells) out of calcite (Mucci, 1983; Bischoff
                et al., 1987), the stable form of CaCO3." In reviewing the five
                papers cited in support of these contentions, however, we find that
                none of them deal with living organisms, and, therefore, that none of
                them deal with the actual calcification process as driven by life
                processes. Rather, they deal exclusively with the lifeless world of
                chemistry and thermodynamics.

                We have previously written extensively about the importance of letting
                life enter the picture, noting that coral calcification is much more
                than a simple (or even complex) physical-chemical process that can be
                described by a set of well-defined equations and constants,
                reiterating the fact that coral calcification is a biologically- driven
                physical-chemical process that may not yet be amenable to explicit
                mathematical description. In this regard, we have reported (Idso et
                al., 2000) that "the photosynthetic activity of zooxanthellae is the
                chief source of energy for the energetically- expensive process of
                calcification, " and we have stated that much evidence (for which we
                provided proper references) suggests that "long-term reef
                calcification rates generally rise in direct proportion to increases
                in rates of reef primary production," which suggests to us that "if an
                anthropogenic- induced increase in the transfer of CO2 from the
                atmosphere to the world's oceans were to lead to increases in coral
                symbiont photosynthesis - as atmospheric CO2 enrichment does for
                essentially all terrestrial plants - it is likely that increases in
                coral calcification rates would occur as well."

                We have also noted that the calcium carbonate saturation state of
                seawater actually rises with an increase in temperature, countering
                the adverse oceanic chemistry consequences of an increase in aqueous
                CO2 concentration, which is a matter that is also considered by Orr et
                al., but which they dismiss as having a rather small effect,
                "typically counteracting less than 10% of the decrease due to the
                geochemical effect." With this little problem thus dispatched, and
                ignoring the many ways in which life might enter the picture, they
                calculate that "relative to preindustrial conditions, invasion of
                anthropogenic CO2 has already reduced modern surface carbonate ion
                concentrations by more than 10%," while they calculate - "in agreement
                with previous predictions (Kleypas et al., 1999)" - that a 45%
                reduction relative to preindustrial levels may be reached by the end
                of the century, and that, ultimately, "rates of calcification could
                decline even further, to zero." We, on the other hand, suggest they
                are grossly in error.

                So what do studies of real-world corals and phytoplankton reveal about
                the various claims and counterclaims swirling about the issue? Has
                the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration experienced since the
                beginning of the Industrial Revolution, which is acknowledged to be
                unprecedented over the past 420,000 years (Petit et al., 1999), plus
                the 20th-century increase in temperature, which is claimed to be
                unprecedented over the past two millennia (Mann and Jones, 2003),
                seriously hampered coral and phytoplankton calcification rates? If
                these historical environmental changes are as unprecedented and
                dangerous as the world's climate alarmists claim they are, we should
                be able to find plenty of evidence of their negative consequences.
                But if we are right, we won't find any such evidence. So let's see
                what the world's scientific archives have to say about the matter.

                In a study of calcification rates of massive Porites coral colonies
                from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Lough and Barnes (1997) found that
                "the 20th century has witnessed the second highest period of above
                average calcification in the past 237 years." Intrigued by this
                observation, they went on to assemble and analyze the calcification
                characteristics of 245 similar-sized massive colonies of Porites
                corals obtained from 29 reef sites located along the length, and
                across the breadth, of the GBR, which data spanned a latitudinal range
                of approximately 9° and an annual average sea surface temperature
                (SST) range of 25-27°C. To these data they added other published data
                from the Hawaiian Archipelago (Grigg, 1981, 1997) and Phuket, Thailand
                (Scoffin et al., 1992), thereby extending the latitudinal range of the
                expanded data set to 20° and the annual average SST range to 23-29°C.

                Lough and Barnes' analysis indicated that the GBR calcification data
                were linearly related to the average annual SST data, such that "a 1°C
                rise in average annual SST increased average annual calcification by
                0.39 g cm-2 year-1." Results were much the same for the extended data
                set; they report that "the regression equation [calcification =
                0.33(SST) - 7.07] explained 83.6% of the variance in average annual
                calcification (F = 213.59, p less than 0.00)," noting that "this
                equation provides for a change in calcification rate of 0.33 g cm-2
                year-1 for each 1°C change in average annual SST."

