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penultimate (I hope) draft of revision of Web Links to Chapter 1 of Harris

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  • Jeffrey B. Gibson
    With apologies for cross posting. Here s what I m calling the next to the last draft of my revision of the current page of Web Links to Chapter one (An
    Message 1 of 1 , Jun 10, 2005
      With apologies for cross posting.

      Here's what I'm calling the next to the last draft of my revision of the
      current page of Web Links to Chapter one (An Overview of the New
      Testament) of Steven Harris' NT Intro that is found on that book's


      I'm afraid that it will just keep growing if I don't stop! But I'm
      still open to corrections and suggestions for additions.

      Please let me know if you have any by e-mailing me OFF LIST at



      Evaluating Information Found on the Internet.
      This document, by Elizabeth A. Kirk, Head of the Entrepreneurial
      Library Program at the Sheridan Libraries, John Hopkins University,
      discusses the criteria by which scholars in most fields evaluate print
      information, and shows how the same criteria can and should be used to
      assess information found on the Internet where "excellent resources
      reside along side the most dubious" and where the motto for anyone using
      it should be Caveat lector", "Let the reader beware". Though slightly
      dated (note its description of Internet search engines!), it remains an
      excellent and essential guide for evaluating the validity and usefulness
      of information found on Internet Sites and Web Pages.

      What is the New Testament?

      The New Testament
      Brief discussion by A.H. McNeile and C.S. Williams of the origin and
      meaning of the title "New Testament" used to designate the collection of
      Christian writings known by that name. From their An Introduction to
      the Study of the New Testament (Oxford, 1953) available online at the
      Katapi Bible Resource Pages Web Site.

      The New Testament
      The article by Alfred Durand (transcribed by Ernie Stefanik) from the
      online 1918 Catholic Encyclopedia that discusses the meaning of the name
      of this collection of Christian writings, its contents, origins,
      doctrines, and the transmission of its text. Dated but still useful.

      What the New Testament consists of - The Canon
      An over view of the contents of the New Testament by R.M. Grant. This
      is "Part I - Prologomena" of his A Historical Introduction to the New
      Testament (Collins, 1963) available online at the Katapi Bible Resource
      Pages Web Site.

      The New Testament and the Hebrew Bible

      The Unity and Diversity of Scripture
      Unity and Diversity of Scripture
      An article by Denver Theological Seminary Professor C. L. Blomberg from
      The New Dictionary of Biblical Theology that focuses on finding "a
      centre in each Testament and in the Bible as a whole", outlining "a
      model for the unfolding unity of the biblical narrative", and noting how
      one might respond to the question of " to the diversity (especially the
      apparent contradictions of Scripture) and "the issue of ‘development'"
      within Scripture. From the AC21DOJ Web Page created by Southeastern
      Baptist Theological College graduate Greg Williams.

      Relationship of Old Testament and New Testament

      An article by G. Goldsworthy, from The New Dictionary of Biblical
      Theology that takes up the question of the nature of the relationship
      between the Testaments, outlines the history interpretation with respect
      to the issues of unity and diversity/continuity and discontinuity,
      within the Christian canon of scripture, and surveys how these issues
      have been dealt with in reecent Biblical Theology. From the AC21DOJ Web
      Page created by Southeastern Baptist Theological College graduate Greg

      Old Testament Quotations in the New
      The United Bible Societies book by book list of New Testament authors
      quotations' use of, and allusions to, Old Testament texts in PDF format.
      Requires Adobe Reader. From The Bible Center's Web Site.

      NT Allusions to Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
      An article by Kevin P. Edgecomb of Berkeley, California , that gives the
      full text (in English) of the allusions and quotations of the Apocrypha
      and Pseudepigrapha cited in the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament.

      New Testament Use of the Old Testament
      An essay by Roger Nicole, reproduced from Revelation and the Bible, ed.
      Carl. F.H. Henry (Baker, 1958), listing and analyzing explicit Old
      Testament quotations in the New Testament. From Michael Marlowe's Bible
      Research: Internet Resources for Students of Scripture Web Site.

