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565Emily Dickinson's Biography: Marchioness

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  • dickinson1890
    Nov 17, 2010

      Hi, Dickinsonians:

      Any Dickinsonian worth his/her salt knows that Emily Dickinson
      wrote a letter to Samuel Bowles the year before she dressed in
      white and went into seclusion: and signed it "Marchioness."

      Why, you ask?

      Well, it referred to the Brits, of course. You see, Emily Dickinson
      KNEW her classics as did ALL people of the nineteenth century:
      before the advent of radio and TV. Back then, READING THE CLASSICS
      was classic! Everybody did it. Too bad, some Dickinsonians think
      Emily Dickinson was a dunce and read only the comics.

      Recently, here in 2007, the future Queen of England jetted off to
      southern Greece with the Marchioness of Lansdowne. Wow!

      How is THAT related to Emily Dickinson? And WHY would she
      sign herself: "Marchioness."

      Have you read the Dickens' tale Emily Dickinson refers to in that
      sig file of the nineteenth century? Why not?

      That Dickens' tale called *The Old Curiosity Shop* refers to a
      *Master* who befriended a young lady and educated her until
      she called that *Master* her Master and herself "your scholar."
      Same thing happened with Dickinson. Now WHY would she refer
      to the CLASSICS when at that time, Dickens was not even classic!
      He is today. Maybe Emily Dickinson, when everybody READ the
      CLASSICS and ENGLISH writers in America, was trying to tell us
      something about her *life*!

      WHY is it British scholars understand this about classics, and the
      classic authors, including Emily Dickinson, but American scholars
      schooled only in American literature haven't got a clue?

      My cousin who is a professional genealogist and I are researching
      our ancestors of the early 1800s, and he recently wrote me:

      "There are lots of examples of simple farmers' children having presidential
      names, as well as those of other well-known politicians. In the early
      1800s, when our ancestor was born, it also was common, even among
      tenant farmers, to give their children names derived from Greek and
      Latin classics--Cassius and Plato, for example. Our ancestress Elizabeth,
      also from an agricultrual family, had a brother and sister named Archimedes
      and Artimesia."

      So, WHY would anyone doubt that Emily Dickinson in relatively sophisticated
      Amherst of the 1800s would be any less schooled in the classics and use
      them in her writings: letters and poetry?

      Thomas Bulfinch was a Boston writer who published his *The Age
      of Fable* in 1855. His retelling of the ancient Roman secret love
      story of Cupid and Psyche is in Chapter ll. It is noted that Emily
      Dickinson began manufacturing her secret love poems shortly
      thereafter in 1858.

      Once understood as a unifying theme, it is more easily
      understood why in 1862 Emily Dickinson made the ultimate act of
      dressing in white as a statement of her belief that her Master and
      her would achieve immortality for eternity.

      The main Metaphors in the Allegory of Apulius in my post, as told by
      Bulfinch in his 1855 version of the Fable, are capitalized to emphasize
      her allegorical metaphors were *personified* in the same manner I
      conclude Emily Dickinson *personified* her Metaphors! Dickinson
      scholars not schooled in the world literature classics should take
      heed of the important concept of *Personification* in the poetic
      arts, as I allege it is central to analyzing her poems and writing
      exegeses. I assume Bulfinch to have been her primary source of the
      story of the myth, although her classical dictionaries and general
      reading would have offered her ample fodder, as well.

      Since writing this, I have consulted my library again, at
      length: and I can report that neither Ruth Miller nor Jack Capps
      refers to Bulfinch's *The Age of Fable* as being in the Dickinson
      library. However, Carlton Lowenberg in his *Emily Dickinson's
      Textbooks*, page 35, has this entry:

      Bulfinch, Thomas. *The Age of Fable; or Beauties of
      Mythology*...Boston: Sanborn, Carter & Bazin, 1855(n.c.d.). DL:
      Houghton #2133, a.s. "Edw. Dickinson 1856."

      It is important to note that Edward Dickinson possessed a copy
      of Bulfinch's *The Age of Fable* in the Homestead, autographed, and
      it is cataloged as part of the Houghton Collection and it is number
      2133 of the *Handlist of Books* acquisitioned from Emily Dickinson's
      home. This 1856-autographed book is important to note because within
      two years Emily Dickinson was manufacturing her booklets with poems
      referencing the fuller version of the love story of Cupid and Psyche
      as retold by Bulfinch. And, it is closer to the thematic threads of
      Emily Dickinson's secret love poems than the abridged version in
      Anthon's *Classical Dictionary*, which also was in the Dickinson
      homestead library, but was one of the works rejected by Whicher and
      Johnson. Ruth Miller pointed out that Whicher and Johnson, acting as
      consultants for Houghton in the library's acquisition process,
      rejected many *classical* works. Miller stated that scholars need to
      consult the Houghton *Handlist*. I hereby suggest, also, Carlton
      Lowenberg's *Emily Dickinson's Textbooks*.