                Noting that their results "allow assessment of possible impacts of
                global climate change on coral reef ecosystems," Lough and Barnes
                report that between the two 50-year periods 1780-1829 and 1930-1979,
                they calculated a mean calcification increase of 0.06 g cm-2 year-1;
                and they note that "this increase [our italics] of ~4% in
                calcification rate conflicts with the estimated decrease [our italics]
                in coral calcification rate of 6-14% over the same time period
                suggested by Kleypas et al. (1999) as a response to changes in ocean
                chemistry." Even more stunning was their observation that between the
                two 20-year periods 1903-1922 and 1979-1998, "the SST-associated
                increase in calcification is estimated to be less than 5% in the
                northern GBR, ~12% in the central GBR, ~20% in the southern GBR and to
                increase dramatically (up to ~50%) to the south of the GBR." In light
                of these real-world observations, and in stark contrast to the
                implications of the work of Kleypas et al. (1999) and Orr et al.
                (2005), Lough and Barnes concluded that coral calcification rates "may
                have already significantly increased [our italics] along the GBR in
                response to global climate change."

                Another pair of scientists to address the subject was Bessat and
                Buigues (2001), who worked with a core retrieved from a massive
                Porites coral on the French Polynesian island of Moorea that covered
                the period 1801-1990, saying they undertook the study because they
                thought it "may provide information about long-term variability in the
                performance of coral reefs, allowing unnatural changes to be
                distinguished from natural variability. " This effort revealed that a
                1°C increase in water temperature increased coral calcification rate
                by 4.5%, and that "instead of a 6-14% decline in calcification over
                the past 100 years computed by the Kleypas group, the calcification
                has increased." They also observed patterns of "jumps or stages" in
                the record, which were characterized by an increase in the annual rate
                of calcification, particularly at the beginning of the past century
                "and in a more marked way around 1940, 1960 and 1976," stating once
                again that their results "do not confirm those predicted by the
                Kleypas et al. (1999) model," which is merely an earlier version of
                the Orr et al. model.

                In spite of these real-world observations that refute the "lifeless"
                world view of Kleypas et al. and Orr et al., Buddemeier et al. (2004)
                have continued to claim that the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content
                and its predicted ability to lower surface ocean water pH (which is
                also a key claim of Orr et al.) will dramatically decrease coral
                calcification rates, which they say could lead to "a slow-down or
                reversal of reef-building and the potential loss of reef structures in
                the future." However, they have been forced to acknowledge that
                "temperature and calcification rates are correlated, and [real-world]
                corals have so far responded more to increases in water temperature
                (growing faster through increased metabolism and the increased
                photosynthetic rates of their zooxanthellae) than to decreases in
                carbonate ion concentration. "

                At about the same time, and following in the footsteps of Lough and
                Barnes who worked in the Indo-Pacific, Carricart-Ganivet (2004)
                developed relationships between coral calcification rate and annual
                average SST based on data collected from colonies of the reef-building
                coral Montastraea annularis at twelve locations in the Gulf of Mexico
                and the Caribbean Sea. This work revealed that "calcification rate in
                the Gulf of Mexico increased 0.55 g cm-2 year-1 for each 1°C increase,
                while, in the Caribbean Sea, it increased 0.58 g cm-2 year-1 for each
                1°C increase," a result nearly twice as great as that obtained by
                Lough and Barnes for Porites corals. Further pooling these data "with
                those of M. annularis and M. faveolata, growing up to 10 m depth in
                Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, reported by Graus and Macintyre (1982), those
                of Dodge and Brass (1982) from all the reefs they studied at St.
                Croix, US Virgin Islands, and those of M. faveolata, growing up to 10
                m depth in Curacao, Netherlands, Antilles, reported by Bosscher
                (1993)," Carricart-Ganivet reports he obtained a relationship of ~0.5
                g cm-2 year-1 for each 1°C increase in annual average SST.