      Jewish exegesis and the New Testament
      An exploration by Steve Moyise of the similarities and differences
      between early Christian use of the Old testament and contemporary Jewish
      exegesis of the Biblical text. This is chapter 10, "Concluding
      Hermeneutical Observations", of his book The Old Testament in the New,
      (Continuum, 2001)
      Intertextuality and the Study of the Old Testament in the New
      An article by Steve Moyise from The Old Testament in the New. Essays in
      Honour of J.L.North (Sheffield Academic Press, 2000) that surveys the
      ways in which recent scholars have approached the issue of what a New
      testament author was "up to" when he quoted or alluded to Old testament

      Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament
      An article by Ronald F. Youngblood on the Old Testament quotations found
      in the New Testament which answers such questions as What is meant by
      "New Testament", What is meant by "Old Testament?", What is meant by
      "quotations", How many Old Testament quotations are there in the New
      Testament?, What New Testament books quote the Old Testament?, What
      Old Testament books are quoted in the New Testament?, What Old
      Testament versions do the New Testament authors quote?, Why do New
      Testament writers quote from the Old Testament?, and How do New
      Testament writers quote from the Old Testament?. This is Chapter 10 of
      The NIV: The Making of a Contemporary Translation available at the
      International Bible Society's Web Site.

      The Use of the Old Testament in the New
      Thorough discussion of the topic by Barry Smith of Atlanta Baptist
      New Testament Use of the Old Testament

      A discussion by the distinguished New Testament scholar Craig Evans,
      from The New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, that outlines and
      examines the functions the New Testaments quotations of, and allusions
      to, Old Testament texts have, and the purposes for which they were used,
      when employed by the various New Testament authors. From the AC21DOJ Web
      Page created by Southeastern Baptist Theological College graduate Greg

      Testament and covenant

      Covenant, in the Old Testament
      An article from the online The International Standard Bible
      Encyclopaedia edited by James Orr (Eerdmans, 1918) by George Ricker
      Berry that discusses the general meaning of the term and outlines the
      various understandings in the Old Testament of the form and nature of
      the human and divine Covenants spoken of in the Hebrew Scriptures.
      Reflects scholarly opinion before the the discoveries of Ancient Near
      Eastern treaties at Ebla .

      Covenant, in the New Testament
      The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia's article by David Foster
      on the term (Diatheke) chosen by the Septuagint translators to render
      the Hebrew berith that outlines its use and meaning in the New


      A detailed article from the Jewish Encyclopedia by the members of the
      Encyclopedia's Executive Committee of the Editorial Board on the
      meaning of the term, Biblical conceptions of divine and human covenants
      and covenant renewal, "the Old and New Covenant", and the idea of
      covenant in Rabbinical and Arabic literature.

      The Two Testaments
      A discussion by F.F. Bruce, reflecting a conservative Protestant and
      Salvation History perspective, of the meaning of the words Covenant and
      Testament and the relation between the Christian and the Hebrew
      Testaments. From his The Books And The Parchments (Fleming H. Revell Co.

      The Septuagint

      Text of the Septuagint
      An online searchable edition of the Greek version of the Alexandrian
      Canon of the Hebrew Scriptures. From the Bible Data Base Web Site.

      LXX Greek Text
      An online, morphologically tagged, text of the Septuagint.

      Septuagint Version
      The online Catholic Encyclopedia by A. Vander Heeren (transcribed by
      Nick Austriaco) on "the translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, made
      into popular Greek before the Christian era" that treats questions of
      the importance. origin, subsequent history, recensions, manuscripts, and
      editions, critical value, and language of the LXX as this was known at
      the beginning of the 20th century.

      The Septuagint
      The article on the LXX by H. St. J. Thackeray from The International
      Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915) with additional notes and comments on
      LXX studies since Thackeray by Michael D. Marlowe. From Marlowe's Bible
      Research: Internet Resources for Students of Scripture Web Site.