      As a result, I argue once again that Dickinson scholars will
      need to carefully reassess Emily Dickinson's indebtedness to
      classical world literature, and in particular the European troubadour
      tradition of courtly love literature in order to fully analyze and
      write exegeses of her writings and make proper sense of her life's
      events. Biographers should also take note.

      Emily Dickinson wrote she "craves him grace" within Poem 321
      just as Sam Bowles was sailing across the Sea Blue and she feared he
      would drown as she opined in Letter 249 with embedded Poem 226:
      "Should you but fail at--Sea--...I'd *harass* God / Until he let you

      An interested Dickinsonian wrote, in part: "To wit, 'Fame is a Bee' was
      always an enigmatic poem to me, yet one of my favorites: I understand
      it better now, especially the line referring to its sting, in the light of
      your info about the Bees (newspapers)."

      Dickinsonians, probably, would like to take note that the "Bee" as name
      for a newspaper is so popular as to defy logic as to why any
      Dickinsonian, anywhere and any time, would ever question Emily
      Dickinson's referent to Samuel Bowles as her "Bee" and herself as his
      flower, whether Daisy or Rose or Lily, in Poem 3 sent to Samuel Bowles
      when she was 21: "How doth the busy bee?"
      And in Letter 229 of February 1861: "We offer you our
      to the Bee--the Lily, her new Liquors--": then quotes him the poem
      "Would you like Summer? Taste of our's--"

      The "Bee" newspapers include: The Amherst Bee, Clarence Bee, Ken-Ton
      Bee, Lancaster Bee, Depew Bee, Cheeklowga Bee, West Seneca Bee,
      Orchard Park Bee, East Aurora Bee, Richmond Bee, Danville Bee,
      Beeville Bee, Idaho Bee, Sellwood Bee, Fresno Bee, Modesto Bee,
      Sacramento Bee, Memphis Bee, Newtown Bee...truly
      ad infinitum. The Newtown Bee is most interesting, having a Springfield
      Republican editor leave and turn the Newtown Bee into one of the oldest
      one hundred-year old Bee newspapers in America, right down the river
      from Sam Bowles' old newspaper. As said, the historical tradition of
      "Bee" as the honeyed-words of poets and editors--aka writers as in
      "Bees buzzing in the Bonnets" of readers--goes back to Plato,
      The Athenian Bee, Sophocles, The Attic Bee, as well as Xenophon,
      The Athenian Bee, et al. Keep on buzzin :)

      Those of scientific mind, and those who appreciate mathematics, and
      still are "Bee-Loved" of the writings of Emily Dickinson will probably find
      the following facts from the primary documents of the biography of her
      life of supreme interest--and importance when it comes to her concept
      of "Bee" love:

      Emily Dickinson as a matter of record wrote circa 130 "Bee" and "Bees"
      and "Bee's" poems, mostly capitalized.

      Emily Dickinson, beginning in 1845, when she was 14, wrote letters with
      the "bee" mentioned, and in 1851, she wrote her first "Bee"--that is,
      capitalized--referent. We note in the following year, Samuel Bowles, her
      busy "Bee" at the Springfield Republican, published her telling Poem 3
      about the newspaper-Bee linkage with her line: "How doth the busy bee?"

      Emily Dickinson, between 1845 and 1860, in letters alone, wrote 15 "bee"
      or "Bee" referents. Then, suddenly, in 1861 [Dickinsonians should
      *wonder* why?] she began to *capitalize* her "Bee" referent for the most
      part, with a few exceptions: thusly, 19 times up until 1864, when all the
      "Bee" referents stopped, altogether, which just happened to coincide with
      the time her relationship with Samuel Bowles ceased, on a passionate, and
      highly-emotional level; and her manufactured booklets ceased; in fact, the
      secret love poems were basically committed to booklet form, the
      autobiographical thread was accomplished, and any further committment
      to poetic form was less regularly done and seemed to take on a different
      tone and serve a different "Bee" Master.

      Emily Dickinson, between 1860 and 1883, wrote letters with "Bees" and
      "Bee's" 18 times.

