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    Education News Bulletin 8.11.2003 CHARTERS AND CHOICE Playbook: Charter School Incubators Charter public schools are proving to be an important source of
    Message 1 of 117 , Aug 13, 2003
      Education News Bulletin
      8.11.2003

      CHARTERS AND CHOICE

      Playbook: Charter School Incubators

      Charter public schools are proving to be an important source of
      innovation in public education, and an important alternative to under-
      performing traditional schools and voucher schemes as well. But
      starting up a charter public school requires a variety of technical
      and financial resources that often are not made available by local
      school boards or chartering authorities, inhibiting potential charter
      founders and placing charter schools on a less than fair footing.
      Fortunately, a number of states and localities are beginning to offer
      this kind of strategic early support to charter public schools. They
      have borrowed the concept of an "incubator" from the world of venture
      capital, where similar services, from start-up financing to buildings
      to technical and legal expertise, are provided for promising new
      businesses. (New Democrat On-Line)

      http://www.ndol.org/ndol_ci.cfm?kaid=139&subid=273&contentid=251957

      St. HOPE to leave Sac High campus

      Former basketball star Kevin Johnson's St. HOPE Corp. will clear out
      of Sacramento High School by Monday morning after a vote by the
      Sacramento City Unified School District board of trustees to undo key
      actions that would have allowed the nonprofit organization to turn
      the shuttered campus into a charter school Sept. 2. At a closed
      session Thursday, the school board voted 6-0 in favor of a resolution
      that rescinds its approval of a facilities-use agreement and a
      memorandum of understanding between the district and St. HOPE
      regarding operations, and authorizes district staff to order St. HOPE
      to vacate the premises no later than 9 a.m. Monday, the deadline set
      by Superior Court Judge Trena Burger-Plavan for the district to
      comply with her ruling invalidating St. Hope's charter or be held in
      contempt. Margaret Fortune, superintendent of St. HOPE Public
      Schools, said the group will comply with the board's wishes and
      vacate the campus as necessary. However, she said St. HOPE and its
      supporters will prod the school board to push forward with a second
      charter petition filed by St. HOPE that they feel addressed the
      judge's legal concerns. (Sacramento Bee)

      http://www.sacbee.com/content/news/education/story/7183943p-
      8130828c.html

      Choice program could overwhelm schools

      Chicago public schools braced for a "logistical nightmare''
      Wednesday, revealing that an estimated 250,000 students could be
      vying for only 5,000 seats under tough new federal standards designed
      to free students from failing schools. Officials released tentative
      data showing that 368 schools--or 61 percent of all city public
      schools--could have to offer transfers to 54 higher-performing ones
      under the "choice'' provisions of the No Child Left Behind law.
      Statewide, an estimated 209 additional schools also will probably be
      required to provide students the choice of better schools by the
      first day of classes, Illinois State Board of Education officials
      said Wednesday. (Chicago Sun-Times)

      <http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/cst-nws-transfer07.html>

      HUMAN CAPITAL

      New Teachers Experiences of Hiring: Preliminary Findings from a 4-
      State Study

      A new study by Edward Liu at the Harvard Graduate School of Education
      quantifies the many failings of district hiring practices. Liu's
      study presents the survey results of 486 teachers on the process they
      went through when being hired in four states: California, Florida,
      Michigan and Massachusetts. Liu found that the principals in these
      four states are in fact allowed to decide who they want to hire, but
      principals are not taking full advantage of the opportunity. While
      most teachers were interviewed one to two times, one in five teachers
      in Florida was never interviewed at all. Fewer than 8 percent of the
      486 teachers surveyed were observed teaching a sample lesson.
      Principals also aren't seeking tools to better inform their
      decisions: only about one in four new teachers were asked to submit
      standardized test scores or writing samples. (Harvard Graduate School
      of Education)

      http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~ngt/Liu%20Hiring%20AERA2003.pdf