      An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek
      The classic work on the Septuagint by H.B Sweet (also available online
      as scanned images at The Religion and Technology Center Ebind Index –
      type "any" for user name and password).

      The Septuagint Online
      A Web Site, created by Joel Kalvesmaki, dedicated to providing
      "electronic resources for the study of the Septuagint and Old Greek
      versions" of the Hebrew Scriptures. With a concise discussion of the
      history of the Septuagint and its terminology and how it differs in
      shape and content from the Hebrew text of the Old Testament.

      Resources for LXX Study
      A survey, with hyper links to texts, web sites, and studies (with an
      extensive bibliography) of "the rich and rapidly expanding resources for
      LXX studies" that appeared between 1990 and 2000. From the United Bible
      Societies Translation Information Clearinghouse Web Site.

      LXX Resources
      A page of web links to LXX resources created and maintained by Rodney J.
      Decker, Associate Professor of New Testament Baptist Bible Seminary of
      New Testament Baptist Bible Seminary, Clarks Summit, PA From his
      valuable Resources for New Testament Studies Web Page.

      The Language of the New Testament

      Hellenistic Greek
      An outline of the nature and characteristics of "the world-speech of the
      times of the Diadochoi and the emperors" by Adolf Deissmann originally
      published in The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge,
      ed. Samuel Macauley Jackson (Funk and Wagnalls, 1909). From the
      "Biblical Greek" section of Michael D. Marlowe's Bible Research:
      Internet Resources for Students of Scripture Web Site.

      Differences Between Classical and Hellenistic Greek
      A "Quick Introduction" to this topic by Jay C. Treat

      The Language of the New Testament
      Adolf Deissmann's seminal discussion of the language of the New
      Testament in the light of the discovery of the Oxyrhynchus and other
      ancient Greek Papyri. Chapter 3 of his The New Testament in Light of
      Modern Research (Doubleday, 1929), available at the Bible Center Web

      The Language of the New Testament
      A discussion of the nature and characteristics of the Greek of the New
      Testament by A.T. Robertson, one of the foremost Koine Greek experts of
      the 20th Century.

      Dating the books of the New Testament

      The New Testament Documents: Their Date and Attestation
      A discussion by F.F. Bruce, former professor of biblical criticism and
      exegesis at the University of Manchester, of the nature of the New
      Testament documents, their probable date of writing, and the evidence
      that attests to their "early existence". This is Chapter 2 of the 5th
      edition his The New Testament Documents: Are they Reliable? (1959)

      Literature of the New Testament

      New Testament literary forms

      New Testament Genre
      An over view of the literary genres within the New Testament by Lorin L.
      Cranford, Professor of Religion in the Department of Religious Studies
      and Philosophy at Gardner-Webb University.

      New Testament Genre: An Annotated Bibliography
      An extensive annotated bibliography of works that analyze and discuss
      the various genres and subgenres of the literature of the New Testament
      by Lorin Cranford.

      An Introduction to Biblical Genres and Form Criticism
      by Prof. Felix Just, S.J. -- Loyola Marymount University

      The Gospels

      Gospel and Gospels
      An older but still useful and detailed analysis by Francis E. Gigot
      (transcribed by Douglas J. Potter) of meaning of the term "Gospel" and
      how it came to be identified with a literary form, with a discussion of
      the differences between the canonical and the apocryphal Gospels. From
      the online version of the Catholic Encyclopedia.

      Brief discussion by David H. Bauslin, reflecting an older conservative
      Protestant view, of the meaning of the term which came to designate a
      genre of early Christian writing. From the The International Standard
      Bible Encyclopaedia edited by James Orr (Eerdmans, 1918), available
      online at the Blue Letter Bible Web site.

      The Gospels
      C.H. Dodd's explains of what the Gospels are and why we cannot expect to
      find in them bare matters of fact, unaffected by the interpretation
      borne by the kerygma, (preaching or proclamation) of the early church.
      This is Chapter 2 of his The Apostolic Preaching and Its Developments
      (Harper Collins, 1964), available online at the religion- online.org Web

      A modern New Testament scholar's discussion of the question "To what
      category of ancient literature would a second-century librarian in
      Alexandria Egypt have assigned a gospel if a manuscript copy of books so
      named in the New Testament and non canonical writings had been presented
      to that institution. Part of Lorin Cranford's Interpreting the New
      Testament Documents Web Page.