      Certainly, Dickinsonians can draw their own conclusions about these
      matters. Some Dickinsonians will find of interest the connection between
      newsapaper Bees, and famed poetic Bees--those writers of words with
      honeyed expressions, beginning with Plato, Socrates, et al., and ending
      with modern newspaper "Bee" editors with their hidden sting! Other
      Dickinsonians will find of interest Dickinson's "Bee" letters and her "Bee"
      biography! For all Dickinsonians interested in "Bee" matters, I take note
      of Emily Dickinson's 1862 letter, of the year she became so upset over
      the departure of Samuel Bowles, *her "Bee"* who "went to sea:" in reaction,
      she dressed "in white" and went into seclusion. Indeed, this letter was
      written *to* Samuel Bowles, her "Bee," while he was across the sea and
      she clearly asked him ironically, her "Bee," if he can remember her name,
      from among the other ladies, as flowers, he the "Bee" left behind in
      America: Letter 272, circa August 1862, quoted in part:

      "Dear Mr Bowles...I tell you, Mr Bowles, it is a Suffering, to have a
      sea--no care how Blue--between your Soul, and you [remember,
      Dickinsonians, the story of Cupid-Bowles and Psyche-Soul-Dickinson
      which she referenced in myriad poems]. The Hills you used to love when
      you were in Northampton, miss their old lover, could they speak--and the
      puzzed look--deepens in Carlo's forehead, as Days go by, and you never
      come [remember Dickinsonians, that Samuel Bowles nearly died and
      recuperated in nearby Northampton the previous summer of 1861
      and Emily Dickinson like the Marchioness nursed him back to health and
      cited the Dickens' tale in a letter of last summer: and she referred to this
      linkage of Master, herself, and Carlo in Master letter 233]. I've learned to
      read the Steamer place--in Newspapers--now. It's 'most like shaking hands,
      with you--or more like your ringing at the door...How sweet it must be to
      one to come Home--whose Home is in so many Houses--and every Heart
      a 'Best Room.' I mean you, Mr Bowles...for have not the Clovers, *names*,
      to the Bees? Emily." [The manuscript, in ink, is part of the Samuel Bowles
      collection at Amherst College Library]

      All for the love of the "Bee" !

      Emily Dickinson wrote Letter 446 to Samuel Bowles, the "Bee" editor of
      the Springfield Daily Republican, circa 1875, during his final illness: he
      took to his death bed in 1877, and died January 16, 1878:

      Sweet is it as Life, with it's enhancing Shadow of Death.

      A Bee his burnished Carriage
      Drove boldly to a Rose--
      Combinedly alighting--
      Himself--his Carriage was--
      The Rose received his visit
      With frank tranquility
      Witholding not a Crescent
      To his Cupidity--
      Their Moment consummated--
      Remained for him--to flee--
      Remained for her--of rapture
      But the humility.

      --Emily Dickinson

      There should be no doubt that in *fact* Emily Dickinson understood the
      classical mythology of ancient Greece about the relationship of the "Bee" to
      the Soul, to the mythology of Cupid and Psyche, Love and Soul, the
      flitting Butterflies who feast on the honeyed love of flowers, and all her
      literary allusions and metaphors owe their substance to her reading in the
      classical books in her Homestead library. [This letter, elsewhere listed without
      the prose as Poem 1339 (Johnson), is in ink and the manuscript is housed in
      the Amherst College Library, its provenance part of the Samuel Bowles
      collection catalogued by Jay Leyda.]

      Emily Dickinson sent Letter 227 in 1860 to girlfriend Elizabeth Holland,
      wife of Josiah, associate editor to the Springfield Daily Republican,
      about their little boy who was operated on for a foot problem: this will
      explain, among other things, Emily Dickinson's *cryptic* referents to feet and
      ankles, linking them to poets, when she wrote, in part: "How is your little
      Byron? Hope he gains his foot without losing his genius. Have heard it ably
      argued that the poet's genius lay in his foot--as the bee's prong and his song
      are concomitant...Blossoms belong to the bee, if needs be by *habeas
      corpus*. Emily."

      There should be no doubt that in *fact* Emily Dickinson understood the
      classical mythology of ancient Greece about the relationship of the
      "Bee" to the Soul, to the "poet's genius lay in his [her] foot," to the body
      [corpus] of the "Blossoms belong[ing] to the bee," to the honeyed words left on
      poet's lips, to the similarity of the poet's and/or newspaper editor's tart
      words as the "sting" in the "bee's prong."