      Revised certification rules anger teachers

      Critics of the requirements [for a new "professional certificate"
      designation], which emphasize performance rather than academic
      credits, say that the programs set up to equip teachers for the
      designation vary too widely to ensure consistent standards, and that
      the process is so onerous that it will drive teachers away from
      Washington or out of the profession. Teachers have seven years to
      obtain a professional certificate, which is valid for five years and
      renewable for five-year periods by completing 150 additional hours of
      course work. The revised standards require teachers to demonstrate
      proficiency in three main instructional areas, meet performance
      indicators approved by the 18 Washington colleges and universities
      offering the certificate program, and demonstrate a positive impact
      on students' learning. (Seattle Post-Intelligencer)

      http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/134037_teachers07.html

      ACCOUNTABILITY AND ASSESSMENT

      Tool Tracks Potential Dropouts

      The Houston Independent School District is using technology that
      teachers can readily access to curb dropout rates among students.
      Houston's new initiative the Profiler for Academic Success of
      Students (PASS) enables educators to track a student's attendance,
      discipline records, immigration status, grades, and test scores.
      HISD's announcement of the system comes on the heels of fraud
      investigation in Sharpstown High School that uncovered that employees
      changed student records to artificially lower dropout rates-a fact
      that critics are using to condemn ED Secretary Rod Paige's tenure as
      Houston's superintendent. (Houston Chronicle)

      http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/metropolitan/2020229

      How many times can a student be failed?

      Baltimore school officials announced three years ago that they were
      ending a long-standing practice of social promotion that had allowed
      failing students to advance to the next grade whether or not they had
      met the standards. The new policy was clear: Students would meet
      performance standards in each grade or be held back. No exceptions.
      Now, faced with significant numbers of students being held back more
      than once, the city school system is backpedaling from that policy.
      This year, more than 2,700 failing students in the city were
      promoted - more than half because they had been held back before, and
      school officials were leery of holding them back again. The problem
      of multiple retentions has become increasingly acute as the school
      district has enforced tougher promotion standards. (Baltimore Sun)

      http://www.sunspot.net/news/education/bal-
      te.md.retain31jul31,0,485411.story?coll=bal-home-headlines

      RESEARCH-BASED CURRICULA

      A big boost for tiny scholars

      Going to a new school can be scary enough for any child, but even
      more so for those who can barely speak English. Combs Elementary
      School's extensive attempt to help those children could serve as a
      model as school systems across the Triangle and state deal with the
      mushrooming numbers of English as a Second Language students. Through
      a new federal grant, Combs is providing year long assistance to
      southwest Raleigh children, starting with this week's summer camp for
      new ESL students to help them adjust before classes start Monday for
      most Wake County public schools. The stakes are higher than ever to
      make sure ESL students get acclimated and do well academically. Under
      the federal No Child Left Behind Act, if a school has at least 40 ESL
      students and not enough of them pass state end-of-grade or end-of-
      course tests, the school could be forced to allow any student to
      transfer out. (Charlotte News & Observer)

      http://www.newsobserver.com/front/story/2761158p-2559591c.html

      AP Courses Not for Everyone, Educator Says

      I don't agree with much of what [educator Tom] Shaffer said, but he
      appears to have been a fine Advanced Placement history teacher for
      several years, and such people deserve attention. He is particularly
      important, at least in my view, because he is one of the few Advanced
      Placement teachers I have ever met who is not enthusiastic about that
      program and the current efforts in school districts like his to coax
      as many students as possible into the college level AP courses. He is
      also worth my time because his opinion of AP is still the majority
      view in American schools. I want to share Shaffer's story of how he
      came to hate the expansion of AP so much that he quit his job at
      Thomas Stone High School in Waldorf, Md., before I get into the
      broader significance of his experience and his views for the future
      of AP, which, as far as I can tell after 20 years of watching it
      closely, has done more to improve U.S. high schools than any other
      program during that period. The beneficial effects of the growth of
      AP and IB are so clear--particularly in college success for low-
      income students and minorities who used to be kept out of AP--that I
      think it is worth the strain and the risk. If done well, the change
      does not have to lead good teachers like Shaffer to bail out.
      (Washington Post)

      http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20023-2003Aug5.html

      SUPPLEMENTAL SERVICES

      After-school programs go academic

      Students enrolling in after-school programs this year are more likely
      to hit the books than the basketball courts. The after-school
      program, once simply a haven for children until their working parents
      could pick them up, is now an extension of the classroom. A new
      federal law that requires every child in the country to be achieving
      at grade level in 10 years is pushing the national trend toward
      academics. Federal after-school grants, once meant to pay for
      recreational programs that kept kids off the streets, now require
      academic programming, from homework help and tutoring to arts and
      crafts that teach measurement, counting and geometry. In the past two
      years, Arizona received $13 million in federal after-school grants,
      specifically designed to improve students' skills in reading and
      math. It's the same story for programs funded with private money.
      (Arizona Republic)

      http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/0805afterschool
      05.html