      A brief discussion of how the Book of Acts "follows very closely ancient
      patterns of history writing, especially in the use of the basic
      'building blocks' for presenting a 'philosophia' through history" by
      Lorin Cranford. From his New Testament Genre Web Page.

      Literary Forms in the Acts of the Apostles
      Lorin Cranford's listing of the types of literary forms found within the
      Book of Acts.


      The Letter Form

      A visual outline of the form and structure of the letters of Paul with
      definitions of their constitutive elements. From the St Paul Web Page
      created by Eugene Hensell, OSB, Saint Meinrad School of Theology

      Introduction to the Letters/Epistles in the New Testament
      A brief but useful page, from The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the
      Apocrypha: New Revised Standard Version (Ed. Michael D. Coogan. Oxford
      University Press, 2001) on the classification of the New Testament
      Epistles, with notes on their authorship.

      An apocalypse

      Lorin Cranford's discussion of the nature and character of the genre
      into which the Book of Revelation (and Mark 13, Matthew 24, and Luke 21)

      Apocalypse! A Pictorial Chronology;. The Apocalyptic World View Through
      the Ages
      An chronological depiction of the dates and circumstances under which
      works known as Apocalypses were produced, with notes on individual works
      and hyperlinks to translations and further discussions of these texts.
      From the companion Web Site to the PBS Frontline series Apocalypse!.

      Apocalypticism Explained: The Book of Revelation

      A discussion by various modern Biblical scholars and experts in
      Apocalypticism of the social, literary, and historical context of the
      Book of Revelation and how its themes, images, tone, and purpose do and
      do not cohere with what is found in to other Jewish and Christian
      Apocalyptic writings. From the companion Web Site to the PBS Frontline
      series Apocalypse!.

      Diversity and unity in the New Testament documents

      Early Christians as ethnically and theologically diverse

      Conflict and Diversity in the Earliest Christian Community
      A brief study by Veselin Kesich, Emeritus Professor of New Testament at
      St Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary, that notes that "diversity
      within the church has existed since its inception" and outlines how this
      expressed itself in the period "between Jesus and Paul." From the Greek
      Orthodox Archdiocese of America Web Site.

      Paul's Congregations

      A brief discussion by L. Michael White, Professor of Classics and
      Director of the Religious Studies Program University of Texas at Austin,
      and Wayne A. Meeks, Woolsey Professor of Biblical Studies Yale
      University, of the questions of the identity and social status of the
      people who joined and belonged to the early Pauline communities".
      From the companion Web Site to the PBS Frontline Television Series From
      Jesus to Christ.

      The Early Christians: Wrestling with their Jewish Heritage

      Some observations by L. Michael White, Professor of Classics and
      Director of the Religious Studies Program University of Texas at Austin,
      Wayne A. Meeks, Woolsey Professor of Biblical Studies Yale University,
      Shaye I.D. Cohen, Samuel Ungerleider Professor of Judaic Studies and
      Professor of Religious Studies at Brown University, and Eric Meyers,
      Professor of Religion and Archaeology Duke University, on how, when,
      and why, despite its origins as a reform movement within Judaism, the
      early church began thinking of itself as separate from Judaism. From the
      companion Web Site to the PBS Frontline Television Series From Jesus to

      The Community of the Beloved Disciple
      A discussion by Raymond Brown of the origin and make up of the Johannine
      community. Pages 13-91 of his The Community of the Beloved Disciple.

      Women in Early Christianity
      An article by Karen L. King, Professor of New Testament Studies and the
      History of Ancient Christianity at Harvard University in the Divinity
      School, on the roles of women in the Early Church and how in the last
      twenty years the history of women in ancient Christianity has been
      almost completely. From the companion Web Site to the PBS Frontline
      Television Series From Jesus to Christ.