                To these papers can be added many others that also depict increasing
                coral calcification rates in the face of rising temperatures and
                atmospheric CO2 concentrations, including those of Clausen and Roth
                (1975), Coles and Coles (1977), Kajiwara et al. (1995), Nie et al.
                (1997) and Reynaud-Vaganay et al. (1999). As for why this is the way
                corals respond, McNeil et al. (2004) say that "observed increases in
                coral reef calcification with ocean warming are most likely due to an
                enhancement in coral metabolism and/or increases in photosynthetic
                rates of their symbiotic algae," just as we have done when noting over
                and over that coral calcification is a biologically- driven process
                that can overcome physical-chemical limitations that in the absence of
                life would appear to be insurmountable.

                A second good reason for not believing that the ongoing rise in the
                air's CO2 content will lead to reduced oceanic pH and, therefore,
                lower calcification rates in the world's coral reefs, is that the same
                phenomenon that powers the twin processes of coral calcification and
                phytoplanktonic growth (photosynthesis) tends to increase the pH of
                marine waters (Gnaiger et al., 1978; Santhanam et al., 1994; Brussaard
                et al., 1996; Lindholm and Nummelin, 1999; Macedo et al., 2001;
                Hansen, 2002); and this phenomenon has been shown to have the ability
                to dramatically increase the pH of marine bays, lagoons and tidal
                pools (Gnaiger et al., 1978; Santhanam, 1994; Macedo et al., 2001;
                Hansen, 2002) as well as significantly enhance the surface water pH of
                areas as large as the North Sea (Brussaard et al., 1996).

                Before concluding this editorial, we switch our focus from corals to
                phytoplankton in a review of the work of Riebesell (2004), who says
                that "doubling present-day atmospheric CO2 concentrations is predicted
                to cause a 20-40% reduction in biogenic calcification of the
                predominant calcifying organisms, the corals, coccolithophorids, and
                foraminifera. " In a challenge to this dogma, however, he notes that a
                moderate increase in CO2 actually facilitates photosynthetic carbon
                fixation of some phytoplankton groups, including the coccolithophorids
                Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. In fact, Riebesell
                suggests that "CO2-sensitive taxa, such as the calcifying
                coccolithophorids, should therefore benefit more from the present
                increase in atmospheric CO2 compared to the non-calcifying diatoms."
                An additional fact of importance, according to Riebesell, is that "the
                mechanism of calcification by coccolithophores is not completely
                understood." This being the case, he feels it is definitely "too
                early ... to make any predictions regarding the physiological or
                ecological consequences of a CO2-related slow down in biogenic
                calcification. "

                Most significant of all, Riebesell reports some results of CO2
                perturbation experiments conducted south of Bergen, Norway, where nine
                11-m3 enclosures moored to a floating raft were aerated in triplicate
                with CO2-depleted, normal, and CO2-enriched air to achieve CO2 levels
                of 190, 370 and 710 ppm, simulating glacial, present day, and
                predicted conditions for the end of the century, respectively. In the
                course of the study, a bloom consisting of a mixed phytoplankton
                community developed; and, in Riebesell's words, "significantly higher
                net community production was observed under elevated CO2 levels during
                the build-up of the bloom." He further reports that "CO2-related
                differences in primary production continued after nutrient exhaustion,
                leading to higher production of transparent exopolymer particles under
                high CO2 conditions," something that has also been observed by Engel
                (2002) in a natural plankton assemblage and by Heemann (2002) in
                monospecific cultures of both diatoms and coccolithophores. These
                particles, according to Riebesell, "accelerate particle aggregation
                and thereby enhance vertical particle flux," which he says may
                "provide an efficient pathway to channel dissolved and colloidal
                organic matter into the particulate pool."

                Another important finding of this experiment was the fact that the
                community that developed under the high CO2 conditions expected for
                the end of the 21st century was dominated by Emiliania huxleyi.
                Hence, Riebesell finds even more reason to believe that
                "coccolithophores may benefit from the present increase in atmospheric
                CO2 and related changes in seawater carbonate chemistry," in contrast
                to the many negative predictions that have been made about rising
                atmospheric CO2 concentrations in this regard. Finally, in further
                commentary on the topic, Riebesell states that "increasing CO2
                availability may improve the overall resource utilization of E.
                huxleyi and possibly of other fast-growing coccolithophore species,"
                and he suggests that "if this provides an ecological advantage for
                coccolithophores, rising atmospheric CO2 could potentially increase
                the contribution of calcifying phytoplankton to overall primary
                production."

