RE: Western boundary of Lower Canada
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Most people including Canadians know little about Canada's history and
changing borders. Here from my presentation - Lost in the Canadas: Borders &
Boundaries From Terra Incognito to the Dominion of Canada (which I have
presented to AFHS as well as other organizations) are some important facts.
The term Canada (first called this in documents in 1534) existed long before
the term Quebec was assigned to any part of Canada. Quebec was established
as a town in 1608 by Champlain. It became the main seat of government but
there were other regional districts. Quebec was the superior seat but was
not the term for all the French territories. Canada is shown as a Province
of New France and Quebec is shown as a ville (town).
From these times to 1713 the French continued to claim territory so that it
extended as far as Hudson's Bay in the north to the tip of Louisiana in the
south, as far east as Florida and as far west as the Rockies in the north
and Rio Grande in the south. From the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 to the
Treaty of Paris in 1763 to War of 1812 (settled by the Treaty of Ghent 1814)
to the 1903 Alaskan Panhandle settlement, the erosion of Canada continued.
However, the information most pertinent to you is as follows:
1763 Royal Proclamation new British government named former French
territories Province of Quebec - included area to Ohio & Mississippi
Rivers. First time Quebec is used as name for "Province". French were
guaranteed rights and freedoms including French civil law and French
1791 Constitutional Act - Loyalist demands for less French control created
first separation into English versus French "provinces" i.e. Lower Canada
(mostly French speaking) retaining French civil law and Upper Canada (mostly
English speaking) with English civil law.
1841 Act of Union united two Canadas into United Canada with English as
only official language and English common law as only civil law but Canada
East was acknowledged as French area and Canada West as English.
1867 Dominion of Canada - renamed Canadas East and West to Quebec and
Borders with U.S. continued to change until 1903. Also during this time the
borders of Quebec and Ontario in relation to each other and in relation to
Manitoba, Labrador, etc. continued to change. One night you could go to bed
in Quebec and by morning be in Ontario or vice versa! Or you could be in
Ontario one night and the next morning be in Manitoba and yet your bed never
In 1912 the borders of Ontario were settled. 1920 Quebec borders settled.
See also maps at
Hope this helps.
Xenia Stanford (president@...)
A.G.E. Ancestree Genealogical Enterprises
Local genealogy book sales, professional research & writing:
Column: "Nos Racines Francaise" http://globalgenealogy.com/globalgazette
Scrapbooking & preservation techniques
Phone: (403) 295-3490; Fax: (403) 274-0564
[mailto:owner-dist-gen@...]On Behalf Of Jo_an Utson
Sent: May 1, 2005 11:58 AM
Subject: Western boundary of Lower Canada
Please note that your reply will now only go to
the original sender
Can anyone enlighten me on this?
I always assumed the Lower Canada boundary was identical to what is now the
Quebec/Ontario boundary, but my Hudson research makes me question that.
In 1861 & 1871 the Hudson children in Lindsay, Victoria Co, Ontario, were
listed as born in Lower Canada or Quebec. However, by the 1891 census some
of the same children describe themselves as born in Ontario and in 1901 they
all state they were born in Ontario.
Since I am trying to determine exactly where they were born, if I knew a
specific area of Lower Canada that later became Ontario instead of Quebec,
that might help me narrow my search.
Would appreciate your advice.