      The Roles for Women
      Elizabeth Clark, John Carlisle Kilgo Professor of Religion and Director
      of the Graduate Program
      in Religion Duke University, and Elaine H. Pagels, Harrington Spear
      Paine Foundation Professor of Religion Princeton, on the stauts of women
      in early Christianity, the roles they played within the Christian
      communities, the reasons for their attraction to the Jesus movement, and
      they ways they were regarded by their male counterparts. With some
      observations on the question of whether Mary Magdalene was an apostle.
      From the companion Web Site to the PBS Frontline Television Series From
      Jesus to Christ.

      Communion and Koinonia: Pauline Reflections on Tolerance and Boundaries
      An Essay by N.T. Wright, the Bishop of Durham, on the ethnic pluralities
      in the early church, the divisions within the church that thy created,
      and how the apostle Paul strove to overcome then through his
      proclamation of "justification by faith". From The Latimer Fellowship
      Web Site

      New Testament writers' diverse views toward Roman authority

      Roman Empire And Christianity, 1
      Roman Empire And Christianity, 2
      Roman Empire And Christianity, 3
      A three part article from the The International Standard Bible
      Encyclopaedia edited by James Orr (Eerdmans, 1918) by S. Angus on
      various aspects on Imperial Rome and the relationships between
      Christians and Roman from the birst of Christianity to the conversion of

      Rome in the Bible and the Early Church
      A review by Benjamin Garstad of Columbia University of a recent
      collection of essays edited by
      Peter Oakes entitled Rome in the Bible and the Early Church that gives
      an overview of the state of the question of how Rome was viewed by
      Biblical authors . From the online Bryn Mawr Classical Review.

      The Gospel of Rome vs. The Gospel of Jesus Christ

      An article by Marianne P. Bonz of Harvard University on the early
      Christian response to the theological challenge posed by "the gospel of
      Rome" promulgated in the Imperial Cult.. From the companion Web Site to
      the PBS Frontline Series From Jesus to Christ.

      Paul's Gospel and Caesar's Empire
      An article by N.T. Wright, the Bishop of Durham, that deals with the
      questions "If Paul's answer to Caesar is the empire of Jesus, what is an
      empire under the rule of this new lord?" and "How does Paul's gospel
      line up with Caesar's empire?". From The Center of Theological Inquiry
      Web Site.

      Paul and Caesar: A New Reading of Romans
      An article by N.T. Wright, originally published in A Royal Priesthood:
      The Use of the Bible Ethically and Politically, ed. C. Bartholemew
      (Paternoster, 2002), that argues that within Paul's Epistle to the
      Romans stands a conscious and "direct challenge to the present ruler of
      the nations, Caesar himself".

      Paul on God and the politics of Rome
      An excerpt from John Dominic Crossan's and Jonathan Reed's In Search of
      Paul: How Jesus' Apostle Opposed Rome's Empire with God's Kingdom
      (Harper San Francisco, 2004)

      The Apostle Peter on Civil Obedience: An Exegesis of 1 Peter 2:13-17
      A detailed analysis by Greg Herrick , Ph.D,. Dallas Theological
      Seminary, of the passage in 1 Peter on "submission to authorities" that
      concludes that the author of the Epistle, here identified as the apostle
      Peter, wants his readers to know "that the emperor must be honored,
      that is, paid the respect due to the one who is sovereign in the
      political realm" and that the way Christians can and should honor him
      is by submitting to him.

      Other early Christian literature

      Non-Canonical Writings

      Early Christian Writings
      Peter Kirby's invaluable collection of online and other resources for
      the study of extant early para biblical literature. Includes introductor
      remarks on each writing listed.

      Noncanonical Literature
      Documents to aid students and scholars in Biblical Interpretation
      including introductions and summaries of many noncanonical works. From
      the Wesley Center for Applied Theology Web Site.