      NEWSCHOOLS IN THE NEWS

      Innovation of the Week: Performance Accelerator Fund Invests in
      Entrepreneurial Projects to Improve Achievement

      School districts are under pressure to improve student achievement.
      Many districts, however, are ill equipped to do so. In response to
      this need, the NewSchools Venture Fund announced in May that it has
      created the Performance Accelerator Fund. Following the philosophy
      that entrepreneurs with both business knowledge and education
      expertise can be agents of change, the Performance Accelerator Fund
      invests in projects, led by such entrepreneurs, that increase the
      capacity of school systems to produce high levels of student
      achievement. (US Department of Education's Office of Innovation and
      Improvement)

      http://www.ed.gov/offices/OII/

      OTHER

      Business Book Gains K-12 Following

      Two years after it hit the stores, Jim Collins' Good to Great
      continues to gain traction in the K-12 sector. The study of companies
      that achieved enduring success has been required reading in some
      districts and education groups. Mr. Collins increasingly finds
      himself the star attraction at education events. And some policy
      experts want to replicate his work in a study of schools. Mr. Collins
      often pitches the idea of doing a Good to Great study of public
      education. He himself plans to include a matched pair of school
      districts in his next ambitious project, which will examine greatness
      in major elements of society, including comparisons of two countries,
      two police departments, and two orchestras. But, he says, someone
      should do a similar analysis on multiple pairs of schools and
      districts. (Education Week)

      <http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=43collins.h22>

      Charting their own course: Three educational entrepreneurs step
      outside the box

      It all started with a drink after a round of golf. Jim Murphy, then a
      36-year-old options trader living on the North Shore, had recently
      lost his father, Daniel, and wanted to do something in his memory.
      Sitting at the bar at the exclusive Exmoor Country Club in Highland
      Park, he laid out his plan to three buddies. With donations from a
      few of their well-off friends, he said, they could fund some
      scholarships in his father's name to reputable private high schools
      for kids from tough neighborhoods. Today his Chicago International
      Charter School is the largest in the city, with six campuses and a
      seventh planned to open in the fall, pushing total enrollment to
      4,200 students. His schools have outperformed neighboring
      institutions and rank among the city's best charters. "It's not that
      poor kids can't learn," he says. "It's just that poor kids are going
      to bad schools." Murphy is one of a handful of educational
      entrepreneurs from the business community who are using new options,
      such as charter and contract schools, to develop better alternatives
      to the educational status quo. Murphy and lawyer Robin Steans, whose
      family runs a Chicago philanthropic foundation, have started charters
      in troubled neighborhoods. Meanwhile, Martin "Mike" Koldyke, a
      retired venture capitalist with strong ties to Chicago's top
      political leaders, is creating elementary schools that train teachers
      in new ways. All three of these unexpected school operators came to
      the task with a certain amount of naivete, a sense that they could
      quickly change lives, neighborhoods--even the school system. A few
      years into it, this group of reformers is more realistic but still
      hopeful, seeing just enough progress to make things interesting.
      (Chicago Tribune Magazine)

      <http://www.chicagotribune.com/features/magazine/chi-
      0308100301aug10,1,5385334.story>