      In early 1878, Emily Dickinson wrote Letter 542 to girlfriend Elizabeth,
      wife of Josiah Holland, former associate editor of the Springfield Republican
      with editor Samuel Bowles, and she *noted* that they were both "Bee"
      members of the press, involved with the honeyed-stinging words. Her remarks
      clearly note that the business of newsapers was *buzzing busy-ness* as the
      bees in the bee hive make, and that hum round a newsroom is _why_ the busy
      bee is associated with press rooms. Here is what Emily Dickinson wrote, about
      the ill health of Elizabeth's husband right after the death of Samuel Bowles,
      the vitality-robbing busy work of 18-hour days doing deadline writer's work
      at newspapers, or magazines where her husband now worked as editor of
      Scribner's, in part: "Thank you for Dr Gray's Opinion--that is peace--to us. I
      sorry your Doctor [Josiah held the title of Dr. Holland] is not well...Give
      my love to him, and tell him the 'Bee' is a reckless Guide. Dear Mr Bowles
      found out too late, that Vitality costs itself."

      Now that Dickinsonians clearly understand that "Fame is a bee" by Emily
      Dickinson is rooted in her referent to the "Bee" as a famed poet or
      famed newspaper editor who "has a sting," we can look at one of her most
      illuminating poems. Poem 366 was manufactured into booklet 13 in 1862,
      that fateful year she broke with her Master, her "Bee," who travelled to Europe
      and in reaction she dressed in white and went into seclusion. Poem 366, as
      autobiographical as any of her poems, clearly *explains* why in 1862 she did
      *in fact* dress in white, for Eternity, and separated herself from the man who
      recognized her poetic "Hand" in his published introduction to Poem 3 in his
      Springfield Daily Republican, ten years earlier:

      Although I put away his life--
      An Ornament too grand
      For Forehead low as mine, to wear,
      This might have been the Hand

      That sowed the flower, he preferred--
      Or smoothed a homely pain,
      Or pushed the pebble from his path--
      Or played his chosen tune--

      On Lute the least--the latest--
      But just his Ear could know
      That whatsoe'er delighted it,
      I never would let go--

      The foot to bear his errand--
      A little Boot I know--
      Would leap abroad like Antelope
      With just the grant to do--

      His weariest Commandment--
      A sweeter to obey,
      Than "Hide and Seek"--
      Or skip to Flutes--
      Or All Day, chase the Bee--

      Your Servant, Sir, will weary--
      The Surgeon, will not come--
      The World, will have it's own--to do--
      The Dust, will vex your Fame--

      The Cold will force your tightest door
      Some Febuary Day,
      But say my apron bring the stocks
      To make your Cottage gay--

      That I may take that promise
      To Paradise, with me--
      To teach the Angels, avarice,
      You, Sir, taught first--to me.

      variant: last line
      Your kiss first taught to me.

      --Emily Dickinson

      Of supreme interest, to some Dickinsonians, would be the referents to the
      "Bee" as the last word of stanza five placed so that the word "Fame" in
      the next stanza, also capitalized and placed last, cannot escape the
      linkage to Poem 1763's "Fame is a bee." This *same* Bee had stung her in
      1862 as well, and as the variant line indicates, with his *first* kiss and what
      "taught" her! Of course, history records that her biography is filled with
      referents to the *fact* Emily Dickinson "played his chosen tune" on the piano
      Samuel Bowles many times--on his many visits to Amherst over 3 decades!!!
      Ironically, it is noted that Samuel Bowles--the man she addressed as "Sir" so
      many times in these years between 1858 and 1862--found "The Cold" force his
      "tightest door / Some Febuary Day" in 1878, and shows Emily Dickinson to have
      been quite *psychic*!! Indeed, "The Dust [does] vex [his] Fame--" even as this
      message is written. Her "promise / To Paradise" is *so* noted!

      Now that Dickinsonians clearly understand that "Fame is a bee" by Emily
      Dickinson is rooted in her referent to the "Bee" as a famed poet or
      famed newspaper editor who "has a sting," we can look at another of her most
      illuminating poems. Poem 211 (Johnson) was manufactured into booklet 37
      circa 1860, clearly two years earlier than her famous break with the
      newspaper "Bee," Samuel Bowles, and two years earlier than she communicated
      with T. W. Higginson:

      Come slowly--Eden!
      Lips unused to Thee--
      Bashful--sip thy Jessamines--
      As the fainting Bee--

      Reaching late his flower,
      Round her chamber hums--
      Counts his nectars--
      Enters--and is lost in Balms.