      Non Canonical Christian Texts
      Mark Goodacre's page of annotated links to web sites containing the
      texts of, and analyses of, non canonical Christian writings, including
      Morton Smith's "Secret Mark", and the Egerton Papyrus. From his
      indispensable New Testament Gateway Web Site.

      The Gospel of Thomas

      Interlinear English/Coptic Gospel of Thomas
      The Coptic text of Thomas interlaced with an English translation by
      Michael Grondin, List Owner and co-moderator of the online, academic
      Gospel of Thomas Discussion List. With appendices and notes on the
      translation. From his Gospel of Thomas in Context Web Site. A resource
      center for independent research related to Nag Hammadi Codex II.

      Greek Fragments of Thomas:
      An English translation, critical Greek text, and Greek-English
      interlinear translation are based on the complete digital
      reconstructions of P.Oxy. 654, 1, 655 by Andrew Bernhard.

      Gospel of Thomas in English
      The Translation of the Gospel of Thomas by Stephen J. Patterson and
      James M. Robinson.

      The Gospel of Thomas Home Page
      A page produced by Steven Davies, Professor of Religious Studies,
      College Misericordia, Dallas, Pennsylvania, that is considered by many
      to be the starting point for Thomas research on the web, with original
      material and a comprehensive series of links from a world expert on
      Thomas. Features full text versions of the author's own publications on

      Gospel of Thomas Resources
      Mark Goodacre's page of annotated Web links to internet resources for
      the study of the Gospel of Thomas. From his New Testament Gateway Web

      The Nag Hammadi Libray
      Full scale online discussion and traslations of Christian Gnostic texts
      -- once thought to have been entirely destroyed during the early
      Christian struggle to define "orthodoxy" -- discovered in upper Egypt
      in 1945. From the Gnostic Society Library Web Page.

      The Gnostic Gospels

      An exploration of the documents and their implications by Elaine
      Pagels. From the companion Web Site to the PBS Frontline Television
      Series From Jesus to Christ.

      The struggle for orthodoxy as a factor in determining the contents of
      the New Testament

      Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity
      The online English translation (with supplements) by Robert A. Kraft and
      Gerhard Kroedel and members of Philadelphia Seminar on Christian Origins
      of the classic 1934 book by Walter Bauer that examines the relations
      between in the early church the "orthodox"and those deemed by them as
      "heretics" and argues that "In earliest Christianity, orthodoxy and
      heresy do not stand in relation to one another as primary to secondary,
      but in many regions heresy is the original manifestation of

      Scholarly approaches to the New Testament

      Biblical Criticism

      The Riddle of the New Testament
      The complete text of the classic study by Sir Edwyn Hoskyns and Noel
      Davey, published in 1931, that was intent to display "the critical
      method at work upon the New Testament documents in the hope that some
      who are engaged elsewhere may be enabled to appreciate what has been and
      still is being achieved behind the scenes in the sphere of Christian
      historical theology". Available online from the Katapi Bible Resource
      Pages Web Site.

      The Interpretation of Scripture
      Barry Smith's notes on the variety of ways in which scripture was
      interpreted and used by Jesus and the early church, showing that with
      one exception, the interpretive methods adopted by Jesus and the early
      church are identical with those adopted by other Jewish interpreters of
      the second-Temple and early rabbinic periods.

      How Do We Interpret the Bible Today?
      A 1980 Themilios article by I. Howard Marshall (University of Aberdeen)
      that outlines and describes the processes and critical techniques used
      by modern scholars to gain an understanding of an ancient text and its

      Biblical Criticism
      A series of articles compiled by Greg Williamson from Nelson's New
      Illustrated Bible Dictionary, The New Bible Dictionary, The New
      Dictionary of Theology, Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics
      that review the subject from a contemporary evangelical conservative

      The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church
      A document of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, describing the various
      methods of methods of Biblical interpretation employed by modern
      Catholic Biblical scholars and written by those who are themselves
      practitioners of these method. From Felix Just's Web Site Catholic
      Church Documents related to Biblical Studies.