      School Repairs Threatened, Group Says

      The District school system's plan to modernize all of its schools is
      in jeopardy because of reductions in funding, a parent advocacy group
      said in a report released last week. The report, by Parents United
      for the D.C. Public Schools, said the city's capital budget for the
      coming years contains cuts that "threaten to halt this modernization
      plan." The budget approved by the D.C. Council and Mayor Anthony A.
      Williams (D) "provides far less funding than is needed to maintain,
      much less modernize, our city's schools," the report said. The school
      system's plan calls for upgrading its nearly 150 schools within 10 to
      15 years at a cost of more than $2 billion. The average District
      school is more than 65 years old; many buildings are crumbling and
      have faulty heating systems, broken toilets or leaking roofs. At a
      news conference, Parents United leaders asked the city and Congress
      to provide more funding. Iris Toyer, co-chair of Parents United, said
      that political leaders are displaying a "lack of will and lack of,
      quite frankly, desire to support public education." (Washington Post)

      http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31812-2003Jul22.html

      Grads Seeking Public Service Find Few Jobs Are Available

      Neither prior experience nor an Ivy League pedigree, it turns out, is
      any guarantee of success in the heated-up competition for slots in
      the public-service sector. Applications for such positions are
      soaring, while budgetary problems at AmeriCorps, the federal umbrella
      organization that runs and finances national and community service,
      are taking their toll on the number of positions available. Not long
      ago, politicians and university presidents were bemoaning the lack of
      interest in public-service work by college graduates, many of whom
      were being lured by high-paying jobs in the private sector or had too
      much college debt to take up a low-paying career dedicated to the
      common good. But all that has changed drastically, partly attributed
      to altruism engendered by the 2001 terrorism attacks but, even more
      significantly, to one of the worst jobs markets for college graduates
      in years. This year's dearth of public-service jobs is exacerbated by
      the budgetary problems at AmeriCorps, which is moving to cut 20,000
      of the 50,000 positions it earlier thought it could fund. (Wall
      Street Journal)

      http://online.wsj.com/article/0,,SB106002878576754600,00.html?
      mod=careers%255Fprimary%255Flsc
    • edupreneurs_moderator
      Education News Bulletin February 10 - 17, 2006 HUMAN CAPITAL COMMENTARY: Fast-Track Certification - Can We Prepare Teachers Both Quickly and Well? NATIONAL -
      Message 117 of 117 , Feb 21, 2006
        Education News Bulletin
        February 10 - 17, 2006


        HUMAN CAPITAL

        COMMENTARY: Fast-Track Certification - Can We Prepare Teachers Both
        Quickly and Well?

        NATIONAL - Teacher-preparation programs today come in many shapes
        and sizes. Traditional and alternative programs have morphed into
        one another, making broad comparisons between them useless. What
        matters instead is how particular programs work. Do they attract
        candidates to teaching? Do they provide what they promise? Do they
        give new teachers what they need to get started and grow on the job?
        Do participants report that they're prepared to teach their
        students? With such questions in mind, we studied 13 fast-track,
        alternative-certification programs in four states, observing the
        training and interviewing directors, faculty members, and
        participants. … Fast-track preparation is a deceptively simple idea.
        In fact, surprising capacity is required to train teachers both
        quickly and well. (by Susan Moore Johnson of Harvard University's
        graduate school of education and consultant Sarah Birkeland for
        Education Week - registration required)

        http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2006/02/15/23johnson.h25.html (see
        also "A Difficult Balance: Incentives and Quality Control in
        Alternative Certification Programs" at
        http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~ngt/Balance.pdf)

        Parents, teachers have educational divide

        WASHINGTON (AP) -- Considering they share responsibility for 50
        million children, parents and teachers sure have some different
        views about what goes on in school. From discipline to standardized
        tests to the quality of high schools, parents and teachers disagree
        on basic aspects of education, an AP-AOL Learning Services Poll
        finds. They come together, though, on the need to hire and keep good
        teachers. … On testing, the poll found teachers are much more likely
        than parents to say standardized exams get too much emphasis. Yet
        most parents and teachers agree testing has weakened the ability of
        educators to give individual attention to students. (Associated
        Press via CNN)

        http://www.cnn.com/2006/EDUCATION/02/10/parents.vs.teachers.ap/index.
        html (see also "Press Release: 87% of Teachers Say Parents Should
        Spend More Time with Children on Homework" at
        http://media.aoltimewarner.com/media/cb_press_view.cfm?
        release_num=55254521)


        ACCOUNTABILITY AND ASSESSMENT

        Assessment Testing >> In Their Hands: Handheld devices empower
        teachers with assessment data they can put to immediate use