                In spite of these several compelling observations, Riebesell says "it
                seems impossible at this point to provide a comprehensive and reliable
                forecast of large-scale and long-term biological responses to global
                environmental change," and that "any responsible consideration aiming
                to regulate or manipulate the earth system in an attempt to mitigate
                the greenhouse problem is presently hindered by the large gaps in our
                understanding of earth system regulation," implying (we presume) that
                proposed programs such as deep-ocean CO2 injection should not be
                implemented any time soon. We agree, suggesting that this warning
                should also be applied to plans designed to regulate anthropogenic CO2
                emissions, for there currently is no hard evidence from the real world
                of nature to suggest that calcifying organisms will be harmed by even
                a long-term continuation of the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content,
                while there is considerable evidence to suggest they may be benefited
                thereby.

                Clearly, we need to learn considerably more about these topics before
                we embark upon what could well be an ill-advised energy policy "course
                correction" that could actually work against our best interests, and
                against those of the rest of the biosphere as well. Studies such as
                those of Orr et al., which fail to reflect what we know about the real
                and living world, in no way reflect the preponderance of current
                scientific thought on this subject ... even if each of them is the
                product of 27 authors from 8 different countries.

                Sherwood, Keith and Craig Idso

                References
                Bessat, F. and Buigues, D. 2001. Two centuries of variation in coral
                growth in a massive Porites colony from Moorea (French Polynesia): a
                response of ocean-atmosphere variability from south central Pacific.
                Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 175: 381-392.

                Bischoff, W.W., Mackenzie, F.T. and Bishop, F.C. 1987. Stabilities
                of synthetic magnesian calcites in aqueous solution: Comparison with
                biogenic materials. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51: 1413-1423.

                Brussaard, C.P.D., Gast, G.J., van Duyl, F.C. and Riegman, R. 1996.
                Impact of phytoplankton bloom magnitude on a pelagic microbial food
                web. Marine Ecology Progress Series 144: 211-221.

                Buddemeier, R.W., Lkeypas, J.A. and Aronson, R.B. 2004. Coral Reefs
                & Global Climate Change: Potential Contributions of Climate Change to
                Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems. The Pew Center on Global Climate
                Change, Arlington, VA, USA.

                Carricart-Ganivet, J.P. 2004. Sea surface temperature and the growth
                of the West Atlantic reef-building coral Montastraea annularis.
                Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 302: 249-260.

                Clausen, C.D. and Roth, A.A. 1975. Effect of temperature and
                temperature adaptation on calcification rate in the hematypic
                Pocillopora damicornis. Marine Biology 33: 93-100.

                Coles, S.L. and Coles. P.L. 1977. Effects of temperature on
                photosynthesis and respiration in hermatypic corals. Marine Biology
                43: 209-216.

                Dickson, A.G. 1990. Thermodynamics of the dissociation of boric acid
                in synthetic seawater from 273.15 to 318.15K. Deep-Sea Research 37:
                755-766

                Dickson, A.G. and Riley, J.P. 1979. The estimation of acid
                dissociation constants in seawater media from potentiometric
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                Idso, S.B., Idso, C.D. and Idso, K.E. 2000. CO2, global warming and
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                ============ ========
                http://www.co2scien ce.org//articles /V11/N29/ B2.php