      --Emily Dickinson

      Indeed, as has been pointed out often enough and understood by those
      who accept the secret code of the European troubadours dating back to the
      twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the word "Eden" was Emily Dickinson's
      oft-used code word for her Master, the "Bee" himself, Samuel Bowles. And
      to reinforce her code words, she included the word "Balms"--which was a
      perfect anagram of his signature: Saml B! This highly erotic poem, dating
      from the mid-point between the beginning of the manufacturing of the
      poem booklets, 1858, and her dressing in white and going into seclusion,
      1862, matched her passionate period with her Master, the newspaper "Bee"
      --who's sting was *not* so obvious in this early period in their relationship.
      A well-known Dickinson scholar has pointed out that Samuel Bowles gifted
      Emily Dickinson with a *Jasmine* plant! Indeed, his *name* is embedded
      within her variant spelling, obviously taken from *Oliver Twist* by Dickens,
      a work often referenced between Samuel Bowles and Emily Dickinson in their
      correspondences over the decades.

      Emily Dickinson wrote 3 Phoebe, "Phebe," poems: Poems (Johnson) 403,
      and 1690. Her "phebe" spelling is *highly* significant inasmuch as it
      emphasizes the pronunciation as "Phe-be," or ""Fee-Bee," and more anon
      in this
      message, below. Phoebe was according to ancient Greek mythology one of
      female Titans, daughter of Heaven and Earth aka Gaea, of which
      Dickinson has
      created cryptographically in capital letters in the left-hand margin of
      first stanza of a poem much discussed on these message boards: G-A-E-A.
      Phoebe, in Greek, means *the bright one* or "to shine." An apt metaphor
      the poet to so name herself, seeing as she was so well read in the

      In Poem 1009, which she manufactured into booklet 90 circa 1865, she
      wrote: "I was a Phebe...Upon the Floors of Fame--" This is important to
      inasmuch as Dickinson associated the Edenic "Bee" with "Fame" and the
      of "Phoebe"--as she well understood--meant *the bright one* or "to
      shine." All
      of this is part and parcel of the mythological-meaning of Edenic "Bees"
      out of
      Paradise, with honeyed words invoking poets to speak, and the
      goddess oft associated in Roman times with Diana.

      To prove that Emily Dickinson was into encipherment and encoding, one
      need consult the biographical record of her youth and her involvment
      with the
      club called the "UT's" or the "Unseen Trap." In my book EDSL, I pointed
      that this club of her youth was designed to _trap_ the boys into
      and ultimately marriage, and the name was garnered from the songs of
      European troubadours. She refers to her girlfriends, including herself,
      their secret names in Letter 5 when she was fourteen, using ancient
      poets, writers and philosophers: Plato, Socrates and Virgil.

      Late in life, in the spring of 1883, Emily Dickinson wrote girlfriend
      Elizabeth Holland Letter 820, in part: The Birds are very bold this
      and sing without a Crumb. 'Meat that we know not of,' perhaps, slily
      them--I used to spell the one by that name *'Fee Bee'* when a Child,
      and have
      seen no need to improve! [Indeed, Dickinson is clearly demonsrating
      long-held tradition of encoding words according to the rules of Cipher
      and such usage of "Fee Bee" for "Phoebe" would be called a "flat" in
      buried words are plainly in sight when so noted :) ] Should I spell
      all the
      things as they sounded to me, and say all the facts as I saw them, it
      send consternation among more than the *'Fee Bees'*! [Indeed: Elizabeth
      Holland, a girlfriend who was privy to the code-making, knew how this
      expose the ultimate "Bee" of Sam [B]owles!] Vinnie picked the Sub
      rosas, and
      handed them to me, in your wily Note." [Again, indeed, it was not
      real sub
      rosas from the garden Vinnie picked, but the encoded words within the
      girlfriend Elizabeth sent Emily Dickinson]

      No doubt: all of the girlfriends were privy to this encoding within
      their letters and Emily Dickinson's poems. Obviously, by now,
      understand the concept of "Sub Rosa" translates from the Latin into the
      *under the Rose* aka *to keep secret* and clearly is in keeping with
      the broad
      "Rose" Secret Love metaphor: as well as "Daisy" and "Lily" from the
      of our poet.