        NATIONAL - At the Orange County Public School District in Orlando,
        FL, assessing reading skills among the youngest students used to be
        quite a process. Relying on rudimentary products such as paper and
        pencils, the strategy hinged on the bubble sheets teachers
        administered to students once a year. After teachers scored the
        exams, they sent them to the district office, where results were
        scanned, analyzed, and combined to form summary reports. These
        reports gave teachers information about which students needed extra
        help, and which subjects were proving to be troublesome. But because
        the reports took weeks to generate, it was difficult for teachers to
        use them to better serve the needs of their students. Everything
        changed with the implementation of a three-year pilot program that
        kicked off the 2003-2004 school year. District officials, eager to
        improve their assessment techniques, turned to Wireless Generation
        to find a way to assess students so that teachers could actually do
        something with their data. Change came in the form of Palm handheld
        devices. Teachers used them to record student performance on a
        series of questions designed to gauge reading skills. (T.H.E.
        Journal)

        http://www.thejournal.com/articles/17865

        Grading Equity: Tisch Lecturer Outlines Report Card on Education

        NATIONAL - Richard Rothstein agrees with No Child Left Behind
        supporters on at least one point: Holding schools accountable for
        improving children's reading and math skills may, in fact,
        eventually lead to improvement in those skills. The problem, as
        Rothstein outlined it on Monday evening, January 30th during the
        first of a three-part Teachers College lecture series known as the
        Tisch Lectures, is that those skills could improve -- to the
        detriment of others that are equally important. "What gets measured,
        gets done," said Rothstein, Tisch Visiting Professor at TC and
        research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, in a talk he
        titled Equity in What? Defining the Goals of American Education for
        which We Seek Equity. For the past year and half, Rothstein and two
        graduate assistants, Rebecca Jacobsen and Tamara Wilder, have been
        working to create a new "report card" that will assess the nation's
        progress in providing equal educational opportunities across a much
        broader range of skills. The list, unveiled at the first Tisch
        lecture, includes basic academic skills; critical thinking; social
        skills and work ethic; citizenship; physical health; emotional
        health; the arts and literature; and vocational education. (Teachers
        College at Columbia University)

        http://www.tc.columbia.edu/news/article.htm?id=5467


        CLOSING THE GAP

        Can Bush make America more competitive in math and science?

        WASHINGTON - Americans have heard the warnings for decades: The
        nation is in danger of falling behind other technological
        powerhouses in the world, posing a threat to its way of life.
        President Bush's competitiveness initiative, outlined in his federal
        budget, would focus $136 billion over 10 years on boosting research
        and education. Much of that cost would come in the form of tax
        incentives for research and development; the rest represents new
        funding, including a doubling of the budgets of three federal
        agencies focused on science and technology. The education piece of
        Mr. Bush's plan seems relatively small - $380 million in fiscal
        2007 - but it is getting most of the attention. Overall, Bush's AP
        Incentive Program aims to boost the number of students taking AP
        math and science exams from 380,000 today to 1.5 million in 2012. In
        a nation that seems to have a cultural aversion to tackling "hard"
        subjects like math and science, can those numbers be achieved? And
        without the stark image of Sputnik - the Soviet satellite whose
        launch in 1957 caught the US by surprise - to spur a fear of
        national decline, will the nation rally to the "competitiveness"
        cause and push Congress to fund the plan? (Christian Science Monitor)

        http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0210/p01s04-legn.html


        NEWSCHOOLS AND VENTURES IN THE NEWS

        Venture Capitalists Are Investing in Educational Reform

        CALIFORNIA - Venture capitalists of Silicon Valley, who have backed
        hundreds of high-technology entrepreneurs, are eagerly financing a
        new group these days: schoolmasters. "We give education
        entrepreneurs money to start or to speed up building their
        companies," said L. John Doerr, who over 26 years has helped start
        dozens of ventures, including Sun Microsystems, Amazon.com and
        Google. He help found the New Schools Venture Fund in San Francisco
        six years ago for a new breed of entrepreneur - the kind who doesn't
        have to produce a profit. … New Schools Venture Fund is still
        investing its first $80 million, contributed by individuals like Mr.
        Doerr and organizations like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation,
        which gave $22 million. New Schools has begun raising another $125
        million to expand the reach of charter schools as models of reform
        for traditional public school systems. (by James Flanigan for the
        New York Times - registration required)

        http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/16/business/16sbiz.html