                Marine Ecosystem Response to "Ocean Acidification" Due to Atmospheric
                CO2 Enrichment
                ------------ --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- -
                Reference
                Vogt, M., Steinke, M., Turner, S., Paulino, A., Meyerhofer, M.,
                Riebesell, U., LeQuere, C. and Liss, P. 2008. Dynamics of
                dimethylsulphoniopr opionate and dimethylsulphide under different CO2
                concentrations during a mesocosm experiment. Biogeosciences 5:
                407-419.
                Background
                The authors write that "ocean acidification is one of the effects of
                increased anthropogenic CO2," that "oceanic DMS [dimethylsulphide]
                production is a result of complex interactions within the marine
                food-web," and that "ocean acidification may affect DMS concentrations
                and fluxes by altering one or more of the various pathways or
                impacting some of the species involved," with the reason for concern
                being the fact that the particulate atmospheric oxidation products of
                DMS can act as cloud condensation nuclei and lead to the creation of
                more numerous and more reflective clouds that can cool the planet by
                reflecting more incoming solar radiation back to space, which would
                tend to mute the greenhouse effect of rising atmospheric CO2
                concentrations and keep the planet from getting too warm.

                What was done
                Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on various marine microorganisms
                and DMS production were studied in nine marine mesocosms maintained
                within 2-meter-diameter polyethylene bags submerged to a depth of ten
                meters in a fjord adjacent to the Large-Scale Facilities of the
                Biological Station of the University of Bergen in Espegrend, Norway.
                Three of the mesocosms were maintained at ambient levels of CO2 (~375
                ppm), three were maintained at levels expected to prevail at the end
                of the current century (760 ppm or 2x CO2), and three were maintained
                at levels predicted for the middle of the next century (1150 ppm or 3x
                CO2), while measurements of numerous ecosystem parameters were made
                over a period of 24 days.

                What was learned
                Vogt et al. report that they detected no significant phytoplankton
                species shifts between treatments, and that "the ecosystem
                composition, bacterial and phytoplankton abundances and productivity,
                grazing rates and total grazer abundance and reproduction were not
                significantly affected by CO2 induced effects," citing in support of
                this statement the work of Riebesell et al. (2007), Riebesell et al.
                (2008), Egge et al. (2007), Paulino et al. (2007), Larsen et al.
                (2007), Suffrian et al. (2008) and Carotenuto et al. (2007). In
                addition, they say that "while DMS stayed elevated in the treatments
                with elevated CO2, we observed a steep decline in DMS concentration in
                the treatment with low CO2," i.e., the ambient CO2 treatment.

                What it means
                With respect to their many findings, the eight researchers say their
                observations suggest that "the system under study was surprisingly
                resilient to abrupt and large pH changes," which is just the opposite
                of what the world's climate alarmists characteristically predict about
                CO2-induced "ocean acidification. " And that may be why Vogt et al.
                described the marine ecosystem they studied as "surprisingly
                resilient" to such change: it may have been a little unexpected.

                References
                Carotenuto, Y., Putzeys, S., Simonelli, P., Paulino, A., Meyerhofer,
                M., Suffrian, K., Antia, A. and Nejstgaard, J.C. 2007. Copepod feeding
                and reproduction in relation to phytoplankton development during the
                PeECE III mesocosm experiment. Biogeosciences Discussions 4:
                3913-3936.

                Egge, J., Thingstad, F., Engel, A., Bellerby, R.G.J. and Riebesell, U.
                2007. Primary production at elevated nutrient and pCO2 levels.
                Biogeosciences Discussions 4: 4385-4410.

                Larsen, J.B., Larsen, A., Thyrhaug, R., Bratbak, G. and Sandaa R.-A.
                2007. Marine viral populations detected during a nutrient induced
                phytoplankton bloom at elevated pCO2 levels. Biogeosciences
                Discussions 4: 3961-3985.

                Paulino, A.I., Egge, J.K. and Larsen, A. 2007. Effects of increased
                atmospheric CO2 on small and intermediate sized osmotrophs during a
                nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom. Biogeosciences Discussions 4:
                4173-4195.

                Riebesell, U., Bellerby, R.G.J., Grossart, H.-P. and Thingstad, F.
                2008. Mesocosm CO2 perturbation studies: from organism to community
                level. Biogeosciences Discussions 5: 641-659.

                Riebesell, U., Schulz, K., Bellerby, R., Botros, M., Fritsche, P.,
                Meyerhofer, M., Neill, C., Nondal, G., Oschlies, A., Wohlers, J. and
                Zollner, E. 2007. Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2
                ocean. Nature 450: 10.1038/nature06267 .