      When "Literal" Is Not Accurate
      Herbert M. Wolf's discussion of the differences between "literal" and
      "dynamic" approaches to the Biblical text and the circumstances under
      which Biblical translators feel it necessary to move away from a
      word-for-word translation in order to be faithful to the thought of the
      biblical writers and to produce a truly accurate translation. This is
      Chapter 12 of The NIV: The Making of a Contemporary Translation
      available at the International Bible Society's Web Site.


      Source Criticism

      Source Criticism

      A brief introduction by Catherine Murphy of the Religious Studies
      Department at Santa Clara University, California. to the methodology and
      aims of the study of the different components of a literary text which,
      in the case of Biblical texts, assumes that they are composite works,
      and that their components originated in different historical periods and
      exhibit different themes.

      Historical Critical Methodologies

      Historical Critical Method
      A description John Gresham, Kenrick-Glennon Seminary & Paul VI
      Institute, of the particular investigative approaches ancient texts that
      fall under the category of Historical Critical Method, with a discussion
      of the justifications offered for employing these approaches and some
      observations on their limitations. From his A Catholic Guide to Biblical
      Interpretation .

      Historical Criticism
      R.M. Grant's discussion of this methodology in terms of something that
      "is concerned with the time/place setting of a document, its sources,
      events discussed in or implied by the document" and which builds on
      textual and literary criticism". This is Chapter 5 "Part One:
      Prolegomena" of his A Historical Introduction to the New Testament now
      online a the katapi bible resource pages.

      Historical criticism (historical-critical interpretation)
      An extensive series of web links to sites and articles that describe and
      and provide examples of the employment of the historical critical method
      upon biblical texts. From Holger Szesnat's Biblical Hermeneutics,
      Interpretation, & Authority of Scripture Web Site.

      Form Criticism

      Form Criticism
      A.H. McNeile and C.S. William's discussion of the work of the Form
      Historians, from Schmidt, Bultmann, and Dibelius to Grant and Taylor, to
      isolate and classify the pre-literary forms of the Gospel tradition and
      to set them in the context of the life of the Church. From Chapter 3 of
      their An Introduction to the Study of the New Testament available online
      at the katapi bible resource pages.

      Form Criticism
      A Description by R.M. Grant of the critical discipline that recognizes
      the material that now appears in much early Christian writing was
      originally passed on by word of mouth, and which seeks to classify and
      study these pre-literary forms of the tradition, and to set them in the
      context of the life of the Church which transmitted them. This is
      Chapter 3 of his A Historical Introduction to the New Testament now
      online a the katapi bible resource pages.

      Form Criticism
      A brief discussion of critical method which seeks to discover the types
      of literature which is contained within each of the books of the Bible.
      With an annotated list of Recommended Readings on the subject. From the
      New Testament Web Page of The Divinity Library at Vanderbilt University

      Form Criticism
      A history and discussion bt Mahlon Smith of Rutgers University of the
      "systematic method of analyzing the genres of the basic oral units
      preserved in literary works to clarify the history of their formation.
      With Web Links to other discussions. From the "Hyper Glossary" of his
      valuable online Synoptic Gospels Primer.

      Redaction Criticism

      Redaction Criticism
      A concise but useful summary of the method of Biblical criticism that
      concerns itself with the editorial activity of a given New Testament
      writer and how his editing of the materials serves the particular
      purposes. With an annotated list of Recommended Readings on the
      subject. From the New Testament Web Page of The Divinity Library at
      Vanderbilt University

      Redaction Critsism

      A brief introduction to the methodology of redaction criticism by
      Catherine Murphy of the Religious Studies Department at Santa Clara
      University, California.

      Redaction Criticism
      A detailed overview, from an evangelical perspective, by Professor
      Barry D. Smith, of prominent redaction critics and their work,
      summarizes their conclusions, and assesses the assumptions underlying
      their methodology..