      Ancient Greek poets wrote that bees were in Paradise and came into this
      world as spirits from that nether realm. Their mythology posited that
      bees brought the power of words to poets when they slumbered in the
      daytime in
      the meadow under the tree of knowledge and the bees which lighted on
      their lips
      deposited honey there and gave them the honeyed words of the great
      poets after
      they awoke and had been visited of the holy spirit. The natural
      extension of
      the myth to newspaper editors and hence to editors naming their papers
      in their
      banners the "Bee" came about as a natural reflection of this historical
      mythology--coupled with the stinging power of op-ed words [opinionated

      Emily Dickinson's extensive reading in the classics, and the classical
      manuals, several of which were in her personal family library--indeed,
      written by the father of Helen Fiske Hunt Jackson, a classics'
      professor at
      Amherst College--account for her many literary allusions to the
      classical myths
      in her letters and in her poems.

      In Letter 567, of late summer 1878, after the February death of Samuel
      Bowles, Emily Dickinson wrote his widow Mary and used her code word
      "Eden" for
      the departed Samuel "B" bee who had come from Eden aka Paradise and
      entered her
      life and now departed left a void: "To forget you would be
      impossible...for you
      were his for whom we moan while consciousness remains. As he was
      himself Eden,
      he is with Eden, for we cannot become what we were not...I hope your
      boys and
      girls assist his dreadful absence...How fondly we hope they look like
      his beautiful face may be abroad. Was not his countenance on earth
      graphic as
      a spirit's? The time will be long till you see him, dear, but it will
      short, for have we not each our heart to dress--heavenly as his?" [It
      *noted* that in 1862 Emily Dickinson dressed "in white" and this
      clearly confirms her *Eternity* intent of 16 years previously to dress
      like the *spirit* "Bees" from Paradise!]

      In Letter 489, circa 1877, Emily Dickinson wrote to Samuel Bowles, the
      "Bee" from Paradise: "You have the most triumphant Face out of
      Paradise--probably because you are there constantly, instead of

      Note in Poem 226 (Johnson) she feared Samuel Bowles would die at
      "Sea." The poem is "absolutely biography" inasmuch as it is encased
      within Letter 249 to Samuel Bowles, her "Master." The poem only
      "EXISTS" as part of a letter to Samuel Bowles, written in 1862 as he
      was ready to travel across the "Sea Blue." Therein, she wrote to her
      "Master:" "If I amazed your kindness--My Love is my only
      apology...Would you--ask less for your *Queen*--Mr Bowles?"

      Now, "CLEARLY" she "IDENTIFIES" herself as Sam's "Queen" and
      therefore he is the "King" and "Master." And "NO DOUBT" you can
      understand all her "wife" and "Queen" poems fit the scenario she
      lived in with Samuel Bowles--in her "letters"--and her "biography."
      Oh, by the way, let's also not forget Samuel Bowles called her "his
      Queen Recluse"!

      REMEMBER THIS: Miss Emily called "HERSELF" "your Queen" to her
      "Master" Samuel Bowles! Do not doubt Letter 249! Go ahead:
      "MEMORIZE" it !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Dickinson scholars have memorized it!

      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      Miss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!
      MMiss Emily wrote "your Queen" to "Master" Samuel Bowles!

      Ad infinitum!!!!!!!

      Now, look at Letter 252, also written to "PERSUADE" Samuel
      Bowles to "VISIT" her in Amherst before travelling abroad for "SIX
      LONG MONTHS." She wrote therein: "When you come to Amherst, please
      God it *were Today* [sic!!!!!!! her own "ITALICS!!!!!!!]. History
      "records" Samuel Bowles "DID visit her "BEFORE" he went across the
      "Sea Blue." "PLEASE GOD IT *WERE TODAY*!!!!!!! Doesn't that sound
      like a woman in "NEED" to see "HER" own "Master" and "NOT" tomorrow
      but "TODAY"??????? Sounds like she is RAMMING IT DOWN OUR THROATS!

      So, now we jump back a few months, while Samuel Bowles "WAS IN
      NEW YORK state, outside of New England, and Miss Emily was "BEGGING"
      him to "VISIT" her in Amherst, and we "DISCOVER" her mind and
      thoughts, her love and pain, her need and desire, in her "poetic"
      letter to her "Master," Letter 233 (Johnson):


      If you saw a bullet hit a Bird--and he told you he
      was'nt shot--you might weep at his courtesy, but you would certainly
      doubt his word.