                Suffrian, K., Simonelli, P., Nejstgaard, J.C., Putzeys, S.,
                Carotenuto, Y. and Antia, A.N. 2008. Microzooplankton grazing and
                phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels.
                Biogeosciences Discussions 5: 411-433.

                ============ =====

                http://www.co2scien ce.org//articles /V11/N48/ EDIT.php
                Ocean Acidification and Jellyfish Abundance
                Volume 11, Number 48: 26 November 2008

                ------------ --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- -
                In a paper recently published in Limnology and Oceanography,
                Richardson and Gibbons (2008) say there has been a drop of 0.1 pH unit
                in the global ocean since the start of the Industrial Revolution, and
                that "such acidification of the ocean may make calcification more
                difficult for calcareous organisms," resulting in the "opening [of]
                ecological space for non-calcifying species." In line with this
                thinking, they report that Attrill et al. (2007) have argued that
                "jellyfish may take advantage of the vacant niches made available by
                the negative effects of acidification on calcifying plankton," causing
                jellyfish to become more abundant; and they note that the latter
                researchers provided some evidence for this effect in the west-central
                North Sea over the period 1971-1995. Hence, they undertook a study to
                see if Attrill et al.'s findings (which were claimed to be the first
                of their kind) could be replicated on a much larger scale.
                Working with data from a larger portion of the North Sea, as well as
                throughout most of the much vaster Northeast Atlantic Ocean,
                Richardson and Gibbons used coelenterate (jellyfish) records from the
                Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) and pH data from the International
                Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) for the period 1946-2003
                to explore the possibility of a relationship between jellyfish
                abundance and acidic ocean conditions. This work revealed that there
                were, as they describe it, "no significant relationships between
                jellyfish abundance and acidic conditions in any of the regions
                investigated. "

                In harmony with their findings, the two researchers note that "no
                observed declines in the abundance of calcifiers with lowering pH have
                yet been reported." In addition, they write that the "larvae of sea
                urchins form skeletal parts comprising magnesium-bearing calcite,
                which is 30 times more soluble than calcite without magnesium," and,
                therefore, that "lower ocean pH should drastically inhibit [our
                italics] the formation of these soluble calcite precursors." Yet they
                report "there is no observable negative effect of pH." In fact, they
                say that echinoderm larvae in the North Sea have actually exhibited "a
                10-fold increase [our italics] in recent times," which they say has
                been "linked predominantly to warming (Kirby et al., 2007)." Likewise,
                they further note that even in the most recent IPCC report, "there was
                no empirical evidence reported for the effect of acidification on
                marine biological systems (Rosenzweig et al., 2007)," in spite of all
                the concern that has been raised by climate alarmists claiming that
                such is, or should be, occurring.

                In light of this body of real-world evidence, or non-evidence,
                Richardson and Gibbons conclude (rather generously, we might add) that
                "the role of pH in structuring zooplankton communities in the North
                Sea and further afield at present is tenuous."

                Sherwood, Keith and Craig Idso

                References
                Attrill, M.J., Wright, J. and Edwards, M. 2007. Climate-related
                increases in jellyfish frequency suggest a more gelatinous future for
                the North Sea. Limnology and Oceanography 52: 480-485.

                Kirby, R.R., Beaugrand, G., Lindley, J.A., Richardson, A.J., Edwards,
                M. and Reid, P.C. 2007. Climate effects and benthic-pelagic coupling
                in the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 330: 31-38.

                Richardson, A.J. and Gibbons, M.J. 2008. Are jellyfish increasing in
                response to ocean acidification? Limnology and Oceanography 53:
                2040-2045.

                Rosenzweig, C. and others. 2007. Assessment of observed changes and
                responses in natural and managed systems. In Parry, M.L., Canziani,
                O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E. (Eds.)
                Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.
                Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of
                the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University
                Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 79-131.

