      Literary Critical Methods

      Literary Criticism
      An statement by R.M. Grant of what literary criticism is, how it differs
      from Historical criticism, and why its application to New Testament
      writings is necessary is we are to come to any concrete understanding of
      a New Testament author's purposes and achievements. This is Chapter 4
      ("Part One: Prolegomena") of his A Historical Introduction to the New

      What is Literary Criticism?
      A discussion of this methodology in terms of the attempt to understand
      what an author wants the reader to believe as a result of reading the
      works he has produced and "the isolation of the rhetorical impact of the
      text is accomplished through the examination of the compositional
      structure and character of a text, the author's applied stylistic
      techniques, how images and symbols are employed within the text, and the
      aesthetic and dramatic effects within a work

      Literary Critical Method
      A description of the critical methodology that views the biblical text
      as a work of literature to be analyzed according to literary methods.
      Contains a review of such conscious literary approaches to the Bible as
      Narrative Criticism, Rhetorical Criticism, Structuralism, and Reader
      Response Criticism, and offers both a justification offor the Literary
      Critical Method and a consideration of its limitations. From John
      Gresham's A Catholic Guide to Biblical Interpretation.

      Social-Scientific and Liberationist Criticism

      Social Scientific & Liberationist Interpretations
      A description and analysis of the methods that either focus on the
      historical social situation of the original authors and their
      communities either to "look beneath the text" in order to understand how
      the social situation of the author of a text influenced the author and
      shaped what he wrote, or reads the bible from the vantage point of those
      who are in need of the liberation promised by God. Considers the
      justifications given for employing these critical methodologies and
      outlines their limitations as interpretative tools. With bibliography.
      From A Catholic Guide to Biblical Interpretation by Dr. John Gresham.

      Social Scientific Criticsim

      Concise definition of the discipline, with brief bibliography. From V.
      K. Robbins, Exploring the Texture of Texts, (Trinity Press
      International, 1996)..

      Social Scientific Criticism

      An examination by Catherine Murphy of the Religious Studies Department
      at Santa Clara University, California, of the exegetical method which
      attempts to explore the original social and cultural setting of a text
      through clues in the text's content and rhetoric and through the
      analysis of other ancient evidence, and which assumes that the world in
      which these texts were written is very different from our contemporary
      world, and that any claims about an ancient text's meaning that are not
      grounded in an understanding the social conventions and assumptions of
      the author's world will be invalid.

      Social Scientific Criticism
      An annotated bibliography of important works defining, discussing, and
      applying Social Scientific Criticism of the Bible. From the New
      Testament Web Page of The Divinity Library at Vanderbilt University.

      Rhetorical Criticism

      Rhetoric Redux
      An article by Simon Crisp, from TIC Talk, the Newsletter of the United
      Bible Societies Translation Information Clearinghouse, on the movement
      in Biblical studies to analyze the structure and argument of Early
      Christian Writings through the canons and categories of Classical
      Rhetoric. With bibliography.

      Dictionary of Socio-Rhetorical Terms
      A page that lists and gives the definitions of most of the major terms
      and concepts used by Socio-Rhetorical Criticism (and related fields) as
      well as short descriptions of the "textures" that make up a religious
      text. From the Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation Web Page maintained by
      Emory Professor Vernon K. Robbins

      Rhetorical Criticism

      Catherine Murphy's outline of the discipline, containing a useful
      summary of Rhetorical Terms and Techniques.

      Rhetorical Criticism
      Concise summary of the discipline with some observations on its
      limitations and its future. From the New Testament Web Page of The
      Divinity Library at Vanderbilt University

      Canonical Criticism

      Canonical Criticism
      A brief description an approach to the Bible which emphasizes the
      significance of, and interprets the Biblical text in the light of, the
      fact that these historical writings have been gathered together by a
      community of faith into a canon of sacred literature, with observations
      on the justifications given for the validity and employment of this
      approach and the methodology' limitations. From A Catholic Guide to
      Biblical Interpretation by Dr. John Gresham.

      Jeffrey B. Gibson, D.Phil. (Oxon)
      1500 W. Pratt Blvd.
      Chicago, Illinois
      e-mail jgibson000@...

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