      One drop more from the gash that stains your Daisy's
      bosom--then would you _believe_? Thomas' faith in Anatomy, was
      stronger than his faith in faith. God made me--Sir--Master--I
      didn't be--myself...He built the heart in me...I heard of a thing
      called 'Redemption'...You remember I asked you for it--you gave me
      something else...I knew you had altered me...I am older--tonight,
      Master--but the love is the same--so are the moon and the crescent.
      If it had been God's will that I might breathe where you
      breathed--and find the place--myself--at night...if I wish with a
      might I cannot repress--that mine were the Queen's place--the love of
      the Plantagenet is my only apology...Have you the Heart in your
      breast--Sir--is it set like mine--a little to the left--has it
      misgiving--if it wake in the night....

      These things are reverent--holy, Sir...You say I do not tell
      you all--Daisy confessed--and denied not.

      Vesuvius dont talk--Etna--dont--Thy--one of them...and
      Pompeii heard it, and hid forever--She couldn't look the world in the
      face, afterward--I suppose--Bashful Pompeii! "Tell you of the
      want"--you know what a leech is, dont you--and remember that Daisy's
      arm is small--and you have felt the horizon hav'nt you--and did the
      sea--never come so close as to make you dance?

      I dont know what you can do for it--thank you--Master--but
      if I had the Beard on my cheek--like you--and you--had Daisy's
      petals--and you cared so for me--what would become of you? Could you
      forget me...Could'nt Carlo, and you and I walk in the meadows an
      hour--and nobody care but the Bobolink...I used to think when I
      died--I could see you--so I died as fast as I could--but the
      "Corporation" are going Heaven too so Eternity wont be
      sequestered--now Say I may wait for you--say I need go with no
      stranger to the to me--untried country...I waited a long
      time--Master--but I can wait more--wait till my hazel hair is
      dappled--and you carry the cane...What would you do with me if I came
      'in white?' Have you the little chest to put the Alive--in?

      I want to see you more--Sir--than all I wish for in this
      world--and the wish--altered a little--will be my only one--for the

      Could you come to New England--this summer--could--would you
      come to Amherst--Would you like to come--Master?

      Would it do harm--yet we both fear God--Would Daisy
      disappoint you--no--she would'nt--Sir--it were comfort forever--just
      to look in your face, while you looked in mine--then I could play in
      the woods till Dark--till you take me where Sundown cannot find
      us--and the true keep coming--till the town is full, Will you tell me
      if you will?....

      --Emily Dickinson

      Well, when we look at SAM in the first three lines of Poem 62,
      and in the first three lines of Poem 94 [which, by the way,
      does it twice for *Doubting Thomases*], we cannot help but
      find Emily Dickinson ramming it down our throats in the
      first three lines of Poem 188! And the chances of that occurring
      by chance are nada, zippo, zilch. It only occurs in *authorial
      intention* that in a two year span, from 1858 to 1860, that
      our poet would encypher SAM in the first letter positions,
      and *ALL* in CAPS, and in the span of 126 created poems,
      *T-H-R-E-E T-I-M-E-S* to make it clear she *intended*
      Dickinsonians to *K-N-O-W* who was her secret love *Master*!
      Yes, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, our poet was a
      cryptologist as she said in Letter 171 of 1854 when she was
      23 and had not yet begun her secret love poems.

      You know what irks some fans and some students of Dickinson?
      It is that it took Bill Arnold, Dickinson scholar, only one little book
      called *Emily Dickinson's Secret Love: Mystery *Master* Behind Poems*
      to turn their faulty world interpretations of her poems upside down.
      Well, too bad! That is the way Emily Dickinson wrote her writings,
      with her one thousand secret love poems, prominent, front and
      center, and she could care less if the rest of the world is hot and
      bothered, and breathing hard. Too bad, too bad, too bad, she said.
      You know she wrote that poem about a worm on a string in her
      bedroom which turned into an erect talking snake and had no qualms
      about offering it to the world as one of her premiere presentations
      of her SAM B artistic cryptology

      It's Poem 1670 (Johnson) in case you missed it, and note that her
      best girlfriend Elizabeth Holland's grandaughter was editor of that
      edition, and had no qualms about it. Check it out, folks!

      It is interesting when one looks at Dickinson's writings in toto
      one finds that she clearly conveyed who her secret love was.
      In any court of law, any jury basing their decision on the
      written documentary evidence in Emily Dickinson's own writings,
      would conclude beyond a "reasonable doubt" that Samuel Bowles
      was her secret love and the masculine "Sir/Sire/Master" behind
      all her love poems, circa one thousand!