        Column: The New Engines of Reform (by David Gergen of US News &
        World Report)

        NATIONAL - There won't be any sleek limousines drawing up at the
        door, no red carpets, no paparazzi, no Vanity Fair afterglow, and,
        alas, no Annie Leibovitz. But when dozens of people roll into the
        Mohonk Mountain House in the Hudson Valley this week, they'll be
        holding their own Oscar party--one celebrating the stars of a new
        group of emerging leaders in the United States. They're
        called "social entrepreneurs," and if you haven't heard the phrase
        yet, you're missing one of the hottest movements to ripple across
        college campuses and into young urban communities. Social
        entrepreneurs do more than treat society's ills--they envision
        widespread, systemic change that could prevent those ills from ever
        occurring. They tackle social problems with entrepreneurial and
        innovative spirit. … The roster of all-stars in the social
        enterprise movement is growing rapidly--and just as in business and
        politics, they are forming networks among themselves. (US News &
        World Report)

        http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/060220/20gergen.htm
        (see also "Two Guys...and a Dream" on the founders of KIPP in the
        same issue at
        http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/060220/20leaders.htm)


        OTHER

        Put Learning First: A Portfolio Approach to Public Schools

        NATIONAL - Today, public education policies and administrations are
        organized to serve the needs of the institutions and the adults that
        work in them. Addressing our stunning achievement gaps, particularly
        those affecting minority students in our cities, means that
        students, not the system, must become the primary organizing
        principle for educational policies -- and, more importantly, for
        schools themselves. The current system is intended to advance
        individual, community, and national goals, but is, in fact,
        engineered for stability. That is normally a good thing. We want
        schools to open on time, teachers to count on having jobs from one
        day to the next, and parents to feel secure knowing that their
        children will have a place to go to school. Stability alone,
        however, is the wrong goal in a complex, fast-changing, modern
        economy. Students -- disadvantaged students, in particular -- need
        schools that are focused on providing them with the skills they will
        need to succeed in today's society, schools that are flexible enough
        to try a variety of teaching methods until they succeed in reaching
        these goals. (by Paul Hill of the Center on Reinventing Public
        Education, for the Progressive Policy Institute)

        http://www.ppionline.org/documents/Portfolio_Districts021006.pdf

        The New Reverse Class Struggle: Although Smaller Sizes Are Touted,
        Some Say Bigger May Be Beneficial

        NATIONAL - Billie-Jean Bensen, principal of Herbert Hoover Middle
        School in Rockville, called [math teacher Jane]
        Reiser "outstanding," "fabulous" and "truly amazing," able to get
        great results despite her large class size [32 students, way above
        the national class size average of 25]. So why, some experts are
        asking, are educators and politicians so bent on reducing class
        sizes? Wouldn't it be better to let classes get bigger? Then schools
        could reduce the number of teachers, keep good ones like Reiser and
        pay them more. The idea seems odd to many. But some scholars and
        administrators say raising class sizes and teacher pay might improve
        achievement. (by Jay Mathews for the Washington Post - registration
        required)

        http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
        dyn/content/article/2006/02/13/AR2006021301754.html

        President's Budget Would Cut Education Spending

        NATIONAL - President Bush's blueprint for federal education spending
        in the next fiscal year includes a high-profile plan to boost math
        and science education, new money for private school vouchers, a
        renewed push to improve high schools-and the most drastic cut in
        Department of Education funding in more than a decade. In his
        proposed federal budget for fiscal 2007, released last week, Mr.
        Bush calls for a 3.8 percent drop in the department's discretionary
        spending, or $2.1 billion less than the agency received for fiscal
        2006, excluding hurricane relief and adjusting for a recent
        accounting change for financial aid. If approved by Congress, his
        plan would mean the largest percentage cut for the department since
        fiscal 1996. The president would sink new federal education money
        into fresh initiatives, particularly those intended to strengthen
        learning in mathematics and science, and provide generally flat
        funding to K-12's two largest programs: Title I for low- income
        students and special education state grants. (Education Week -
        registration required)

        http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2006/02/15/23budget.h25.html
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