                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Alan
                I was being tongue-in-cheek, Frank, as I so often do, because: 1. It is fun, and funny, I think 2. It is also interesting to see whether or not it gets taken
                Message 7 of 12 , Dec 1, 2008
                • 0 Attachment
                  I was being tongue-in-cheek, Frank, as I so often do,
                  because:

                  1. It is fun, and funny, I think

                  2. It is also interesting to see whether or not it gets
                  taken seriously -- a sort of index of how crazy things
                  have gotten. On a right-wingy chat board I once screamed
                  at the top of my lungs that the only way to beat Islam
                  (one of their big things) is to kill at least 50 million
                  Muslims every year. Otherwise, the demographics (with a
                  billion of them, reproducing) are impossible, and Islam
                  will never be stopped. Amazingly, some number of them
                  took me seriously, and even had practical (!) suggestions
                  as to how the program might be carried out.

                  I don't blame you for taking me seriously. You're just
                  responding rationally to the prevailing insanity, and
                  you took me to be in its thrall.



                  --- In energyresources@yahoogroups.com, Frank Holland
                  <frankholland3@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > On Thu, 2008-11-27 at 02:00 +0000, Alan wrote:
                  > >
                  > > In spite of this: let us NOT lift a finger to reduce CO2 emissions
                  > > until there is clear, unequivocal scientific PROOF that CO2 is
                  > > causing catastrophic, irreversible environmental damage. No sense
                  > > being alarmist about it. Be reasonable. --AEL
                  >
                  > You mean waiting as the military did to see if an atomic bomb could
                  > kill. They ran two experiments, Hiroshima and Nagasaki; then they
                  > believed.
                  >
                  > Then they believed, and no more bombs were dropped (not yet), but in
                  > your experiment no one could stop the experiment, it would just carry on
                  > causing damage, probably triggering tipping or flipping points...think
                  > about it.
                  >
                  >
                  > --
                  >
                  > Frank
                  > 53.22N 2.07W
                  >
                • Frank Holland
                  Alan, I too was being tongue-in -cheek, perhaps a little bit more serious than you. Frank
                  Message 8 of 12 , Dec 2, 2008
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Alan,

                    I too was being tongue-in -cheek, perhaps a little bit more serious than
                    you.

                    Frank

                    On Mon, 2008-12-01 at 17:33 +0000, Alan wrote:
                    >
                    > I was being tongue-in-cheek, Frank, as I so often do,
                    > because:
                    >
                    > 1. It is fun, and funny, I think
                    >
                    > 2. It is also interesting to see whether or not it gets
                    > taken seriously -- a sort of index of how crazy things
                    > have gotten. On a right-wingy chat board I once screamed
                    > at the top of my lungs that the only way to beat Islam
                    > (one of their big things) is to kill at least 50 million
                    > Muslims every year. Otherwise, the demographics (with a
                    > billion of them, reproducing) are impossible, and Islam
                    > will never be stopped. Amazingly, some number of them
                    > took me seriously, and even had practical (!) suggestions
                    > as to how the program might be carried out.
                    >
                    > I don't blame you for taking me seriously. You're just
                    > responding rationally to the prevailing insanity, and
                    > you took me to be in its thrall.
                    >
                    > --- In energyresources@yahoogroups.com, Frank Holland
                    > <frankholland3@...> wrote:
                    > >
                    > > On Thu, 2008-11-27 at 02:00 +0000, Alan wrote:
                    > > >
                    > > > In spite of this: let us NOT lift a finger to reduce CO2 emissions
                    > > > until there is clear, unequivocal scientific PROOF that CO2 is
                    > > > causing catastrophic, irreversible environmental damage. No sense
                    > > > being alarmist about it. Be reasonable. --AEL
                    > >
                    > > You mean waiting as the military did to see if an atomic bomb could
                    > > kill. They ran two experiments, Hiroshima and Nagasaki; then they
                    > > believed.
                    > >
                    > > Then they believed, and no more bombs were dropped (not yet), but in
                    > > your experiment no one could stop the experiment, it would just
                    > carry on
                    > > causing damage, probably triggering tipping or flipping
                    > points...think
                    > > about it.
                    > >
                    > >
                    > > --
                    > >
                    > > Frank
                    > > 53.22N 2.07W
                    > >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
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