      The fact that she embedded these facts of her life in her writings,
      also found in circa one thousand letters, many to "Him" as well,
      and took the extraordinary *S-T-E-P-S* over her entire life to
      encypher SAM B letters, and all in capital letters, to make it
      crystal clear she intended for them to stand out, leaves only
      the inescapable conclusion that she intended for posterity to
      *KNOW* ! So, who are we to deny her *authorial intention*?

      Take note in the following poem which was written in 1862
      that she wrote *words* which she used in letters and letter-poems
      to Samuel Bowles in the very *SAME* year and which undeniably
      demonstrate he was the *Master* !

      Poem 640 below clearly invokes while he is away at sea her
      fear that "were You lost" while they were "Oceans" apart that
      she would implore "heaven" on his behalf. No doubt the very
      same thoughts were imparted in Poem 226 which is not really
      a poem apart but part of a letter to Samuel Bowles, Letter 249,
      in which she calls herself "your *Queen*--Mr. Bowles." So, who
      among the world of Dickinson scholars doubts Samuel Bowles
      was the *Master*? Well, none who can read!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
      And why would she not be *Queen* to the *Master Plantagenet King*?
      After all, it is not our surmise but the *W-O-R-D-S* of Dickinson!!!

      She wrote, in part, in that letter, what has been divorced from her
      by ill-advised editors in creating the host of her poems when in fact
      were letters, to Samuel Bowles: "Should you but fail at--Sea--In
      sight of me--or doomed lie--next Sun--to die--Or rap--at
      Paradise--unheard --I'd *harass* God--Until he let you in!" Oh, yes,
      woman who knew the meaning of words, wrote to Sam B, in this very same
      249, "My Love is my only apology...I have met--no others." Sounds like
      *Love* to me! if it sounds like a "Homesick...Housewife," and if it
      writes like a "Homesick...Housewife," then it must *BE* a
      Make that [sic] also on the word *Love* which she herself capitalized
      her letter to Samuel

      Poem 640 (Johnson) was "written" by Emily Dickinson,
      manufactured into booklet 9, circa 1862. Emily Dickinson
      placed it into a series of her love letters to the world,
      and made it explicit the "Master" was not Jesus, and yet
      the poem clearly is about her masculine "Sir/Master:"

      I cannot live with You--
      It would be Life--
      And Life is over there--
      Behind the Shelf

      The Sexton keeps the Key to--
      Putting up
      Our Life--His Porcelain--
      Like a Cup--

      Discarded of the Housewife--
      Quaint--or Broke--
      A newer Sevres pleases--
      Old Ones crack--

      I could not die--with You--
      For One must wait
      To shut the Other's Gaze down—
      You--could not--

      And I--Could I stand by
      And see You--freeze--
      Without my Right of Frost--
      Death's privilege?

      Nor could I rise--with You--
      Because Your Face
      Would put out Jesus'--
      That New Grace

      Glow plain--and foreign
      On my homesick Eye--
      Except that You than He
      Shone closer by--

      They'd judge Us—-How--
      For You--served Heaven--You know,
      Or sought to--
      I could not--

      Because You saturated Sight--
      And I had no more Eyes
      For sordid excellence
      As Paradise

      And were You lost, I would be--
      Though My Name
      Rang loudest
      On the Heavenly fame--

      And were You--saved--
      And I--condemned to be
      Where You were not--
      That self--were Hell to Me--

      So We must meet apart--
      You there--I--here--
      With just the Door ajar
      That Oceans are--and Prayer--
      And that White Sustenance--

      --Emily Dickinson

      No doubt, for Dickinsonians, this poem will ring true for the Truth
      of 1862, when she and her Master, Samuel Bowles, were "Oceans...apart,"
      he in Europe and she in Amherst, and she already dressed in white, hidden
      behind doors, so that when he returned that fall, Emily Dickinson was already
      in seclusion.

      And, as icing on the cake of *DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE* Dickinson scholars
      note Emily Dickinson referred to "Paradise" in both poems, one a letter-poem
      of great note, and also in another letter about Samuel Bowles, shortly after
      his death, called him: "THE MOST TRIUMPHANT FACE OUT OF PARADISE."

      We are still on square one: love :)

      Bill Arnold

      Bill Arnold
      MFA, U-Mass, Amherst
      Dickinson Scholar
      Independent Scholar
      Independent Scholar, Modern Language Association
      Professor of world literature classics
      Author, EMILY DICKINSON'S SECRET LOVE: Mystery "Master" Behind Poems,
      230 pages, 1998.
      ISBN 1-892582-00-7

      "There is magic in the web" Shakespeare (Othello, Act 3, Scene 4)